Unit 4 Timeline Project

  • Jan 1, 1301

    Ottoman Empire

    Ottoman Empire
    Cause: The Ottoman’s rose to power because the community of Turko-Mongol warriors had grown strong enough to exercise its force which led to numerous of victories eventually leading to the gain of more land. Effect: The Ottoman’s rise effected in their decline because its neighboring powers had begun to grow stronger over the centuries. The Ottomans began to lack the money and military power that the other nations had once local rebellions began against them.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1301 to

    Ottoman Empire

    The Ottoman Empire which lasted from 1301-1922.
  • Jan 1, 1340

    Songhai Empire

    Songhai Empire
    Cause: The Songhai Empire rose to power because the king took advantage of a weak Mali Empire and expanded onto their territory. The trading town of Gao attracted many Muslim merchants allowing the empire to greatly expand from Gao to Timbuktu and along the shores of the Atlantic.
    Effect: After the death of Emperor Askia, a civil war weakened the empire. Moroccans took advantage of this and invaded the weak Songhai Empire. They couldn’t control such a vast empire, so it broke into many kingdoms.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1340 to

    Songhai Empire

    The Songhai Empire lasted from 1340-1591.
  • Period: Mar 4, 1394 to Nov 13, 1460

    Henry the Navigator

    The Life of Henry the Navigator
  • Mar 14, 1394

    Prince Henry the Navigator

    Prince Henry the Navigator
    Cause: In 1415, Prince Henry and his father John I of Portugal successfully conquered Ceuta which inspired Henry to explore the Atlantic Coast of Africa. Henry wanted to convert Africans to Christians, make contacts with existing Christian rulers, and launch joint crusades with Africans against Ottomans. Effect: Henry’s explorations led to the invention of the caravel, the finding of a more effective route back to Portugal to avoid the northeast winds, and established contacts with Africa.
  • Jan 1, 1444

    Beginning of the Portuguese Slave Trade

    Beginning of the Portuguese Slave Trade
    Cause: The Portuguese began to establish great trade relationships with Africans as they explored the Atlantic Coast. As they discovered more land along the Atlantic Coast of Africa, they would sell the African captives into slavery. Effects: The selling of slaves soon helped pay for the voyages by the Portuguese and sponsor the travelers. Slavery largely helped Portugal’s economy.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1450 to

    Unit 4

    Unit 4 lasted from 1450 to 1750.
  • Jan 1, 1451

    Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

    Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror
    Cause: Mehmed the Conqueror conquerors Constantinople, parts of Asia, and Anatolia.
    Effects: Mehmed the Conqueror makes Constantinople the new capital of the Ottoman Empire and adds more parts of Asia to his empire.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1451 to Dec 31, 1481

    Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

    The Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror from 1451-1481.
  • Jan 1, 1464

    Reign of Sunni Ali

    Reign of Sunni Ali
    Cause: Sunni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire. Under his rule, his army captured many cities such as Timbuktu and fortified them. Effect: Sunni Ali allowed the Songhai Empire to grow larger and more power than the previous Ghana and Mali Empires before it. He ruled over Muslims and non-Muslims but also tolerated African animism.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1464 to Dec 31, 1492

    Reign of Sunni Ali

    The Reign of Sunni Ali lasted from 1464 to 1492.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1466 to Jun 29, 1520

    Moctezuma II

    The life of Moctezuma II who ruled from 1502-1520.
  • Period: Nov 10, 1483 to Feb 18, 1546

    The Life of Martin Luther

    The Life of Martin Luther.
  • Nov 18, 1483

    Martin Luther

    Martin Luther
    Cause: Martin Luther was upset with some of the decisions the church was making such as selling indulgences to pay for St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. He wrote the 95 Theses, complaints about the church, and posts them on the church door for public viewing. Effect: The Protestant Reformation begins and several new branches of Christianity are created such as the Lutheranism.
  • Jan 1, 1488

    Dias' Voyage into the Indian Ocean

    Dias' Voyage into the Indian Ocean
    Cause: The Portuguese were searching for a quicker trade route to India which they found by going around the tip of Africa. Effects: Dias travels around the tip of Africa which makes European’s realize that it was possible to trade with East Asia without the need of traveling through the Middle East. The Portuguese also became involved in the gold and slave trades with Africa.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    Cause: Columbus’s discovery of the “New World” in 1492 also led to the discovery of new plants in animals that Europeans were unfamiliar with.
    Effect: Europeans began bringing goods and ideas from Europe and Africa in exchange for the new products in the Americas. For example: Europe was introduced to crops such as tomatoes and potatoes and the Americas were introduced to horses.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1492 to

    Columbian Exchange

    The Columbian Exchange lasted from 1492 to 1845.
  • Oct 14, 1492

    Columbus' First Voyage

    Columbus' First Voyage
    Cause: The Spanish were in search for a quick westward trade route to East Asia. Their plan was to establish a good trade relationship with China and India and they wanted to spread Christianity.
    Effect: Columbus instead discovers the Americas although he believed he was in India. The discovery of these lands led to tension between the Europeans. Many of the indigenous tribes were destroyed by disease and colonization by Europeans. The “Old World” began to recieve new goods from the"New World".
  • Jan 1, 1501

    Safavid Empire

    Safavid Empire
    Cause: Shah Ismail conquers Iranian territories including Iraq, founding the Safavid Empire. Effect: The Safavid Empire was able to revive Persia as an economy strong hold. The Safavid also established an efficient state, a bureaucracy based on checks and balances, and spread Shi’a Islam in Iran.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to

    Safavid Empire

    The Safavid Empire lasted from 1501 to 1722.
  • Jan 1, 1502

    Moctezuma II

    Moctezuma II
    Cause: Moctezuma was the Aztec emperor during the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. Believing that Henan Cortes was the legendary ruler Quetzalcoatl who had returned to Earth, Moctezuma treated him with respect and gave him gold and jewels.
    Effect: Cortes later turned against Moctezuma and enslaved him. Cortes befriends Aztec enemies and invades the Aztecs. Moctezuma was killed in the battle and the empire couldn’t be restored. The Spanish spread small pox and other disease to the Aztecs.
  • Jul 10, 1509

    John Calvin

    John Calvin
    Cause: John Calvin was against the ways of the Church and believed that Christianity should only be based on what is written in the bible.
    Effect: He developed the system of Christian theology called Calvinism, an alternate approach to the Christian life in which he emphasizes the rule of God over all things and that salvation was a gift from God.
  • Period: Jul 10, 1509 to May 27, 1564

    Life of John Calvin

    The Life of John Calvin.
  • Period: Apr 21, 1519 to Aug 13, 1521

    Spanish Conquest of Mexico

    The Spanish Conquest of Mexico lasted from 1519 to 1521.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1520 to Sep 6, 1566

    Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent

    The Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent from 1520 until his death in 1566.
  • Apr 21, 1521

    Spanish Conquest of Mexico

    Spanish Conquest of Mexico
    Cause: The Spanish who came to explore new lands, decided to travel inland in search for gold, riches, and wealth. The Aztecs mistook Hernan Cortes as a legendary God returning to Earth but Cortes later used the Aztec enemies to turned against them.
    Effect: The Aztecs were destroyed and the Spanish later destroyed the neighboring empires. The Spanish spread disease, acquired more land,expanded Christianity, and found more raw materials.
  • Jan 1, 1526

    Mughal Dynasty

    Mughal Dynasty
    Cause: The Mughal Empire was ruled by the descendants of Genghis Khan. They extended their empire largely over the Indian subcontinent.
    Effects: The Mughal Empire later declined because they were attacked by the Iranians which contributed to the weakening of the empire. Soon there was no strong leadership to unite the empire and it eventually broke into smaller kingdoms. In 1805, the East India Company started to rule it.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

    The Mughal Empire lasted from 1526 to 1707.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1545 to Dec 31, 1563

    Council of Trent

    The Council of Trent.
  • Nov 16, 1545

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    Cause: The Council of Trent met to address the conflict between the Catholics and the Protestants. They discussed how the Protestant’s worshiped incorrectly and their form of worship was false. Effect: The Council of Trent eventually brought forth the Catholic Reformation, or “split” in the Catholic Church.
  • Jan 1, 1556

    Reign of Akbar

    Reign of Akbar
    Cause: Akbar was the third emperor of the Mughal Empire. He is well known for being extremely tolerant of all faiths in the empire. Akbar conquered Sher Shah's dynasty and recaptured Delhi from the Hindu King, Hemu.
    Effect: By the time of his death, the Mughal Empire had extended to most of Northern India and every part of Indian sub continent and its culture and art reached its height.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1556 to

    The Reign of Akbar

    Akbar reigned from 1556 to 1605.
  • Feb 15, 1564

    Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    Cause: Galileo improved upon existing telescopes which enabled him to discover that the earth was surrounded by other stars and planets and concluded that they and the earth weren’t flat. He also challenged the geocentric theory.
    Effect: He created better telescopes that allowed him to discover other celestial bodies. He began to defend the Heliocentric Theory, created contributions to the science of motion, and lead the way to better studies in math and science.
  • Period: Feb 15, 1564 to

    Galileo Galilei

    The life of Galileo Galilei.
  • Jan 1, 1566

    Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent

    Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent
    Cause: Suleiman the Magnificent was the longest Ottoman emperor. He changed the Ottoman legal system. He raised the Ottoman’s political, military, and economic power to the highest extent.
    Effect: Suleiman took his military to Conquer places with strong Christian influences. He conquered parts of East Europe, North Africa, and held battles in the Indian Ocean which allowed him to capture Aden and Yemen. Under his reign, the Ottoman Empire entered the “Golden Age” of its cultural development.
  • Tokugawa Shogunate

    Tokugawa Shogunate
    Cause: Established by Tokugawa Leyasu and was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. The shoguns created new administration capital at Edo which led to trade between Edo and capital of Kyoto. Effect: Aided the development of Japanese economy leading to the formation of trading centers. Merchant families created close alliances with regional daimyo to weaken strict control of merchant activity which led to them being in charge of future modernization.
  • Period: to

    Timespan of the Tokugawa Shogunate

    The Tokugawa Shogunate lasted from 1603 to 1868.
  • Thirty Years' War

    Thirty Years' War
    Cause: A series of wars fought in Central Europe involving many of the European countries. It was largely fought as religious war between the Protestants and the Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire as well as disputes over internal politics and the balance of power within the empire.
    Effect: The Thirty Years’ War effected in the spread of famine and disease, economic decline in many European countries, and a dramatic improvement in the skill of European armed forces.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    The Thirty Years' War lasted from 1618 to 1648.
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    Cause: John Locke believed the government’s job was to protect the natural rights that people were entitled to. Effect: His philosophy led him to write “The Social Contract” which influenced later philosophers and American revolutionaries. His teachings later influenced democracy.
  • Period: to

    The Lifetime of John Locke

    John Locke lived from 1632 to 1704.
  • The Qing Empire (Manchus Empire)

    The Qing Empire (Manchus Empire)
    Cause: The Ming was unwilling to embrace any new Western technology and eventually they were invaded by the Manchu who were using the new European military technology. The Manchu invaded the weak remains of the Ming Empire and began the Qing (Manchus) Empire. Effect: Corruption, foreign invasion by Europeans, the rise of nationalism, and backward imperialism (rulers seeing themselves as divine) all contributed to the fall of the Qing. The fall of the Qing ended feudal rule in China.
  • Period: to

    The Qing Empire

    The Qing Empire lasted from 1644 to 1912.
  • Peter the Great

    Peter the Great
    Cause: Peter the Great helped Russia open up to the rest of world by trying to keep Russia separate from the cultural influences coming form Asia and instead be more influenced by the West. Effect: In time, Peter the Great takes the throne of Russia and by the time of his rule, a large amount of European influence came into the Russian Empire.
  • Period: to

    The Life of Peter the Great

    Reigned from May 7th, 1682- February 8, 1725.
  • England's Glorious Revolution

    England's Glorious Revolution
    Cause:
    King Jamess II interefered with Parliaments rule and ruled unjustifully. He also became involved with the Protestant and Catholics conflicts, him being a Catholic and a majority of Parliament being Protestant.
    Effects:
    King James II is overthrown and William and Mary take the throne. Parliament began to limit the monarch's power and issued the Bill of Right which stated rules that the monarch had to follow. Eventually, Parliament began to had more control and power.
  • Russian Empire

    Russian Empire
    Cause: The Russian Empire rose to power when small kingdoms came together to invade the surrounding lands to create an empire streching from N. Asia into N. America. Russia expanded because of alliances created with the Cossacks.
    Effect: The Russian Empire ended with many invasions/rebellions. The impact of these invasions was demoralizing.Strikes from peasants increased. A soviet of workers put the ruler, Nicholas and his family to death during the Russian Civil War, ending the empire.
  • Period: to

    Russian Empire

    The Russian Empire lasted from 1721 to 1917.