World history

AP World History Final - Bjorndahl

  • Period: 618 to 1279

    Tang and Song Dynasties

    Two dynasties were established in China and, under their rule, China went through many changes. During the Tang Dynasty period that lasted till 907, China experienced a time of prosperity and peace and is known as the Golden Age of China. The Tang Dynasty had an age of reform and cultural advancements, which laid the groundwork for China today. The Song Dynasty follows the Tang from 960 to 1279. The Song Dynasty was known for its economy and radiany culture and considered another Golden Age.
  • Period: 750 to 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

    The Abbasid Caliphate was a major dynasty that ruled over Islam and was a period considered the Golden Age of Islam. The leaders of this dynasty was called the caliph, who was usually the son of the previous caliph. They made advancements in the Middle East through cultivating intellect and culture. They gained prestige and also established the city of Baghdad in 762, promoting education and arts.
  • Period: 800 to 1500

    Feudalism in Europe

    Fuedalism was the mixture of economic and cultural customs of Medival Europe spanning a couple centuries. The basis of fuedalism was a way to structure soceity around relationships. Under this system, land was granted to lower classes for service. This starts with the King who gave land to his nobels and the nobels who gave land to their knights and so on.
  • Period: 1206 to 1526

    Delhi Sultanate

    The Delhi Sultanate was the five short-lived Muslim kingdoms that ruled over the territory of Delhi, which was eventually overthrown by Mughals. The Delhi Sultanate marked the beginning of Muslim rule in India which brought about great cultural diversity. Many scholars and clerics from other areas gathered in India as well, merging many different traditions of art and learning. One of the most well known contribution to India was the architectural features.
  • Period: 1206 to 1368

    Mongol Empire

    The Mongol Empire was the largest land empire in history. It consisted of nomadic Mongol and Turkish tribes of Mongolia and united them through a devastating army and expert horsemen. They also established routes of trade and technology between the East and West. The Empire as well as the armies and unification was all run by Genghis Khan until his death when it declined.
  • Period: 1230 to

    Mali Empire

    The Mali Empire was formed when Sundiata Keita united tribes of Malinke people. Over time, the empire became stronger and took over surrounding kingdoms. The rulers of this empire were extremely wealthy and became renowned for it in the later years. The Mali Empire was the largest empire in West Africa and influenced its culture in language, laws, and customs.
  • Period: 1271 to 1368

    Yuan Dynasty

    The Yuan Dynasty was led by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongol Empire. During the Yuan Dynasty, China's territory became unified since it used to be a country of separate states. This dynasty made major changes in both government and culture due to the Mongol's rule. After Khan's death, however, Chinese rebel groups began to fight against Mongol rule.
  • Period: 1299 to

    Ottoman Empire

    The Ottoman Empire ruled a large portion of the Middle East and Eastern Europe and was founded by Osman the first. The Ottoman Empire, at its height, was a multinational and multilingual empire and controlled major trade routes. This made the Ottomans very culturally diverse and they had many achievements in art,science, and medicine. The Ottomans eventually fell after inflation and defeat in the years leading up to WW1.
  • Period: 1300 to

    European Renaissance

    The Renaissance was a period of cultural, artistic, political and economic "rebirth". This included the rediscovery and curiosity of classical philosophy, literature, and art. The renaissance was the reason behind the decline of feudalism, inventions such as the printing press, and knowledge of science and medicine. With such inventions and ideas, it spread rapidly and eventually brought us into the Modern Era.
  • Period: 1345 to 1521

    Aztec Empire

    The Aztec Empire was one of the last great Mesoamerican cultures that existed. The Aztecs covered most of Mexico and were famous for their agriculture, introducing irrigation and creating artificial islands in lakes. They were also known for developing hieroglyphic writing and a complex calendar system. The Aztec Empire eventually fell to invaders led by Hernan Cortes.
  • Period: 1346 to 1353

    Bubonic Plauge

    The Black Death was an epidemic caused by bacteria spread through rodents that live in great density. It spreaded easily to humans in crowded areas so people began to avoid others. Despite attempts, many people died and whole communities were wiped out due to the plague. Even those who didn't die to the plague were left homeless, starving, and without families. By the time it ended, millions had died to it.
  • Period: 1368 to

    Ming Dynasty

    The Ming Dynasty was known for its trade expansion to the outside world after being secluded and establishing cultural ties. Some of its well known achievements was the building of the Great Wall of China, advancements in medicine and art, and its literature. The Ming Dynasty was led by Zhu Yuanzhang who helped drive out the rest of the Mongols and end the Yuan era. The Ming Dynasty eventually fell to economic disaster and uprising from citizens.
  • Period: 1400 to 1533

    Inca Empire

    The Incas were American Indian people who were originally discovered in a small tribe. In less than a century, they built one of the largest and most controlled empires known as the Inca Empire. They built up a massive military and expanded their lands with the help of their emperors. They eventually fell to Spanish conquistadors and their tactics though.
  • Period: 1400 to

    Age of Exploration

    The Age of Exploration was a time in which European ships traveled around the world for new trading routes and partners. With this Age, explorers were able to find new areas and regions around the globe. They were able to learn information about native populations and cultures and bring it back to Europe. Although, with these new discoveries, there were also spreading of diseases and harmful substances as well.
  • Period: 1492 to

    Spanish Colonial Empire

    The Spanish Empire was very powerful and rich due to the areas they colonized. They exploited resources and labor in order to get riches, which was especially gotten from the harvested gold and silver. Spain had little to no industry and had to always purchase goods from other places, so getting gold to make coins was needed. Although they conquered lands fairly easily, they did not treat the Indians well and most were enslaved and forced to work.
  • Period: 1500 to

    Portuguese Trading Post Empire

    Trading Post Empires were first built by portuguese mariners, but were repurposed for other things. Instead of using them to take control of territories or as weapons, they were used to control trade routes. These trading posts forced merchant vessels to pay whenever they passed in and out, gaining more wealth for Portugal. This empire was only possible due to Portugal's exploration and trading rights in over half the world, which helped expand its power.
  • Period: 1517 to

    The Reformation

    The Reformation was a movement attempting to reform, or change, the Catholic Church and developments of Protestant Churches. It began when a man called Martin Luther protested about the Catholic Church. He called out the clergy's greed and lies to the people supporting them and created his own following to stop them. His words spread massively around the world due to the invention of the printing press.
  • Period: 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

    The Mughal Empire ruled most of India and Pakistan and followed Islam as their religion. It spread Muslim arts and culture along with their faith when ruling over places. The Empire had a very powerful and large army so they could oversize their opponent and defeat them. The Mughal Empire ruled as one united Empire over India and India had become prosperous with culture and religion during these years.
  • Period: 1526 to

    Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Atlantic Slave Trade involved the transportation of enslaved African people by slave traders. They were mainly transported to the Americas for labor and the usual route was called the triangular trade route. Unfortunately, this was a gruling process for slaves due to being packed on ships and many dying from just the trips themselves. Most died from the heat, disease, and general treatment and those that didn't die were abused and continued to be treated terribly.
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    The Tokugawa Shogunate, aka the Edo Period, was a time of peace and growth for most of Japan. This period defined modern Japanese history by centralizing the power of the government and uniting its people. During this time there was a rise in a new merchant class in Japan and increased urbanization. To guard against any outside influence, they worked to close off Japanese society as well.
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    The Qing Dynasty were able to conquer the Mongols, Tibet, and Xinjiang and successfully mixed Manchu and Chinese culture. There was stability and wealth during this period and major developments in literature. This was only the second dynasty after the Mongols to have foreign rule, this time by the Manchu people. The dynasty eventually fell after constant harassment from the West as well as corruption, peasant unrest, and population growth.
  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that favored reasoning, individualism, and science. This movement made people question traditions and believed humanity could be improved through change. The goals of this period was to inform the public and convince others of their new ideas. Many of the main things they wanted to destroy was superstition, slavery, and intolerance and change views on the impact of religion.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution was a time where industry prospered and the manufacturing of goods moved to larger factories. Many people in rural areas began moving to larger cities in order to find work in the industry. Many new inventions helped boost the industrial revolution such as the cotton gin, railroads, and electricity. New power sources, mechanized manufacturing, and the increase of larger factories all contributed to this period.
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

    The American Revolution was a time in which colonists in America fought against the rule of Great Britain. Colonists rebelled, fought, and boycotted in order to gain their independence. Many little things contributed to this revolution beginning, such as the French and Indian War, taxes, and laws created that hurt colonists. Eventually, colonists were able to defeat Great Britain and sign the Treaty of Paris, officially marking its end and making America independent.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French Revolution aimed to have liberty, equality, and fraternity. Social inequality, taxes, and financial crisis caused the French to revolt in order to end these injustices. It resulted in destruction and downfall of the economy, but it was able to abolish the monarchy and develop a democracy. Before this was established, France was ruled by nobles and the Catholic Church.
  • Period: to

    Haitian Revolution

    The Haitian Revolution was one of the most successful slave rebellions that managed to end French control over the colony. Being inspiried by the French revolution as well as the brutality from slave owners, slaves decided to rebel against their owners. One of the well known leaders, L'Ouverture led many slaves to fight for their freedom. Because France was also not at it's best and weak to another revolution, they retreated and the slaves got their freedom.
  • Period: to

    Tanzimat Reforms

    The Tanzimat Reforms were a series of governmental reforms that wanted to centralize Ottoman rule and create more taxes for military defense. These reforms attempted to fix economic, political, and educational problems in the Ottoman Empire in order to stop the decline of power. They only partially worked and didn't do much to the Ottoman's decline of power.
  • Period: to

    Opium Wars

    The Opium Wars were two conflicts taking place in China between the Qing Dynasty and the West. The First Opium War was fought between Britain and China and the Second Opium War was fought by Britain and France against China. The first war was caused due to a trade dispute and the second was due to continued problem with trading and merchants. Britain fought because they wanted China to be more open to trading and merchants.
  • Period: to

    Taiping Rebellion

    The Taiping Rebellion was a revolt against the Qing dynasty of China that was run by the Manchu people, led by Hong Xinquan. The revolt was fought with religious conviction and economic conditions. This rebellion was inspired by elements of Christian theology and proposing social policies. While having eventually failed, it caused more than 20 million people to die.
  • Period: to

    Sepoy Mutiny

    The Sepoy Mutiny also called the First War of Independence was a widespread rebellion against the British rule in India. The Mutiny was caused by British insensitivity to growing dismay amongst Indian soldiers being used to enhance British aims. The soldiers began developing a sense of resentment about British companies. This led to failure and more power being given to the East India Company.
  • Period: to

    Meiji Revolution

    The Meiji Revolution was a coup d'etat that resulted in the dissolution of Japan's feudal system of government. They wanted to unite the country under a new, centralized government in order to strengthen their army. This is the period that ended fuedalism in Japan and set them toward a more modern era.
  • Period: to

    Scramble for Africa

    The Scramble for Africa was a process of invasion, colonization, and annexation of African territory. This was all done by European powers for economic, political, and religious gain in their favor. Powerful countries were losing money and needed another way to gain it back, which resulted in them going after Africa. People under this colonization were often treated as lesser beings due to imperialism and other aspects.
  • Period: to

    Berlin Conference

    The Berlin Conference took place in order to discuss and convince European powers to partition African land equally between them. The goal of this conference was to avoid conflicts between these powers and still gain land from Africa. While this was good in theory for the Europeans, Africa was affected negatively by this decision. The changed political boundaries for African people and enslavement of these new territories were some of the worse for these people.