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Islam: The Reign of Power

  • Mar 29, 1289

    Creation of the Ottoman

    Creation of the Ottoman
    The warrior, Osman leads a Turkish clan and forms the beginning of the Ottoman Empire after Mongol control weakens. This muslim culture thrives because of its religious freedom, cultural alliances, expansive nature and prosperous economy.
  • Period: Mar 29, 1289 to

    Empire of The Ottoman

    The Ottoman Empire was one of the most powerful empires in history, known for its military prowess, multi-cultural make-up, and advances in art and architecture. At its height it encompassed most of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.
  • Mar 29, 1326

    Capture of Bursa!

    Capture of Bursa!
    The Siege of Bursa lasted eight years. Osman Bey built a fort and cut off Bursa’s link to the sea to conquer this Byzantine city. Busra was considered a turning point in the progression of the Ottoman Empire. At Osman Bey’s deathbed he was told of the victory at Bursa. At this point, his son Orhan became the new Ottoman sultan and named Bursa the new capital city.
  • Mar 29, 1352

    Seize of Fortress of Gallipoli

    Seize of Fortress of Gallipoli
    The Fortress of Gallipoli was the first Ottoman conquest in Europe. It was located on the Italian coastline and was used for strategic naval defense. This fortress was located in the City of Edirne which became the second capital of the Ottoman Empire. From this conquest, the empire would expand into Europe
  • Mar 29, 1451

    Reign of Mehmed II

    Reign of Mehmed II
    In 1451, Mehmed the Conquerer took reign as the Ottoman leader. He was the leader of the historic capture of Constantinople. He also laid the foundations for a tightly centralized, absolute monarchy and dominated everyone he battled. He completed conquests of multiple lands including Serbia, Greece.
  • Mar 29, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    Fall of Constantinople
    This Byzantine empire, once ruled by the mighty Romans would fall to Mehmed II after careful plans of isolating the capital both economically and militarily. With his population blockaded, Emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus surrendered to the Ottomans.
  • Mar 29, 1501

    Start of Safavid Empire

    Start of Safavid Empire
    What began as reaction against the betrayal of spiritual aspirations developed into a quest for dominion over Islamic authority. Esmail, the son of a slain military chieftan, ran a campaign which seized Tabriz and made this city his capital. He went on and conquered the rest of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Khorasan; The “Safavid’s” became the strongest force in Iran, and their leader, Esmail, was declared Shah in March 1502
  • Period: Mar 29, 1501 to

    Empire of the Safavid

  • Mar 29, 1512

    Reign of Selim the Grim

    Reign of Selim the Grim
    Selim the grim continued the expansion of the ottoman empire in the beginning of the 16th century. He held control of syria and Egypt untill his rule ended in 1520.
  • Mar 29, 1514

    The Battle of Chaldiran

    The Battle of Chaldiran
    The fundamental cause of the Persian war was religious antagonism ; it was a struggle between the great Sunnite and the great Shiite power. Selim I, The Grim, ordered the killing and imprisoning of Shah Esmail’s people. The Ottomans (Selim) were again successful, this time over the Safavid Empire at the Battle of Chaldiran.
  • Mar 29, 1520

    Suleyman the Magnificent Ascends Power

    Suleyman the Magnificent Ascends Power
    Suleyman was the son of Selim the Grim. He is credited for doubling the size of the Ottoman Empire during his reign. He was also responsible for judicial transformation and designing and building a comprehensive infrastructure.
  • Mar 29, 1521

    Capture of Belgrade

    Capture of Belgrade
    The capture of Belgrade was the first conquest of Suleyman I. In the following years, the city would serve as an important Ottoman passage to Europe.
  • Mar 29, 1523

    Reign of Zahir al-Din Muhammed

    Reign of Zahir al-Din Muhammed
    Zahir al-Din Muhammed, more commonly known as Babur, was descended from Genghis Khan and Timur. He was a military adventurer from central Asia and is credited with founding the Mughal Empire by expanding into southern Asia. He is responsible for expanding the Persian cultural influence.
  • Mar 29, 1524

    Reign of Tahmasp

    Reign of Tahmasp
    Shah Tahmasp was only ten when he ascended to the throne of the Safavid Empire in 1519. He succeeded Shah IsmaÕil, the founder of the Safavid Empire. At this point the young Shah left the maintenance of his Empire to his ministers, and instead turned his attention to the arts of the book initiating the production of the his Shahnamah. Tahmasp himself may have been a miniaturist of some talent, while his brothers were also interested in supporting miniature painting. Tahmasp also patronized numer
  • Mar 29, 1526

    Battle of Mohacs

    Battle of Mohacs
    Louis II of Hungary sent 50,000 men to fight against 1,000,000 Ottoman forces led by Suleyman. The Hungarians were crushed by the Ottomans and lost control of their land as well as their dynasty. This was one of the last holdouts of Christianity in Europe.
  • Mar 29, 1526

    Mughals capture Delhi

    Mughals capture Delhi
    Babur engaged Ibrahim Lodi in intense combat over landholdings in northern India. Although he had a much smaller army at times, Babur was capable of defeating Ibrahim. Babur's army sought out Ibrahim, killed him, and then his army soon fell. This allowed Babur to take Delhi, a signifcant city in Southern Asia.
  • Mar 29, 1526

    Start of Mughal Empire

    Start of Mughal Empire
    The Mughal Empire was an Indian/Hindu Islamic power founded by Babur. The empire lasted for 300 because of it’s religious tolerance, centralization of government, and respect for human rights
  • Period: Mar 29, 1526 to

    Empire of The Mughal

    The Mughal empire was one of the largest centralized states in pre-modern world history. It was founded in the early 1500s and by the end of the following century the Mughal emperor ruled almost the entire Indian subcontinent . The Mughal emperors displayed immense wealth and the ceremonies, music, poetry, and exquisitely executed paintings and objects of the imperial court created a distinctive aristocratic high culture.
  • Mar 29, 1529

    Siege of Vienna

    Siege of Vienna
    The Ottoman failure to capture Vienna in 1529 turned the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe, which had previously directly annexed Central Hungary and established a vassal state in Transylvania in the wake of the Battle of Mohács. According to Toynbee, "The failure of the first [siege of Vienna] brought to a standstill the tide of Ottoman conquest which had been flooding up the Danube Valley for a century past."[5]
  • Mar 29, 1534

    Conquest of Baghdad

    Conquest of Baghdad
    The Ottomans were a far greater military power, bringing a much larger army, along with artillery lacked by the Safavids. In 1514, they successfully defeated the Safavids in Iraq. In 1517, the Ottoman Turks defeated the Mamluks, taking over Syria and Egypt. They completed their conquest of Iraq by capturing Baghdad in 1534.
  • Mar 29, 1534

    Istfahan Declared Capital

    Istfahan Declared Capital
    The Golden Age of Esfahan arrived in the 16th century under Shah Abbas the Great, who conquered it and made it the new capital of the Safavid dynasty. During the reign of Shah Abbas I, who unified Persia, Esfahan reached its pinnacle. Esfahan had parks, libraries and mosques that amazed Europeans. In its heyday, Esfahan was one of the largest cities, with a population of over half a million.
  • Mar 29, 1556

    Reign of Akbar

    Reign of Akbar
    Akbar was only 14 years of age in 1556 when he succeeded his father Humayun. That year, a formidable anti-Mughal coalition, consisting mainly of Afghanis, tried to recapture northern India but lost its battle against the Mughals at Panipat. Mughal control over northern India was finally established. Akbar was an ambitious and noble commander who built the largest army ever in the history of the Mughal empire. Akbar's far-sighted policies also included the employment of talented Hindus in senior
  • Mar 29, 1564

    Syakh Ahmad Sirhindi

    Syakh Ahmad Sirhindi
    Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi was the Caller to Allah's presence. He was an Indian mystic and theologian who was largely responsible for the reassertion and revival in India of orthodox Sunnite Islam as a reaction against the syncretistic religious tendencies prevalent during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar.
  • Mar 29, 1580

    Creation of Divine Faith

    Creation of Divine Faith
    After an attempt by Jesuit priests to convert Akbar to Christianity, Akbar promulgated his Divine Faith (a rational and ethical mysticism without priests and books). Since the empire had only one head, he believed it also should have one set of religious laws for all. He encouraged monogamy, chastity, and restrictions on gambling and drinking. Disciples were to be devoted to Akbar and follow his rule of universal toleration for all religions.
  • Reign of Shah Abbas the Great

    Reign of Shah Abbas the Great
    In October 1588 he obtained possession of the Persian throne, by revolting against his father, Mohammad, and imprisoning him. He recognized the ineffectiveness of his army which was consistently being defeated by the Ottomans who had captured Georgia and Armenia and by Uzbeks who had captured Mashhad and Sistan in the east. He managed to sign a peace treaty with the Ottomans and then directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbeks. In 1592, he moved his capital from Qazvin to the more central
  • Abbas the Great makes Peace with the Turks

    Abbas the Great makes Peace with the Turks
    In October 1588 he obtained possession of the Persian throne, by revolting against his father, Mohammad, and imprisoning him. He recognized the ineffectiveness of his army which was consistently being defeated by the Ottomans who had captured Georgia and Armenia and by Uzbeks who had captured Mashhad and Sistan in the east. He managed to sign a peace treaty with the Ottomans and then directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbeks. In 1592, he moved his capital from Qazvin to the more central
  • Safavids Return Lost Land

    Safavids Return Lost Land
    With the Ottomans, distracted by wars with the Habsburg Monarchy in Europe, they fail to offer effective resistance against Abbas I. Abbas 1 defeats the Ottomans, winning back all the territory they had gained from earlier Safavid shahs. Abbas 1 even captured Baghdad. Emboldened by this success, and exploiting the internal turmoil within the Ottoman Empire following the murder of Sultan Osman II, Abbas resolved to attack the Ottoman possessions in Iraq. From there, Shah Abass took his army, an
  • Production of the Taj Mahal

    Production of the Taj Mahal
    Taj Mahal stands in the city of Agra, in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, on the banks of the Yamuna River. It was built as a mausoleum in the memory of the beautiful Arjumand Bano Begum, who won the heart of a Mughal prince. She was married at 21 to Emperor Jahangir’s third son Prince Khurram and stayed loyally by his side through good times and bad: in the luxurious royal palaces of Agra as well as the transient tents of war camps.
  • Reign of Aurangzeb

    Reign of Aurangzeb
    Aurangzeb's rise to the throne has been criticized as being ruthless. However, he was no crueler than others of his family. He succeeded not because he was crueler but because he was more efficient and more skilled in the game of statecraft. Once established, he showed himself a firm and capable administrator who retained his grip of power until his death at the age of 88. Toward the end of his reign he simply lost all sense of balance. He alienated a sizeable portion of his subjects along with
  • Istfahan is Lost

    Istfahan is Lost
    militaryAlthough there was a recovery with the reign of Shah Abbas II (1642-66), in general the Safavid Empire declined after the death of Shah Abbas. The decline resulted from weak rulers, the reemergence of qizilbash rivalries, excessive taxation, the decline of trade, and the weakening of Safavid military organization. (Both the qizilbash tribal military organization and the standing army composed of slave soliders were deteriorating). Once again the eastern frontiers began to be breached, and in 172
  • Shah Tahmasp II retakes Istfahan

    Shah Tahmasp II retakes Istfahan
  • Fall of Safavid Empire

    Fall of Safavid Empire
    Afsharid Safavid rule ended in civil war. Some consider that it ended with the death of Abbas III in 1736, making Nadir the founder of the Afsharid dynasty, while others date the end of Safavid rule to the death of Nader Shah in 1747. In 1722, Afghan forces entered Isfahan and forced Husayn to abdicate, putting an effective end to Safavid rule. The final blow came in 1736 when the Afshar Nadir, regent of young Abbas III, deposed him, becoming shah himself
  • Spread of

    Spread of
    The printing press press was much more efficient than manual copying, the Industrial Revolution allowed thousands of copies of a page in a single day. The success of printing meant that books soon became cheaper, and ever wider parts of the population could afford them. More than ever before, it enabled people to study materials and take part in discussions of matters that concerned them. As a consequence, the printed book also led to more stringent attempts at censorship. This was a sign that
  • Fall of Mughal Empire

    Fall of Mughal Empire
    The declining financial position of the Mughals, due to extravagance had become deplorable. During the time of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire had expanded to reach its maximum size. This vast area had become impossible for one ruler to control and govern from one center. Military invasions resulted in further weakening of the empire. The already weakened empire faced further encroachment by the British and the French. The army became weakend because the soldiers, instead of identifying and unit
  • Conclusion of The Empire of The Ottoman

    Conclusion of The Empire of The Ottoman
    ruling class One of the reasons for Ottoman economic decline was the inability of the ruling class to make a clear choice between war and capitalism. In summation, the fall of the Ottoman Empire was because of resistance to change. Economically, it could not compete through trade and had a failing economic structure. In any effort to modernize or reform the empire, the Sultan was always opposed by the powerful military and religious elite who did not want to lose their traditional powers. One of the most p