Timeline Project: Unit 2 Mueggenborg

By RonV
  • Period: 224 to Apr 8, 651

    Sasanid Empire

    The last Iranian Empire before the Muslim Conquest.
    Considerable influence/interactions with the Roman/Byzantine Empire.
    Era considered most important historical period.
    Fell to the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • Period: 250 to

    Maya Civilization

    Created the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas.
    Independently developed the concept of zero.
    Created incredibly accurate calendars, far more superior to their European counterparts.
    Practiced Human Sacrifice.
  • Period: 306 to Apr 12, 1453


    Imperial City to the roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Latin Empire, and Ottoman Empire.
    One of the wealthiest cities throughout the entirety of the Middle Ages.
    The Sack of Constantinople during the Crusades led to the destruction of many invaluable artifacts and scripts.
    Constantinople fell during the Ottoman siege of the city, and it was renamed Istanbul.
  • Period: 330 to Apr 12, 1453

    Byzantine Empire

    The Eastern portion of the Roman Empire after the split of the east and west.
    Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
    Empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453, after the fall of Constantinople.
    The Siege of Constantinople during the 4th Crusade was a big contributor to the empire's downfall, as it never truly recovered from the economic damage.
  • Apr 8, 610

    Foundation of Islam

    According to a traditionalist Muslim view, the Qur'an (the book of Islam) began with the Prophet Muhammad's Divine Revelations. The verses of the Qur'an were written down and memorized during his lifetime.
  • Apr 8, 632

    Split between Sunni and Shi'ite (Shia)

    Muhammad's death in AD 632 led to disagreement over who should succeed him as leader of the Muslim community, Abu Bakr, or Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib. Those who supported Abu Bakr's election became the Sunnis, and those who believed Ali was the true successor became the Shias.
  • Period: Apr 8, 661 to Apr 8, 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

    Umayyads transformed the caliphate from a religious institution to a dynastic one.
    Invaded and occupied the majority of Spain.
    One of the largest Empires ever recorded in ancient history.
    2nd major Caliphate after the death of Muhammad.
  • Period: Apr 8, 711 to Apr 8, 722

    Muslim Conquest of Spain

    The Umayyad Caliphate reached it's widest extent, and retained control over all of the Iberian Peninsula, all the way into southern France.
    Control over the peninsula ended after the Christian Reconquista.
    Muslim rule ended in 1492, with the Treaty of Granada.
    After loss of power in the Ummayad Caliphate, the Caliphate of Cordoba was founded in Spain, however it lasted for a relatively short time.
  • Period: Apr 9, 750 to Apr 9, 1513

    Abbasid Caliphate

    3rd Islamic Caliphate
    Created the mamluk warrior class, who led to the later downfall of the Empire.
    Rule was briefly ended for three years in 1258, when Hulagu Khan sacked Baghdad.
    Rule resumed in Mamluk Egypt in 1261, where they continued to have religious importance until power was transferred to the Ottomans and the capital relocated to Constantinople in 1519.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1045 to Apr 8, 1505


    Campaigns of religious motivation to bring Christian conrtol of the Holy Land.
    Fought mainly by Roman Catholics v. Muslims.
    Also an attempt to prevent Muslim expansion.
    9 Crusades in total.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1071 to Apr 8, 1325

    Seljuk Turks

    Target of the 1st Crusade.
    Also involved in the 2nd Crusade.
    Vital in the exportation, assimilation, and development of Turko-Persian culture.
    Forerunners to the Ottoman Empire.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1174 to Apr 8, 1193


    Important figure during the Muslim war against the European Crusaders.
    The Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and Syria,
    At the height of his power, he controlled Mesopotamia, Hejaz, and Yemen.
    Recaptured Palestine from the Crusaders.
    Well respected individual, even among the Christians.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1200 to Apr 8, 1573

    Inca Civilization

    The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
    Split by a civil war between the brothers Huascar and Atahualpa.
    Conquered by Spanish Conquistadores led by Francisco Pizarro in 1533.
    Remarkable architecture: Machu Picchu.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1206 to Apr 8, 1324

    Mogol Conquests

    Began with the efforts of Genghis Khan.
    Saw the sacking of Baghdad during the Battle of Baghdad.
    Destroyed Kievan Russia.
    Eventually led to the fall of the Mongol Empire.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1206 to Apr 8, 1324

    Genshgis Khan

    Founder, and ruler of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
    Started the Mongol Invasions.
    Promoted religious tolerance through out his empire.
    Decreed the adoption Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1206 to Apr 8, 1527

    Delhi Sultanate

    Five short-lived Islamic kingdoms or sultanates of Turkic origin in medieval India, started by the Mamluks.
    Replaced by the Mughal dynasty.
    Ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance.
    Repeatedly defeated the Mongol Empire.
  • Apr 8, 1215

    Magna Carta

    Limited the power of the King of England.
    First document forced onto an English King by a group of his subjects.
    Served as an important part of the long historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law in the English speaking world.
    Inspired later constitutional documents, such as the United States Constitution.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1247 to Apr 8, 1521

    Aztec Civilization

    A tribute empire based in Tenochtitlan.
    The empire reached its maximal extent in 1519 just prior to the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors, touching the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean and Reaching as far south as Guatemala.
    Were conquered by Hernan Cortes and his army of native allies and Spanish Conquistadors.
    Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was the biggest city in the world at the time, second only to Constantinople.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1250 to Apr 8, 1517


    A soldier of slave origin in Muslim societies.
    Became a powerful military caste, particularly in Egypt.
    eized the sultanate for themselves in Egypt and Syria in a period known as the Mamluk Sultanate.
    Fought back and beat the Mongols and the Crusaders.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1300 to


    A cultural movement that began in northern Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spread to the rest of Europe.
    Marks the transition between the Middle Ages and the Modern Era.
    Dest known for its artistic developments and the contributions of indivduals such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.
    Essentially the rebirth of intellectual development in an otherwise stagnant setting.
    The Bubonic Plague.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1312 to Apr 8, 1337

    Mansa Musa

    The tenth mansa (king) of the Malian Empire.
    Considered the wealthiest person of his time period.
    A devote Muslim, and encouraged the spread of islam within his Empire.
    Directly controlled the value of gold in the Mediterranean (only man in history to do so).
  • Period: Apr 8, 1337 to Apr 8, 1453

    Hundred Years War

    A series of wars waged by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet for the French throne.
    Saw the appearance/participation of Joan de Arc.
    Ended in Valois victory and control over the French throne, however they had simultaneously financially ruined themselves.
    Viewed as one of the most significant conflicts in the history of medieval warfare.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1340 to

    Songhai Kingdoms

    One of the largest Islamic empires in history.
    Came from the demise of the Mali Empire.
    The largest African Empire.
    Had fallen due to civil war and involvement of the Saadi Dynasty, eventually splitting into smaller kingdoms.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1368 to

    Ming Empire

    Last Dynasty Ruled by the Hans.
    Saw the restoration of the Grand Canal, Great Wall, and establishment of the Forbidden City.
    Probably the most stable (economically and socially) period in prior Chinese history.
    Fell due to economic collapse after giant diminish of silver influx, which had come to replace it's banknote/copper system.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1370 to Apr 8, 1405


    14th century conqueror of Western, South and Central Asia, founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty.
    Sought to restore the Mongol Empire, though he caused much damage to many Mongol Factions (ex. Tatar Golden Horde).
    Essentially destroyed the Christian Church in Asia.
    Defeated Ottoman Sultan Bayezid, aiding European resistance of Ottoman invasion.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1371 to Apr 8, 1435

    Zheng He

    A Hui-Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa for fthe Ming Dynasty.
    Collected many treasures during his expeditions.
    Was temporarily prevented from conducting his expeditions during the reign of the Hongxi Emperor.
    Died on his ships final voyage.
  • Apr 8, 1440

    Gutenberg Press

    1st to make type from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, which made a durable type that produced high-quality printed books and provided superior printing than all other known materials.
    Started printing revolution.
    Used moveable components.
    Made replication of consistent documents efficient and quick.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1462 to Apr 8, 1505

    Ivan III

    Substantially increased size of Russian territory.
    Removed the Golden Horde from Russia.
    Laid the foundation of the Russian State.
    Grand Prince of Russia/Moscow
  • Establishment of the Holy Roman Empire

    A realm that existed for about a millennium in Central Europe, ruled by a Holy Roman Emperor, a title given only to a German King who has also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope. Charlemagne is considered the forerunner of the title, with Otto the Great being considered the 1st Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Period: to

    Sui Empire

    Reunification of Northern and Southern China.
    Building of the Grand Canal.
    Standardized Coinage and introduced standardized examination in order to enter civil service.
    Massive spread of Buddhism.
  • Period: to

    Tang Empire

    A high point in Chinese civilization, possibly surpassing the success of the Han Dynasty.
    Relatively stable period, with exception to the An Shi Rebellion.
    Development of Woodblock printing.
    Ended by usurping of the throne by military governor Zhu Wen.
  • Period: to Apr 8, 1279

    Song Empire

    It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money.
    First known use of gunpowder, as well as first discernment of true north using a compass.
    First Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy.
    Saw the invention of movable type.
  • Period: to


    King of Franks and Emperor of Romans.
    United most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans.
    Regarded as the Founding Father of Europe, due to his participation in the creation of a defined cultural identity.
    Aided in the Reconquista of Spain.
  • Period: to Apr 8, 1344

    Kievan Russia

    Disintigration of the Medieval sate possibly due to Mongol Invasion.
    Saw the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda.
    Period contained the rules of Vladimir the Great and his son Yaroslav I the Wise.
    Period in which Christianity became the official state religion.