Timeline Unit 2 : 600CE-1450 CE- Mueggenborg

By HaideeD
  • 224

    Sassanid Empire

    224-651 CE
    Monarchy
    Last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty. One of the two main powers of Western Asia and Europe. Founded by Ardashir I. Lasted until Yazdegerd III lost control after a series of invasions from the Arab Caliphate. Iranian Empire. Established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. Islaminc Arab armies overthrew the empire.
  • 330

    Byzantine Empire

    330-1453 CE
    Autocracy
    Predominantly Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire. Centered in Constantinople and ruled by emperors. During its time it was one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe, especially during the Roman-Persia and Byzantine-Arab Wars. Recovered during Macedonian dynasty, rivaviling the Fatmid Caliphate. Later much of Asia Minor was lost to Seljuk Turks. Received mortal blow from the fourth crusade, divided into competing Byz Greek and Latin realms.
  • 330

    Constantinople

    330-1453 CE
    Was the imperial capital of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.
  • Apr 22, 632

    Split between sunni and shi'ite

    632 CE
    Occurred in the decades immediately following the death of the Prophet. Split occurred because of the religion conflict going on in Islam. Sunnis: consider the caliphs to be Imams. Shi'ite: regards Ali and his descendants as the legitimate successors to Muhammad and rejects the first three caliphs.
  • Apr 12, 651

    Sasanid Empire

    224-651 CE
    Monarchy
    Last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty. One of the two main powers of Western Asia and Europe. Founded by Ardashir I. Lasted until Yazdegerd III lost control after a series of invasions from the Arab Caliphate. Iranian Empire. Established Zoroastrianism as the state religion. Islaminc Arab armies overthrew the empire.
  • Apr 12, 661

    Umayyad Caliphate

    661-750
    Caliphate
    Firrst hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs. From their capital oat Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthorwn by the Abbasid Empire. After overthrowned they fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, which lasted until 1031.
  • Apr 22, 711

    Muslims invade Spain

    711 CE
    They acquired the rich lands of the south of Spain. The mid-section they plundered to create a base of support to protect the south. They never conquered the far north. Spain at that time was ruled by the Visigoths. They practiced Arianism. The population however, was not Visigoth but Iberian and practiced Roman Catholicism. happened due to a the expanding Muslim influence in the North of Africa and the weakened state of Visigothic Kingdom due to civil wars.
  • Apr 12, 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

    661-750
    Caliphate
    Firrst hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs. From their capital oat Damascus, the Umayyads ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthorwn by the Abbasid Empire. After overthrowned they fled across North Africa to Al-Andalus, where they established the Caliphate of Córdoba, which lasted until 1031.
  • Apr 12, 750

    Abbasid Caliphate

    750–1258\1513
    Caliphate
    Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al Abbas, the al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad. Slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. The caliphate also lost the Western provinces of Al Andalus, Maghreb and Ifriqiya to an Umayyad prince, the Aghlabids and the Fatimids, respectively.
  • Apr 20, 1071

    Seljuk Turks

    1071–1325
    Were a Turco-Persian Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. They established an empire, the Great Seljuq Empire. After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture adopting the Persian language as the official language of the government.
  • Apr 19, 1095

    Crusades

    1095-1204
    Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Eruorpe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political powers, some of the crusade expeditions were diverted from their original aim.
  • Apr 18, 1100

    Aztec Civilization

    1100 - 1521 CE
    Ethnic groups of central Mexico. Forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. Introduced a monarchical system similar to that found in more powerful neighboring states. Women held substatial power and excercised broad influence in Aztec society. Lower classes received some material rewards from imperial expansion but lost most of their ability to influence or control decisions. Organized labor of the calpolli and of additional laborers to expand agricultural land.
  • Apr 20, 1174

    Saladin

    1174–1193
    He was a Kurdish Muslim, who became the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria. He led Islamic opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant. At the height of his power, he ruled over Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Hejaz, and Yemen. He led the Muslims against the Crusaders and eventually recaptured Palestine from the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem after his victory in the Battle of Hattin. he became a celebrated example of the principles of chivalry.
  • Apr 20, 1193

    Saladin

    1174–1193 CE
    He was a Kurdish Muslim, who became the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria. He led Islamic opposition to the Franks and other European Crusaders in the Levant. At the height of his power, he ruled over Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, Hejaz, and Yemen. He led the Muslims against the Crusaders and eventually recaptured Palestine from the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem after his victory in the Battle of Hattin. he became a celebrated example of the principles of chivalry.
  • Apr 19, 1204

    Crusades

    1095-1204
    Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Eruorpe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. Because of internal conflicts among Christian kingdoms and political powers, some of the crusade expeditions were diverted from their original aim.
  • Apr 12, 1206

    Genghis Khan

    1206–1227 CE
    The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols. It means the "oceanic" or "universal" leader. He was the founder of the Mongol Empire. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons.
  • Apr 19, 1206

    Delhi Sultanate

    1206-1526 CE
    Monarchy
    Centralized Indian empire of barying extent, created by Muslim invaders. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to have enthroned one of the few female rulers in India, Razia Sultana (1236–1240). In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate was absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire.
  • Apr 20, 1206

    Mongol Invasions

    1206- 1324
    Mongol invasions progressed throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire which covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe by 1300. The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s. The territorial gains of the Mongols persisted into the 15th century in Persia and in Russia, and into the19th century in India.
  • Apr 20, 1215

    Magna Carta

    1215 CE
    The Maga Carta was the bill that the king of England was forced to sign in 1215. It made the king serve the people not the people serve the king. It eventually lead to representative government.
  • Apr 12, 1227

    Ghengis Khan

    1206–1227 CE
    The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols. It means the "oceanic" or "universal" leader. He was the founder of the Mongol Empire. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of northeast Asia. Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons.
  • Apr 22, 1230

    Mali Kingdom

    1230s–1600s CE
    Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteen to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-saharan gold trade.
  • Apr 22, 1235

    Ghana

    830-1235 CE
    First know kingdom in sub-saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteen centuries C.E. Also the modern West African county once know as the Gold Coast.
  • Apr 12, 1250

    Mamlucks

    1250-1517 CE
    Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of hte Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria. Over time, mamluks became a powerful military caste in various Muslim societies.
  • Apr 8, 1297

    Song Empire

    960-1279CE Monarchy
    First government to issue banknotes and first to establish a permanent standing navy. First use of gunpowder and compass.Diveded into two distinct periods: the Northen Song and Southern Song. The Northern controlled most of inner China and the Southern was after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. The Southern Song Empire contained 60% of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. Collapsed because of
  • Apr 20, 1324

    Mongol Invasions

    1206- 1324 CE
    Mongol invasions progressed throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire which covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe by 1300. The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe by the 1240s. The territorial gains of the Mongols persisted into the 15th century in Persia and in Russia, and into the19th century in India.
  • Apr 20, 1325

    Seljuk Turks

    1071–1325
    Were a Turco-Persian Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. They established an empire, the Great Seljuq Empire. After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture adopting the Persian language as the official language of the government.
  • Apr 11, 1332

    Mansa Musa

    1332-1337
    The tenth mansa, which translates as "king of kings" or "emperor", of the Malian Empire. Musa held many titles including Emir of Melle, Lord of the Mines of Wnagara, and conquereor of Ghanta, Futa-Jallon, and at least another dozen states. Wealthiest ruler of his day.
  • Apr 11, 1337

    Musa Mali

    1332-1337
    The tenth mansa, which translates as "king of kings" or "emperor", of the Malian Empire. Musa held many titles including Emir of Melle, Lord of the Mines of Wnagara, and conquereor of Ghanta, Futa-Jallon, and at least another dozen states. Wealthiest ruler of his day.
  • Apr 22, 1340

    Songhai Kingdom

    1340 – 1591CE
    A people, language, kingdom, and empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the sixteenth century, the muslim Songhai Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.
  • Apr 19, 1349

    Kievan Russia

    882–1349
    Monarchy
    State established at Kiev in Ukraine by Scandinavian adeventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population. The state existed from approximately 880 to sometime in the middle of the 13th century when it disintegrated. It is considered that the Mongol invasion.
  • Apr 11, 1370

    Timur

    1370-1405 CE
    Known as Tamerlane. Sought to restore the Mongol Empire; heaviest blow was against the Islamized Tatar Golden Horde. He was a memeber ot a prominent family of the Mogols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asian and Iran. He consolidated the statrus of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintaind his empire for nearly a century and founded the Mughal Empire in India
  • Apr 8, 1405

    Zheng He

    1405-1433 CE
    led seven expeditions to what the Chinese called "the Western Ocean" (Indian Ocean). Commanded voyages to Southeast Asiam, South Asia, the middle East, and East Africa. He brought back to China many trophies and envoys from more than thirty kingdoms. Last two voyages were destroyred by Ming emperor.
  • Apr 12, 1405

    Timur

    1370-1405 CE
    Known as Tamerlane. Sought to restore the Mongol Empire; heaviest blow was against the Islamized Tatar Golden Horde. He was a memeber ot a prominent family of the Mogols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asian and Iran. He consolidated the statrus of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintaind his empire for nearly a century and founded the Mughal Empire in India
  • Apr 11, 1433

    Zheng He

    1405-1433 CE
    led seven expeditions to what the Chinese called "the Western Ocean" (Indian Ocean). Commanded voyages to Southeast Asiam, South Asia, the middle East, and East Africa. He brought back to China many trophies and envoys from more than thirty kingdoms. Last two voyages were destroyred by Ming emperor.
  • Apr 18, 1440

    Gutenberg Press

    1440
  • Apr 18, 1453

    Byzantine Empire

    330-1453 CE
    Autocracy
    Predominantly Greek-speaking Eastern Roman Empire. Centered in Constantinople and ruled by emperors. During its time it was one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe, especially during the Roman-Persia and Byzantine-Arab Wars. Recovered during Macedonian dynasty, rivaviling the Fatmid Caliphate. Later much of Asia Minor was lost to Seljuk Turks. Received mortal blow from the fourth crusade, divided into competing Byz Greek and Latin realms.
  • Apr 20, 1453

    Constantinople

    330-1453 CE
    Was the imperial capital of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.
  • Apr 19, 1462

    Ivan III

    1462–1505
    Known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and "Grand Prince of all Rus". Tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde over the Rus, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. He was one of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in history.
  • Apr 18, 1483

    Inca Civilization-1453-1533

    Began as a tribe in the Cuzco area. Grew to absorb other Andrean communities. Split by a Civil War to decided who would be Inca Hanan and Inca Hunin. Spanish Conquistadores led by Francisco Pizzarro took advantage and conquered much of the Inca territory. The military phase of Inca liberation movements ended with the fall of resistance in Vilcabamba .Though indigenous sovereignty was lost, Inca cultural traditions remain strong in surviving indigenous descendants, such as the Quechua and Aymara
  • Apr 19, 1505

    Ivan III

    1462–1505
    Known as Ivan the Great, was a Grand Prince of Moscow and "Grand Prince of all Rus". Tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde over the Rus, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. He was one of the longest-reigning Russian rulers in history.
  • Apr 12, 1517

    Mamluck

    1250-1517 CE
    Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of hte Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria. Over time, mamluks became a powerful military caste in various Muslim societies.
  • Apr 22, 1521

    Aztec Civilization

    1100 - 1521 CE
    Ethnic groups of central Mexico. Forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. Introduced a monarchical system similar to that found in more powerful neighboring states. Women held substatial power and excercised broad influence in Aztec society. Lower classes received some material rewards from imperial expansion but lost most of their ability to influence or control decisions. Organized labor of the calpolli and of additional laborers to expand agricultural land.
  • Apr 19, 1526

    Delhi Sultanate

    1206-1526 CE
    Monarchy
    Centralized Indian empire of barying extent, created by Muslim invaders. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to have enthroned one of the few female rulers in India, Razia Sultana (1236–1240). In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate was absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire.
  • Apr 18, 1533

    Inca Civilization

    Began as a tribe in the Cuzco area. Grew to absorb other Andrean communities. Split by a Civil War to decided who would be Inca Hanan and Inca Hunin. Spanish Conquistadores led by Francisco Pizzarro took advantage and conquered much of the Inca territory. The military phase of Inca liberation movements ended with the fall of resistance in Vilcabamba .Though indigenous sovereignty was lost, Inca cultural traditions remain strong in surviving indigenous descendants, such as the Quechua and Aymara
  • Songhai Kingdom

    1340 – 1591CE
    A people, language, kingdom, and empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the sixteenth century, the muslim Songhai Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.
  • Mali

    1230s–1600s CE
    Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteen to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-saharan gold trade.
  • Establishment of Holy Roman Empire

    962–1806 CE
    Was a realm that existed for about a millennium in Central Europe, ruled by a Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes. In its last centuries, its character became quite close to a union of territories.
  • Foundation of Islam

    1973
    Established in 1973 in the city of Leicester, is a centre for education, training, research and publication of issues related to Islam. The Foundation seeks to build bridges between Muslims and others. The organisation was founded by Khurshid Ahmad.
  • Ming Empire

    1368-1644CE
    Monarchy
  • Hundred Years War

    1337-1453
    Series of campaings over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. The final outcome was a victory for the house of Valois, which succeeded in recovering early gains made by the Plantagenets and expelling them from the majority of France by the 1450s. However, the war nearly ruined the Valois, while the Plantagenets enriched themselves with plunder. France suffered greatly from the war.
  • Sui Empire

    581-618 CE:
    Dynasty unified China. It was founded by Emperor Wen of Sui. The construction of the Grand Canal was built. Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various reforms to reduce the social gap between the rich and poor. The Great Wall of China was expanded during this time and Buddhism was began to spread. Collapsed because of popular revolts, disloyalty, and assassination
  • Sui Empire

    581-618 CE:
    Dynasty unified China. It was founded by Emperor Wen of Sui. The construction of the Grand Canal was built. Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various reforms to reduce the social gap between the rich and poor. The Great Wall of China was expanded during this time and Buddhism was began to spread. Collapsed because of popular revolts, disloyalty, and assassination
  • Tang Dynasty

    618-907CE
    Moarchy
    Founded by Li family. Period of progress and stability. Maintained a civil service system by dating officials. Chinese culture flourished. Woodblock printing was developed. Buddhism became a major religion. Greatest age for Chinese poetry. A shi Rebellion destroyed the prosperity of the empire and led to its collapse.
  • Tang Dynasty

    618-907CE
    Moarchy
    Founded by Li family. Period of progress and stability. Maintained a civil service system by dating officials. Chinese culture flourished. Woodblock printing was developed. Buddhism became a major religion. Greatest age for Chinese poetry. A shi Rebellion destroyed the prosperity of the empire and led to its collapse.
  • Song Empire

    960-1279CE Monarchy
    First government to issue banknotes and first to establish a permanent standing navy. First use of gunpowder and compass.Diveded into two distinct periods: the Northen Song and Southern Song. The Northern controlled most of inner China and the Southern was after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. The Southern Song Empire contained 60% of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. Collapsed because of
  • Charlemagne

    768–814
    King of the Franks; emperor (800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival.
  • Charlemagne

    768–814
    King of the Franks; emperor (800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival.
  • Kievan Russia

    882–1349
    Monarchy
    State established at Kiev in Ukraine by Scandinavian adeventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population. The state existed from approximately 880 to sometime in the middle of the 13th century when it disintegrated. It is considered that the Mongol invasion.
  • Ghana

    830-1235 CE
    First know kingdom in sub-saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteen centuries C.E. Also the modern West African county once know as the Gold Coast.
  • Establishment of Holy Roman Empire

    962–1806 CE
    Was a realm that existed for about a millennium in Central Europe, ruled by a Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes. In its last centuries, its character became quite close to a union of territories.