Eurasia (orthographic projection).svg

Global Interactions, 1500-1800

  • Period: 1276 to

    Russia: Muscovy Reign

    The reign of the Muscovy Principality in Russia marked the end of Mongol domination in Russia and began an era of Russian expansionism into Siberia and Eastern Europe that grew the Empire to greater extents and allowed for Russia to have a greater link with the rest of the world.
  • 1392

    Joseon Korea : General Yi takes the throne and the name King Taejo

    This is a political aspect as it shows how military leaders became monarchs.
  • 1392

    Joseon Korea : King Taejo moves capital to Hanyang (Seoul).

    By moving the capital towards the middle of the peninsula, it was easier to politically centralize power for the leaders.
  • Period: 1392 to

    Joseon Korea : The lasting of the Joseon dynasty.

    This gives a political outlook on just how long this dynasty and system of ruling was placed.
  • Period: 1400 to 1500

    Joseon Korea : Confucianism displaces Buddhism as the state ideology at the start. Rise of the yangban governing class.

    This is an aspect of religion as it explains Korea's previous and current views on their culture, especially towards elders. The yangban are an example of society as they're a military class with advantages because they're the ones who can rule the dynasty.
  • Period: 1400 to

    Joseon Korea : Painting, sculptures, and traditional outfits became increasingly popular.

    Art flourished in the Joseon era and was often inspired by yangban culture.
  • 1401

    Joseon Korea : Becomes a tributary of Ming China.

    After the end of Taejo's rule, there was a change in economics and society as Korea began paying into the tribute system of Ming China.
  • 1443

    Joseon Korea : Korea develops its own system of writing.

    This event shows a progressive in arts and intelligence as the Korean are now able to leave a written record behind.
  • Period: 1500 to


  • 1501

    Safavid Empire: Safavid Empire founded

    In 1501 the Safavid Empire was founded by Ismail I, establishing their reign in Iran and established the state as a Shi'ite state (in contrast to their Sunni neighbors).
  • 1514

    Ottoman Empire: Selim I defeats Ismail I of Safavid Empire.

    Battle of Chaldiran. Ismail I of the Safavids gets defeated by Selim I. The first time that east Anatolia is under Ottoman control.
  • 1520

    Ottoman Empire: Establishment of Janissary Corps

    Starting in 1520, the Ottoman empire established the Janissary Infantry, which was made up of trained slaves. This allowed the Ottoman army to grow vastly and become one of the most powerful armies in the world, but it also set up their downfall when the Janissaries became too powerful and revolted against them.
  • 1526

    Mughal Empire : Babur defeated the last Muslim sultan of Delhi.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because this led to the Mughal Empire being founded.
  • 1526

    Mughal Empire : Babur founded the Mughal Empire.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because the Mughal Empire ruled over much of India for many years.
  • 1527

    Mughal Empire : Babur outlawed killing cows as a sign of respect for the Hindus.

    This represents a religious aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because it changed the overall culture of the citizens under the Mughal Empire.
  • 1529

    Ottoman Empire: Ottoman siege of Vienna

    The Ottoman siege of Vienna is another example of their expansion into Europe and it led to the deterioration of the city and their submission as a tributary for the Ottomans, decreasing the power of not only them, but surrounding Italian states (making them prone to invasion).
  • 1530

    Mughal Empire : Babur’s son, Humayun, took over the ruling of the Mughal Empire.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because this changed the way the Mughal Empire was ruled.
  • 1533

    Safavid Empire: Isfahan is new capital

    Ottomans overrun Baghdad, Safavid's relocate capital to Isfahan, established the city of Isfahan's important role as a great Muslim cultural center for the empire.
  • 1541

    Ottoman Empire: Conquest of Buda and rule over Hungary

    Conquest of Buda and establishment of Ottoman rule over Hungary, shows Ottoman expansionism into Europe and growth of their power by making European states submit.
  • 1541

    Ming to Qing - Powder!

    Gunpowder is used for hydraulic engineering in the Ming dynasty. This is huge! Gunpowder is used today in guns as well, so this technology is ahead of others for the time being.
  • 1543

    Tokugawa Japan: First Portuguese contacts with Japan

    The first Portuguese contacts with the Japanese in 1543 marked the beginning of greater Japanese involvement in global trading and the beginning of both Japanese relations with Europe and European influences on Japanese society.
  • 1547

    Russia : Ivan IV adopts the title of tsar

    By adopting this word, Ivan IV brings a political importance to himself and the next tsars to come.
  • 1556

    Mughal Empire : The Mughal Empire became ruled by Humayun’s son, Abu Akbar.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because this led to the peak of prosperity in the Mughal Empire.
  • 1560

    Mughal Empire : Humayun's Tomb at Delhi (the first monumental tomb of the imperial Mughals) was built during Akbar's early reign.

    This represents a artistic aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because it showed the Mughal Empire was a patron of the arts.
  • 1562

    Mughal Empire : Akbar married a Rajput princess.

    This represents a social aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because this marriage encouraged reconciliation and intermarriage between Muslims and Hindus, which led to social harmony.
  • 1562

    Mughal Empire : Akbar repealed Jizya (a tax imposed on non-muslims).

    This represents a religious aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because it made the Mughal Empire more religiously tolerant.
  • 1569

    Mughal Empire : The Fatehpur Sikri was founded by Akbar.

    This represents a artistic aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because it established the Mughal Empire as a patron of the arts.
  • 1570

    Mughal Empire : Akbar granted land revenues to military officials and and government officials in return for their service (mansabs).

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because it encouraged leaders to make the Mughal Empire flourish and gain more control of India.
  • Period: 1570 to

    Ottoman Empire: Naval Conflicts with Portugal

    The naval battles that characterized these time periods ended in decreased Portuguese control in the Indian Ocean and an increase in power in Muslim lands within that area (they were allowed to prosper without interference from the Portuguese).
  • 1571

    Russia: Crimean Tartars sack Moscow

    The Crimean Tartars sacking Moscow is of great significance because it was a precursor to Russian expansionism and growth. It reinforced the idea that Russia was the backwater of Europe and it exposed the empire as weak and poor, which fueled this expansionism to break said stereotypes and assumptions.
  • 1573

    Tokugawa Japan: Oda Nobunaga unifies Japan

    Oda Nobunaga is successfully able to unify Japan (centralized around Kyoto) in 1573. This event is in sharp contrast with the extreme feudalism that characterized the preceding Ashikaga Shogunate and it laid the foundation for the eventual complete unification of Japan under Hideyoshi and (finished by) Ieyasu in the Tokugawa Shogunate.
  • 1580

    Tokugawa Japan: Jesuits are granted the city of Nagasaki

    In 1580, a Japanese daimyo granted the Jesuit missionaries control of the port city of Nagasaki. This event is extremely significant, as it exemplifies the growing influence of foreign entities in Japan, which shows how Japanese society is becoming more diverse and open to other cultures. At the same time, this sets up the eventual Japanese isolation from these cultures due to an overextension of influence from these foreigners.
  • 1582

    Mughal Empire : Akbar made himself the center of a new religion called the “Divine Faith” which incorporated Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Sikh, and Christian beliefs.

    This represents a religious aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because it created a new religion for anyone in the world to follow .
  • 1582

    Russia: Russians defeat the Khanate of Sibir

    The Russians defeating the Khanate of Sibir allowed them to annex and colonize all of Siberia, which gave Russia an area of untapped resources and farmland, along with a link to China, which allowed for Russia to get in on the increased globalization and trade that characterized the time period.
  • Safavid Empire: Abbas I in power

    Abbas I is the most important ruler of the Safavid Empire due to his capability of bringing Hindus and Muslims together, leading to cultural synthesis.
  • Ottoman Empire: Treaty of Istanbul

    Treaty of İstanbul between Ottoman Empire and the Safavids, leads to peace between two great rivals and allows both empires to flourish economically without threat or danger from one another.
  • Safavid Empire: Peace with Ottomans

    Abbas I and Ottoman Empire go into a peaceful period, leading to greater economic gains and cultural advancement due to finally making peace with their greatest rival.
  • Tokugawa Japan: Japanese invasion of Korea

    The Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592 was the beginning of Japanese imperialism that was instigated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in order to reach his ultimate goal of conquering China. This Korean campaign ended in a truce, but it had the lasting effect of leading to the unification of Japan, inciting more instability and devastation in Korea, and leading to the collapse of the Ming Dynasty in China.
  • Joseon Korea : Attacked by Japanese army under Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

    This focuses on politics and society as over 38,000 Korean citizens were injured by the Japanese invaders.
  • Period: to

    Joseon Korea : The Imjin War

    Although Korea wasn't technically involved, they began being attacked and invaded by the Japanese after they would not allow them to cut through the Korean Peninsula to China. This was because China and Korea had strong diplomatic relations, proving these were two very important political points in the Joseon dynasty.
  • Ottoman Empire: Anatolian Revolts

    Revolts in Anatolia occurred due to the deterioration of the area from the Little Ice Age. This resulted in the devastation of the land followed by an economic crisis that slowed agricultural production and tax revenue.
  • Period: to


  • Period: to

    Russia: Time of Troubles

    The Time of Troubles was a time period characterized by the end of the Muscovite rulers and saw foreign occupation of Moscow by foreign entities such as Sweden and Poland. This time period is what allowed for the Romanov Dynasty to rise to power and usher in a new age of economic and cultural growth.
  • From Ming to Qing: Labor Protest at Jingdezhen

    Workers at a labor protest threw themselves into the kilns to send a powerful message to owners. It sends a powerful message to the world, reminding us what one is willing to do to fight for their rights.
  • Tokugawa Japan: Rise of the Merchant Class

    The rise of the merchant class at the start of the Tokugawa Shogunate was the result of increased education and commerce in the general public, facilitated by a lasting peace. This increased education allowed for cultural and artistic advances, therefore leading to more innovation and goods traded by people. This establishment of the Merchant Class finalized Japan's transition to a civilized and economic-oriented society and the fall of the Samurai Class.
  • Tokugawa Japan: Tokugawa Ieyasu establishes the Tokugawa Shogunate

    Tokugawa Ieyasu establishes the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan in 1603, finally completing the unification of Japan and ushering in an era of unprecedented political unity and economic growth that lasts for centuries.
  • Ming to Qing - The Ming Scramble

    Nurhaci and Ming generals agree to delineate the boundary between their territories, establishing the concentrated areas of which the empires will occupy, which literally affects where everything takes place.
  • Mughal Empire : The Mughal Empire included most of North, West, and Central India.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because this gave the Mughal Empire an overwhelming influence on India, which was very wealthy and prospering.
  • Mughal Empire : Abkar passed away.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because he was an extremely influential leader who made a huge impact on the world with his religious tolerance and economic power.
  • Mughal Empire : Jahangir (Akbar’s son) took over as the leader of the Mughal Empire.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because Jahangir was a ruler of the majority of India, which was very influential to the world.
  • Ottoman Empire: Suppressing riots

    Jelali revolts are being suppressed by Kuyucu Murad Pasha, allowed for the consolidation of the government's power in the state and led to greater centralization of power in the Ottoman government.
  • Period: to

    Russia: Reign of Mikhail Romanov

    The reign of Mikhail Romanov was characterized by the consolidation of government authority in Russia. His reign established the new Romanov dynasty in Russia that saw economic and cultural growth and synthesis with new contacts in Europe and Asia.
  • Tokugawa Japan: Ban on Christianity

    The Japanese ban on Christianity was in response to European culture encroaching and threatening to overshadow Japanese culture. This decree was one of the many factors leading to eventual Japanese isolationism from the world and ethnocentrism to preserve their unique culture without "Western Influences."
  • Ming to Qing - Jurchen Expansion

    In 1618 the Jianzhou Jurchen Nuhaci proclaimed Seven Grievances against the Ming and the Ming General Li Yongfang. Then he surrendered the city of Fushun, now Liaoning province in Northeast China.
  • Ming to Qing - The Presence of Han Defectors

    From 1618 to 1631, Manchus received Han Chinese defectors in their mixed military. This is due to the Ming civilian political system discriminating against the military.
  • Safavid Empire: Recovering lands

    Safavid Empire regains territory and the city of Baghdad, dont move capital from Isfahan back, however, allows for Muslims to control the area again and contributes to the spread of Islam in those areas.
  • Ming to Qing: The Battle of Ningyuan

    Ming used western artillery to defeat the Jin forces at the Battle of Ningyuan in 1626. The Ming failed to seize a chance to counter-attack.
  • Mughal Empire : Under Jahangir’s rule, Islam was reestablished as the Mughal Empire’s new offical religion.

    This represents a religious aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because it changed the freedom of religion in the Mughal Empire.
  • Mughal Empire : Shahryar became the new emperor of the Mughal Empire.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because Shahryar was a ruler of the majority of India, which was very influential to the world.
  • Mughal Empire : Shah Jahan became the new emperor of the Mughal Empire after killing his brother Shahryar.

    This represents a artistic aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because Shahryar had a profound impact of architecture.
  • Tokugawa Japan: Trading Decrees

    Beginning in 1633, the Japanese government issued decrees that greatly curbed trade with Europeans and strictly enforced this rule by ensuring citizen loyalty through legal documents and killing any Europeans that broke the rules. This was another of the factors that led to Japanese isolationist and ethnocentric mindsets (established in response to Europeans overextending their influence on Japan).
  • Ming to Qing - Juchen = Manchu

    Hong Taiji changes the name of his people from the Jurchen to Manchu. These are the same people! The long lasting effect? Same culture.
  • Ming to Qing: A Development in Tech

    Telescopes are used for aiming artillery in the Ming dynasty. This is a huge advancement that manipulate new methods of combat - as seen today with increased distance.
  • Joseon Korea : Manchus attacked and laid waste to northern and central Korea. Joseon's rulers had to submit to a tributary relationship with Qing China.

    Not only is this political, but definitely related to Korea's economy as they are pushed again to pay tribute to Qing China this time.
  • Safavid Empire: Loss of territory

    Lose control of Baghdad to Ottoman Empire, represents the loss of power and encroachment of the Ottomans that eventually leads to their destruction from other rivals due to a decrease in power from fighting the Ottomans.
  • Russia: Russia comes into contact with China

    This newly established link with China (which was the result of Russia colonizing Siberia) allowed for Russia to gain another trade contact within the Chinese and allowed for them to get in on the increased trade across the globe by having these other states as a "middle man" to trade with other areas.
  • Ming to Qing - Han Assembly

    The Manchus established an artillery corps made out of Han Chinese soldiers in 1641. This shows a common militaristic goal of two blended cultures of which were dominant at these times.
  • Safavid Empire: Abbas II gains power

    Abbas II gains power over the Safavid Empire, continued the economic and cultural growth (especially in Isfahan) as established before him and allowed the city to prosper and become almost as powerful as Istanbul, the Ottoman capital.
  • Ming to Qing: Manchuria and Capture

    The Qing Empire began in Manchuria and captured north China in 1644. Conquered all the former Ming territories from this moment on (1783). Manchus overthrew Ming Empire, results in the unification of Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, Tibet. Now we have a regional unity and interactions form.
  • Ming to Qing: The Juangyin Massacre

    The city of Jiangyin, which had been attacked by a force of 10,000 Qing troops resulted in the mass killing of 74,000 to 100,000 residents. (from Wikipedia)
  • Ottoman Empire: Assassination of Kösem Sultan.

    Assassination of Kösem Sultan. She was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history.
  • Mughal Empire : Aurangzeb ascended to the throne.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because Aurangzeb changed the way the Mughal Empire was run.
  • Mughal Empire : Aurangzeb practiced Muslim intolerance.

    This represents a religious aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because Aurangzeb changed the previous extreme religious tolerance of the Mughal Empire.
  • Ming to Qing: Kangxi is Introduced

    This emperor, Kangxi, declared emperor in 1662, oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire. This is crucial to the success of an empire, as per imperialistic requirements, the empire becomes larger and more connected. This lays down a foundation of how the empire functions after.
  • Ming to Qing - Qing Imperialism

    The Qing dynasty conquers Fujian and Zheng Jing retreats to Taiwan. Taiwan, a present day country, now has an early cultural influence when globalized.
  • Ottoman Empire: Suleiman I gains power

    Suleiman I gains control over the Ottoman Empire, allowing the empire to reach its peak and execute the greatest invasion of Europe ever by the empire, fueling their expansionism.
  • Ming to Qing - The Regents vs Kangxi

    Kangxi, ends the spar with regents in 1669, now establishing his power as the emperor. This was after the conquest of Beijing and north China, which dominated the first Qing emperor. During this year, he executed the chief regent to send this power message: I have power.
  • Ming to Qing: Revolt of the Three Feudatories

    The revolt was led by the three lords of the fiefdoms in Yunnan, Guangdong and Fujian provinces against the Qing central government. This is a demonstration of power as a group, a voice which with Kangxi fought off. There's a rivalry here.
  • Ming to Qing - 1680s - When Qing Attack Russian Forts

    In 1680, due to a feared alliance between the Russians and Galdan's Mongol state, Qing forces attack wooden forts built by Russians, beginning the rivalry of the Qing and Russians.
  • Russia: Princess Sophia Coup

    The coup of Princess Sophia, the sister of Peter the Great, is of significance to his reign because it established his reign by eliminating his political rivals and establishing total control. This assertion of power by Peter the Great is what secured his rise to the tsardom.
  • Period: to

    Russia: Reign of Peter the Great

    The reign of Peter the Great produced great cultural and political change in Russia, as it established the absolute, total power of the Tsar and his/her government, and it saw a great cultural synthesis with Western Europe as a result of increased economic interaction, which led to the diffusion of Western culture into Russia.
  • Safavid Empire: Rule of Sultan Hoseyn I

    Sultan Hoseyn I gains control over the Safavid Empire, marking the end of the empire as his mismanagement of funds leads to economic decline and inflation, which allowed them to be conquered by Afghans, ending the Safavid reign.
  • Ottoman Empire: Loss of European territory

    Ottomans cede most of Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz.
  • Tokugawa Japan: Fall of the Samurai Class

    The fall of the Samurai Class, beginning in 1700, was the result of the rise of the Merchant Class and a societal shift from a military state to a more civilized, trade-oriented state. This great cultural shift spelled the end of the samurai, as their warrior ideals and military prowess were no longer essential in a country seeing peace and economic growth.
  • 1700s - Trade Between Qing/Europeans

    The Qing and Europeans were limited on trade to due Qing policy, one very reluctant, much like Ming policy. At this time, trade is limited to one location: Canton. This provides the effect of long lasting security.
  • Period: to


  • Period: to

    Russia: Great Northern War

    The result of this war with Sweden was increased trade links with Russia, as it allowed them to take control of the Black Sea and it established Russia's position as a major European power. This increased economic assets and increase in power allowed for Russia to rise as one of the major powers of the world.
  • Tokugawa Japan: 47 Ronin Incident

    The 47 Ronin Incident in 1702 best exemplified the moral and ethical questions raised by the people as a result of the great cultural shift from a military to civil society (ushered in by the Tokugawa Shogunate). The end of this event saw civil law eventually overtaking the samurai code that had been in place centuries before.
  • Mughal Empire : Aurangzeb died, which started the decline of the Mughal Empire.

    This represents a political aspect of the Mughal Empire, and made a long lasting effect on the world because when Aurangzeb died, the Mughal Empire started a slow but steady decline.
  • Russia : St. Petersburg becomes capital

    This shows a political motive as government is usually centralized in the country's capital.
  • Russia: Tsar Decree

    The decree of the tsar in 1716 is what allowed for Russia to become a highly centralized, autocratic regime under the Tsar. It increased the power of the government and the church, and allowed for economic growth and for the Tsar to have absolute power.
  • Ottoman Empire: Treaty of Passarowitz signed

    Treaty of Passarowitz signed. Represents Ottoman power diminishing due to loss of European territory recently.
  • Period: to

    Ottoman Empire: Tulip period

    Tulip period in Ottoman Empire from 1718-1730 shows shift of popular culture to European accustoms with tulips being from Europe not Middle East
  • Safavid Empire: End of Safavid rule

    Loss control over capital Isfahan, represents the end of Savafid rule as a result of economic decline and foreign invaders. This also means that the Ottoman's greatest rival was no more, allowing them to prosper even more and focus on European expansion.
  • Ottoman Empire: First printing press in Turkey

    First printing press in Turkey by Ibrahim Muteferrika, shows the great cultural growth as a result of Ottoman dominance in Turkey Their cosmopolitan lifestyles allowed for cultural growth and synthesis between peoples.
  • Ottoman Empire: Patrona Halil Rebellion

    This rebellion was noticed by the world, as it exemplified and proved to the world that the Ottomans were facing a crisis within the state and that their power was weakening. This led to smaller factions in local areas to rebel and separate from the state, furthering the deterioration of the empire.
  • Ottoman Empire : Janissary revolt begins period of Ottoman conservatism

    This changed the societal aspect in the Ottoman Empire as their forced soldiers refused to work for them.
  • Ming to Qing: Qianlong is Introduced

    This emperor, Qianlong, alongside but later than Kangxi, saw renewed economic, military, and cultural achievement in China. This gets the ball rolling for China who will one day become a global superpower.
  • Ming to Qing - Qianlong's Greed

    "Emperor Qianlong grew greedy. After his victories in the west, he tried to conquer the kingdoms of Burma and Vietnam from 1765 to 1769 and failed at a great cost to the empire." By being reedy, you risk losing what you have as you gamble it, and we see this today in all modern day politics, that's why we have a ton of disagreement.
  • Ottoman Empire: Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed

    Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed. Treaty for Ottomans loss in the battle of Küçük Kaynarca. Marks defeat of the Ottomans and their struggles with Russia.
  • Joseon Korea : Jeongjo ascends the throne; he initiates major political reforms against the Yangban officials and in favor of the middle class.

    During this time, the leader listens to the growing middle class and allows them to become more involved in their government.
  • Joseon Korea : Yi Sung-hun introduces Catholicism from China to Korea.

    This is a religious change that even now holds an importance in Korea as it's one of the main religions.
  • Ming to Qing: Britain's Attempt at Diplomatic Relations

    Britain now begins the Macartney Mission: the unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire. This contributes to the ongoing cultural isolation of the Chinese.
  • Ming to Qing - The Missionary Presence in Qing

    "Protestant evangelical Christianity was introduced by Western missionaries, and tens of thousands of Chinese converted." (china This is reflecting what still goes on with all religions: the diffusion.