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AP World History Final

  • Period: 1200 to 1279

    Tang and Song Dynasties

    The Tang and Song were the last of the Chinese dynasties leading up to the reign of the Mongols. The Tang dynasty made efforts to bring forth the Civil Service Exam and tribute system in China which was continued by the Song. Both dynasties were defined by advancements they contributed to Chinese society such as the movable type, and gunpowder. Though an overall progressive time for the Chinese, religious beliefs caused minor conflict as growing Buddhism received backlash from Confucianists.
  • Period: 1200 to 1258

    Abbasid Caliphate

    The Abbasid Caliphate ruled as a Muslim empire in the Middle East throughout Islam's "Golden Age." Under its rule Baghdad became a wealthy trade route and many societal advancements were made. Muslims pioneered math, science and literature, while adding great contributions to medical study. Islam also made its way to Spain choosing Cordoba as its capital. The Abbasid Caliphate was successful in establishing advanced societies in the Middle East, before eventually falling to the Mongols in 1258.
  • Period: 1200 to 1521

    Mesoamerica

    The Aztec and Inca empires were the first civilizations to thrive in the Americas. The Aztecs lived in southern Mexico with Tenochtitlan as its capital, while the Incas spanned across the Western coast of South America. Due to their mountainous environment, the Incas created a system of rope bridges to make trade and transportation easier. Both civilizations had polytheistic religions, and performed human sacrifices. Though conquered by the Spanish, their monuments like Machu Picchu still stand.
  • Period: 1200 to 1500

    Feudalism in Europe

    Feudalism was a system of political organization in Europe. Peasants referred to as vassals would receive a piece of land from a lord in return for doing work. This granted piece of land was known as a "fief" and often given to knights for military protection. Peasants called "serfs" were required to work a certain number of days on those farms. They would need their lord's grant to move to another plot of land. Over time nobility lost power over the lower classes bringing feudalism to an end.
  • Period: 1206 to 1368

    Mongol Empire

    The Mongol Empire was formed by barbaric nomads from the Eurasian steppes. It was founded by Genghis Khan who was proclaimed the ruthless ruler of the empire. The Mongols spread across Asia, conquesting any clans they met, bringing them into the army or offering land and goods. The Mongols took over the silk road, using fear to keep people in line. This brought trade and peace that was known as the Pax Mongolica. When Genghis Khan died the empire split into four khanates which led to its fall.
  • Period: 1210 to 1526

    Delhi Sultanate

    The Delhi Sultanate was established by a group of Islamic Turks from central Asia. It reigned over northern India in the area now known as pakistan. Throughout its rule there was a cultural blending of Islam and Hinduism with lasting effects on society, culture, and academics. However there was clear Islamic influence as Sharia Law was enforced and a tax had to be paid by those who did not convert to Islam. After a reign spanning over hundreds of years, the Sultanate fell to the Mughal Empire.
  • Period: 1235 to

    Mali Empire

    In the middle ages Europeans thought that all Africans were primitive, however the continent was home to wealthy communities such as the Mali Empire. Mali was located in western Africa, along trade routes connecting the north and south. It was abundant in valuable goods like gold and salt making it a wealthy and powerful trade empire. Mansa Musa, one of Mali's rulers was considered to be the wealthiest man of the middle ages. It was after his rule ended that the empire began to weaken.
  • Period: 1279 to 1368

    Yuan Dynasty

    The Yuan Dynasty, one of four Mongol Khanates was formed by Kublai Khan, the son of Genghis Khan. He was able to unify all of China which had been divided in seperate states. As emperor, Kublai Khan tolerated chinese culture and practices but kept Mongols separate from them. The Chinese were taxed heavily which went to building the navy and public projects. During this dynasty trade also improved and became safer. Due to two costly invasions of Japan, the dynasty weakened and the Ming took over.
  • Period: 1299 to

    Ottoman Empire

    The Ottoman Empire began when a group of Turkic warriors conquered the city of Constantinople. The Ottomans were devout Muslims and ran the empire based on their religion. The sultan was seen as both a political and religious leader. This empire ruled over the Middle East as well as parts of Northern Africa and South-Eastern Europe. The Ottomans ruled over some of the artistic hubs of their time, influencing art, medicine and science. The empire fell in 1922 due to inflation and bad leadership.
  • Period: 1300 to

    European Renaissance

    The European Renaissance following the middle ages was a cultural and political shift in society. It was defined by the rediscovery of arts, literature, and philosophy which caused many new beliefs to surface. Humanism for example became popular during the renaissance which gave importance to humans and their needs rather than supernatural beings. The Renaissance caused feudalism to fall in Europe, giving rise to a middle class, while also paving the way for the reformation and enlightenment.
  • Period: 1342 to 1353

    Bubonic Plague

    The Bubonic plague began as a result of fleas infecting rats and humans in China. It spread through the silk road and eventually hit Europe causing the death of millions. Some turned to baptisms and confessions thinking this was punishment for sins while others lost faith in the church. Goods became scarce and inflation of prices was a major issue. These changes led to the end of feudalism and sparked rebellion against the Catholic Church which would later contribute to the reformation.
  • Period: 1368 to

    Ming Dynasty

    The Ming Dynasty was founded in 1368, and took control over the Yuan Dynasty which was ruled by the Mongols. Throughout the Ming Dynasty reign, China established ties with the Western world with the opening of trade and international relationships. The Great Wall of China was built during Ming rule and accomplishments were made culturally in the arts and also the field of medicine. However the dynasty fell to the Manchu people of China after weakening due to economic issues.
  • Period: 1400 to

    Age of Exploration

    In the 1400's European countries were very interested in trading with Asia which had goods like spices and silk. This provoked the age of exploration because they wanted to find quicker routes to get to Asia. Prince Henry the navigator of Portugal was one of the first advocates for global exploration. He sent Portuguese ships down the western coast of Africa, influencing other nations to fund expeditions as well. This led to Columbus' discovery of the Americas and it's eventual colonization.
  • Period: 1415 to

    Portuguese Trading Post Empire

    The Portuguese, due to Prince Henry, had major influence on the start of the age of exploration and global trade networks. They established trade posts along the coast of Africa, and eventually spread all throughout Asia as well. The Portuguese were quick to gain control over trade on these routes and the Indian ocean. To control the Indian ocean, the Portuguese required merchants to purchase passes in order to trade. The empire ended after losing power and territory to other European nations.
  • Period: 1492 to

    Spanish Colonial Empire

    When Christopher Columbus returned to Spain with news of the Americas, they were quick to set up colonies and claim territory. Spain established colonies throughout Mexico, the Western United States, and South America. During this process they conquered many native indigenous tribes such as the Aztecs and the Incas. They also colonized the Philippines which acted as a trade center for Chinese goods like porcelain, and spices that were desired in Europe.
  • Period: 1502 to

    Atlantic Slave Trade

    The Slave Trade began when European nations were able to reach Africa and set up trading posts. This started when the Portuguese and Spanish first captured people from Africa's western coast and took them to colonies in the New World where labor was needed. Soon after the British and other European nations joined in this slave trade bringing more slaves to colonies in the Americas. This ended in 1808 with the abolition of slavery in the U.S. though illegal slave trade carried on into the 1900's.
  • Period: 1517 to

    The Reformation

    The Reformation was a point in Europe where people began to challenge the Catholic Church. Martin Luther was a key figure in this movement when in 1915 he published his 95 Theses. This book criticized catholicism, saying that salvation is found in faith, not deeds. It spread rapidly throughout Europe, which sparked a rebellion. The Catholic church responded by forming the Council of Trent to spread Catholic ideals. Though many people and even the country of England adopted Protestantism instead.
  • Period: 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

    The Mughal empire was located in Northern India. The Mughals themselves were Muslims who spread arts and culture to South Asia, yet the empire they ruled over was mostly HIndu. The economy was one of the strongest at that time, mainly based on agriculture. The Mughal society was split into three different classes: Upper, middle, and lower. The emperor was at the top of the upper class alongside his nobles, who got to make laws. The empire ended up falling from political and economical issues.
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    The Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan was a time of peace and growth. This time paved the way for modern day Japan, uniting its people and bringing cultural changes. It allowed mobility between the four social classes existing in Japan. Christianity was seen as a threat to Tokugawa rule so all foreign travel and trade was banned with few exceptions. Though arts and literature flourished alongside the economy. The Meiji Restoration finally ended this rule after a peasant uprising and financial issues.
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    The Qing Dynasty was established by the Manchus after the fall of the Ming Dynasty. The Ming capital of beijing was captured in 1644 which officially started the rule of the Qing Dynasty. This was the last imperial dynasty that China was ruled by and paved the way for modern day China. During this time period China welcomed trade with the West, where Chinese porcelain was at high demand. Due to overpopulation, famine and societal unrest this dynasty collapsed and the Republic of China formed.
  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was a progressive time period beginning in Europe that became an important intellectual movement. The main ideas of the enlightenment were that humans could use reason to understand truths about the world, emphasizing freedom, and knowledge. A number of different people from the United States and Europe shared ideas that influenced this way of thinking such as John Locke, and Thomas Hobbes. This changed how people saw religion and logic, and influenced the American revolution.
  • Period: to

    Industrial Revolution

    The Industrial Revolution began as labor moved from small self-owned businesses to large factories. Many cultural and societal changes could be seen as people began to move from rural towns to urban areas, developing some of the world's major cities today. As more people including women and children began to join the workforce, unions were formed and progressive movements started to gain rights for workers. Different ideals also began such as Marxism and socialism, influencing political views.
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

    The American Revolution began with the thirteen colonies wanting freedom from Britain's unfair taxes. They taxed the colonies as a way of payment for assistance in the French and Indian war. Eventually with the influence of Enlightenment ideals, the colonists began to rebel and the Revolutionary war began. The first gunshot occurred in Massachusetts against the British and the colonists starting a 7 year-long war. It ended in 1781 when the British surrendered, and the U.S. gained independence.
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    The French Revolution was sparked over the population's discontent with the economic policies of King Louis XVI. One of the ways Louis XVI spent tax money was for his palace in Versailles where he would distract politicians with parties to keep his supreme power. Influenced by Enlightenment views as well as the success of the American revolution, the French citizens decided to overthrow the monarchy. The war ended when General Napoleon established himself as leader and a democracy was granted.
  • Period: to

    Haitian Revolution

    The Haitian revolution was the overthrow of French rule in Haiti by enslaved Africans who had been brought there. This is known as the largest ever slave rebellion as it ended French control in the country of Haiti and abolished slavery at the same time. Napoleon Bonaparte was in power in France during this revolution and Haiti was the wealthiest colony in the French empire. Haiti gained its independence in 1804, and the French made up for the loss by selling territory in the Louisiana Purchase.
  • Period: to

    Tanzimat Reforms

    The Tanzimat Reforms were many political and economical changes to modernize the Ottoman Empire. When the reforms first began in 1830 the Ottomans were behind in development and industrialization compared to Europe. The educational reforms allowed westernized training to be available to the military, and the development of more schools. Reforms were also made to modernize the traditional Islamic law that the empire followed. Although these reforms ended up failing as the empire fell in 1922.
  • Period: to

    Opium Wars

    The Opium Wars were two armed conflicts that occurred in China in the 19th century. The first war was fought against the British who began to sell addictive Opium to the Chinese in order to make a profit. The first opium war ended with the Treaty of Nanjing that gave all benefits to the U.K. A second war broke out against the British and French which China also lost. The major result of these conflicts were the opening of China to foreign trade and weakening of the Qing dynasty.
  • Period: to

    Taiping Rebellion

    The Taiping Rebellion was a civil war in China that attempted to abolish the Qing dynasty. It was caused by the Chinese government wanting to keep China isolated while Christians wanted to westernize the nation. The rebellion was successful and the Taiping rule led to many changes in Chinese government and society. The leaders ruled by the Old Testament, enforcing strict rules and prohibitions. Though Taiping rule eventually fell to Qing armies after causing the death of over 20 million people.
  • Period: to

    Sepoy Mutiny

    The Sepoy Mutiny was an attempted rebellion by native Indians to gain freedom from British rule, and was sparked by a variety of causes. The British were heavily influencing western ideals and Christianity in India, changing their native society. However it was offensive treatment to Muslims and Hindu soldiers in the military that set off the rebellion. The revolt turned out unsuccessful, and Britain replaced the East India Company with direct rule by the crown.
  • Period: to

    Meiji Revolution

    The Meiji Restoration ended the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan, and made changes to westernize the country. The leaders of this restoration disagreed with the isolation Japan was under during the edo period. Their goal was to open Japan back up with foreign relations and strengthen the country through development. A variety of reforms were introduced which changed Japanese society, culture, and government. By the end of this period, Japan had become much more industrialized and competitive.
  • Period: to

    Scramble for Africa

    As the desire to gain wealth and power grew in European nations, so did the need for imperialism. The scramble for Africa began as European countries raced to obtain land and authority in the continent. Social and economic issues arose in Europe causing poverty and unemployment and influenced nations to imperialize in attempt to make a profit. The scramble for Africa eventually led to the start of WW1 as European countries all competed to get more land and control.
  • Period: to

    Berlin Conference

    The Berlin Conference was a meeting of European powers to negotiate the partitioning of Africa. This meeting was called due to the growing colonization of Africa by European nations, that caused conflict and disputes. They formalized the Scramble for Africa by dividing up the continent amongst each other. This division has caused political/ethnic unrest and conflicts among African natives to this day. For Europe, it influenced the start of WW1 as conflict arose on the unfair division of Africa.