One of the two main powers in Western Asia. Played important role in mediaval art.
Period: 224 to
Civilization with only fully developed written language and advancements in math, art, and architecture. Declined around 900.
Capital of Byzantine Empire. Changes to Istanbul when Turks take over.
Period: 330 to Apr 8, 1453
Also known as Eastern Roman Empire. Capital at Constantinople. One of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe.
Apr 8, 600
Capital of Ghana established
Apr 8, 622
Islam religion founded by Mohammed
Apr 8, 632
Split of Islam into Sunnis and Shi'ites because of a disagreement on who the next leader will be,
Period: Apr 8, 661 to Apr 8, 750
One of the world's largest empires.
Apr 8, 711
Muslims Conquer Spain
Islam religion introduced to Spain.
Period: Apr 8, 750 to Apr 8, 1258
Overthrow of Umayyad caliphate and establishment of Abbasid Caliphate.
Apr 8, 1037
Seljuk Turks come into Persia
Seljuk Turks (turkish tribe of central asia) took over most of Eastern and Central Anatolia.
Period: Apr 8, 1095 to Apr 8, 1291
Crusades: relegiously-sanctioned military campagins. Roman Catholic forces VS. Muslims
Apr 8, 1169
Saladin defeats Crusader-Byzantyne force
Saladin: Sultan of Egypt and Syria.
Period: Apr 8, 1190 to Apr 8, 1353
Mali transitions into Songhai,
Period: Apr 11, 1200 to Apr 11, 1528
Advanced architecture and complex art. Declined and became extinct after arrival of Spanish conquistadores.
Period: Apr 8, 1206 to Apr 8, 1324
Mongols Conquered: Iran, Iraq, Syria, parts of Turkey, China, Korea, Japan, Russia, Siberia, Ukraine, Belarus, Cilicia, Anatolia, Georgia, Armenia, Persia, Iraq,and Central Asia
Period: Apr 8, 1206 to Apr 8, 1277
Genghis Khan Reign
United nomadic tribes of northeast Asia, Founded Mongol Empire.
Period: Apr 8, 1206 to Apr 8, 1527
Made up of five dynasties: Mughal, Mamluk, Tughlaq, Sayyid, Lodi
Apr 8, 1215
Magna Carta Issued
Charter demanding that the King of England grant liberties to subjects
Period: Apr 8, 1250 to Apr 8, 1570
Regime made up of mamluks (turkish soldier of slave origin) who ruled Egypt.
Period: Apr 8, 1300 to
Period of cultural rebirth and development
Apr 8, 1324
Mansa Musa Pilgrimage
Mansa Musa (leader of Mali) makes Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.
Apr 8, 1336
Timur: Founded Timurid Empire and Timurid Dynasty. Grandfather of Mughal Empire founder.
Period: Apr 8, 1337 to Apr 8, 1453
Hundred Years War
Series of wars for the French throne
Period: Apr 8, 1368 to
Constructed vast navy and army. Orderly government and social stability. Restored Grand Canal and Great Wall. Built Forbidden City.
Period: Apr 8, 1405 to Apr 8, 1433
Zheng He Voyages
Large voyages sponsored by Chinese gov. to gain more wealth and tributaries for China.
Period: Apr 11, 1424 to Apr 11, 1446
Henry the Navigator Explorations
Explorers navigated Cape Bojandor and explored the African coast.
Period: Apr 11, 1427 to Apr 11, 1521
Empire with its capital at Teotihuacan. Fell after arrival of Hernan Cortes.
Apr 8, 1439
Apr 11, 1450
Johannes Gutenberg, a German goldsmith, invented modern movable type and introduced modern book printing.
Apr 8, 1460
Also known as Ivan the Great. Grand prince of Moscow
Apr 11, 1492
Columbus discovers American Continents.
Period: Apr 11, 1492 to
Exchange of animals, plants, culture, humans, diseases, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres
Period: Apr 11, 1497 to Apr 11, 1519
da Gama Explorations
Explored coast of Africa and India.
Period: Apr 11, 1501 to
Ruling dynasty of Iran.
Period: Apr 11, 1502 to Apr 11, 1532
Sailed to the new world, explored South America, explored Ecuadorian Coast, conquered Peru
Period: Apr 11, 1504 to Apr 11, 1526
Rose to power in Kabul(Afghanistan) and built an army that conquered areas around Afghanistan.
Period: Apr 11, 1506 to Apr 11, 1519
Participated in conquest of Hispaniola and Cuba, Defeated the Aztecs.
Period: Apr 11, 1517 to
Revolution led by Martin Luther against the corrupt Catholic Church.
Apr 11, 1519
Magellan leads fist expedition to sail around the earth.
Period: Apr 11, 1526 to
Ruled most of India during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Period: Apr 11, 1550 to
Period of new ideas in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry, and other sciences.
Apr 11, 1552
Mateo Ricci: One of the founders of the Jesuit China Mission.
Mathematician and sastronomer. Proponent of the Copernican Theory. Persecuted by the Roman Church
A feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns(military) of the Tokugawa family. Abolished during Meiji Restoration
Colonies in the New World
Virginia, Massachussetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticutt, North Carolina, Delaware, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Georgia
Dynasty founded by the Manchu and highly integrated with Chinese culture.
Also known as the Age of Reason. A period of time when people started thinking about the importance of reasoning.
Peter the Great
Russian tsar who modernized and expanded Russia
Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology were made during this time period.
War between Britain and France. Evolved into the 7 years war. Resulted in Treaty of Paris.
Catherine the Great Reign
Had a successful foreign policy, strengthened and made Russia a world power.
Watt's Steam Engine
An improvement on the Newcomen engine, more fuel efficient and faster.
The Spinning-Jenny was a machine that used eight spindles onto which the thread was spun from a corresponding set of rovings.
Water frame, a machine which was the first powered, automatic, and continuous textile machine, was invented by Richard Arkwright.
Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette
Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette were married in 1770. The marriage caused conflicts because Marie Antoinette was an unwelcome foreigner.
Revolution against Britain ruling the New World without representation.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Declrataion approved by the French National Assembly which stated the people's rights.
Social and political conflict within France against the monarchy.
Storming of the Bastille
A group of angry people stormed the Bastille, which was a fortress and a symbol of royal French authority.
Conflict within the French colony of Saint-Domingue. Resulted in liberation of slaves, but didn't result in lasting independence.
A machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber.
Napoleon became the ruler of France in 1804. After taking over the government, he began a series of wars/conquests called the Napoleonic Wars, in which he conquered much of Europe.
Britain outlaws Slave Trade
Britain passed an act that abolished the slave trade in the British Empire.
The telegraph revolutionarized communication by making long-distance communication faster and easier.
Mpvement led by Mexicans to gain independence from colonial Spain.
Congress of Vienna
Conference of European ambassadors about ways to settle the issues resulting from the Napoleonic Wars, French Revolution, and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Battle of Waterloo
A battle in which the army led by Napoleon was defeated. End of Napoleon's rule.
A series of political conflicts caused by Brazilians wanting independence from Portugal.
Greek rebellion against Ottoman rule brings Greek Independence
Dissolution of Janissaries
Pwerful Ottoman army destroyed after they tried to rebel against Sultan Mahmud II.
Great Trek - Afrikaners
An eastward and north-eastward migration odf Boers away from British control in the Cape Colony.
End of Atlantic Slave Trade
The Royal Navu worked to stop the Atlantic slave trade by shutting down endports from which slaves were shipped.
Revolutions of 1848
Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Italy had revolutions during this year. Characterized by large assemblies and demonstrations. Democracy, liberalism, nationalism, and socialism gained popularity.
Imperialization of Africa
Period of time characterized by European imperialists taking over/dividing up Africa.
Cilil war in Southern China. One of the bloodiest civil wars in all of history.
Caused by Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman sultan
Commodore Matthew Perry
Matthew C. Perry negotiated with Japan and obtained opening of two Japanese ports for trade and a Japanese agreement to be friendly with Americans.
Mutiny of native troops in India against the British.
Emancipation of Russian Serfs
Also known as peasant reformof 1861. Serfs were liberated from serfdom.
A chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan. Change from feudal society to capitalist economy.
The Suez Canal allows ships to sail directly between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
Concept of trade where a region has export commodities that are not required in the region from which its major imports come.Reached consideration from a lecture by American businessman William B. Weeden.
A nationalist uprising that took place in response to European "spheres of influence" in China.
African National Congress
Congress founded for the purpose of increasing the rights of South Africans.
Overthrow of Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was overthrown after the Xinhai Revolution, when the Empress Dowager Longyu abdicated.
The League of Nations
An intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I. First permanent international security organization founded for the purpose of keeping world peace. Precursor to UN.
World War 1
Major world conflict between the Allies and the Central Powers, which started with the assasination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria.
Ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
The Czarist autocracy is destroyed and the Soviet Union comes to power.
Wilson's 14 Point Plan
The Fourteen Points: a speech delivered by President Woodrow Wilson to a session of Congress to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause.
Thirty Years' War
Religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics
Hitler Comes to Power
Hitler's rise to power began in Germany after he joined a political party that lately turned into the Nazi Party.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty that ended World War 1 and put great limitations on what Germany could do.
Leader of the Indian National Congress during the Indian Independence Movement. A lawyer and an advocate for nonviolence and the power of mass civil resistence.
Chinese Civil War
Civil war between the Communists (led by Mao Zedong) and the Nationalists (led by Chiang Kai-Shek).
Stalin's 5-Year Plans
A series of plans to improve Russia through collectivization and industrialization.
The Great Depression
Severe worldiwde economic depression.
World War 2
Began with the invasion of Poland by Germany and Slovakia,. New types of warfare were introduced. Allies (U.S, Soviet Union, France, Poland, others) vs. Axis Powers (Germany, Japan, Italy, Hungary, others).
An intense competition between the Communist world (mainly the Soviet Union) and the Western world (mainly the U.S) over which country had the best technology.
President of Argenitna on three different occasion. Husband of Eva Peron, or Evita, who was a very influential and charismatic woman.
Colonialism in India is over. India becomes an independent nation under the rule of Nehru.
Creation of Pakistan
Pakistan split from India and became its own predominantly Muslim nation.
An alliance of countries under the North Atlantic Treaty. An organization that uses diplomacy and/or military interventions to solve disputes between countries.
Mao Zedong and Maoism
Also called Mao Zedong Thought. Widely applied as the political and military guiding ideology in the Communist Party of China (CPC).
A war between North Korea (supported by China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (supported by UN)
Great Leap Forward
An economic and social campaign of the Communist Party of China which aimed to use China's large population to quickly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of agriculturalization, industrialization, and collectivization.
A mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe.
A conflict between U.S-Supported South Vietnam against Communist North Vietnam. After much fighting and many casualites from both the U.S and Vietnam, the South surrendered and Viernam was reunited. Highly unpopular war in the U.S.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
An unsuccessful CIA Invasion supported by the U.S in an attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro.
A wall which split Berlin into East Berlin (soviet) and West Berlin (fascist), not allowing people from either side to cross over.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Fear in the United States as a result of the Soviet Union setting up missiles in Cuba. The closest the world came to the Nuclear War.
Aswan Dam: A dam situated across the Nile River.
A treaty signed by many countries that agreed to relaxation of international tensions, recognized all European borders as inviolable, and agreed to refrain from interfering in other nations' internal affairs.
Revolution to replace Iran's monarchy with an Islamic Republic ruled by the leader of the revolution.
A territorial conflict between Iran and Iraq over border limits and control of the Shatt al Arab waterway, which empties into the Persian Gulf.
Tiananmen Square Potests
A series of nonviolent protests at Tiananmen Square in Beijing by students who were against the current regime and wanted to promote liberalization. Armed forces fired on the unarmed protesters, killing numerous people.
Reunification of Germany
The German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), and Berlin reunited into a single city.
Dissolution of the USSR caused by the weakening of political and economic structure of the Soviet government.
First South-African president to be elected in a fully- representative democratical election.
September 11, 2001
A series of terrorist suicide-attacks on the United States caused by Al-Qaeda.
King of Franks. Emperor of Roman Empire
Establishment Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was established with Charlemagne as first ruler
Sui Dynasty founded by emperor Wen unifies Northern and Southern China
Founded by Li family. Golden age of cosmopolitan culture, progress, and stability.
Period: to Apr 8, 1270
First government to issue paper money and establish a navy. Discovered gunpowder and used compass to discover true north.
Period: to Apr 8, 1190
Ghana crumbles; Mali period mainly ruled by Muslims.
Period: to Apr 8, 1349
Founded by East Slavic Tribes and Scandinavian warriors.