Timeline Chapter 17

Timeline created by annthebest
In History
  • Period:
    632
    to

    Sufism

    A mystical form of Islam where adherents follow a set of specified practices, often involving meditation and rhythmic movement, in attempt to be closer to God. Sufis pay great respect to the leaders of their brotherhoods even after death, often erecting shrines, which they visit as saints' tombs. Played a important role in the spread of Islam beyond Arab and facilitating converts' incorporation of local shrines and beliefs into their newly adopted universal religion. Can be seen today.
  • Period:
    1200
    to

    Habsburg Dynasty

    Powerful ruling house that expanded from Austria to Spain, the Netherlands, and the Spanish empire, as well as throughout the German speaking world when Charles V (1516-1556) was Holy Roman emperor. Originally from central Europe, it aspired to create a pan-European Catholic empire and conflict with the Ottmans. During this time, there was a rise of Protestant England and competition from the Catholic kings of France. It dominated during mid-17th with a central European empire ruled from Vienna.
  • 1453

    Capture of Constantinople

    Capture of Constantinople
    The Ottomans overthrew the city of Constantinople which expanded their empire's great power status and facilitated their further expansion into southeastern Europe. They remained in power in Europe, North Africa, and the Arab lands southeast of Anatolia. It's significant because it's a major loss for Christianity and led to the expansion of Islam since the Ottomans were Muslim.
  • Period:
    1453
    to

    Ottoman Empire

    Constantinople was full of people with different ethnic and religion. In addition to their land, the Ottomans added Palestine, Syria, Arabia, Iraq and majority of Hungary to their domain in the 17th century. The Ottoman government was very enduring and the Ottomans were Sunni Muslims (unlike the Shi'ites from the Safavids) and spoke Turkish. The sultan's palace in Sublime Porte was center of political power where monumental buildings had a religious focus (the Hagia Sophia turned into a mosque).
  • 1492

    The Ashkenazim Community

    The Ashkenazim Community
    The Ashkenazim were the largest group made of Jews that spoke German and Hebrew influenced languages with Slavic words and Yiddish. They settled in central and Eastern Europe, most of them being peasants from Russia. Nonetheless, they were hated and assassinated by the Christians and were considered as an outcast, forcing them to isolate themselves. Yet, this allowed them to create a unique culture in their music, food, stories, and maintain their language.
  • Period:
    1500
    to

    Janissaries

    The Janissaries were an elite corps of slaves trained as professional soldiers in the Ottoman military. Janissary soldiers were Christian youths from the Balkans who were pressed into service and forces to convert to Islam. They played a central role in administration and military as they learned to use gunpowder weapons and the Ottomans began to rely on them (they had access to them as they took over Balkan and was near them) as a need for more soldiers.
  • Period:
    1500
    to

    Russian Empire

    The Slavic-speaking Russian people were deeply influenced by Greek-speaking Byzantium, such as the monastic tradition of Orthodox Christianity and the title of tsar ("Caesar") which asserted continuity with Byzantine emperors who had been the standard bearers of Orthodox faith. The Russian Empire is significant because it demonstrated the continuity of Byzantine culture (such as their religion-Christianity) in the Russian Empire.
  • Period:
    1501
    to

    Safavid Dynasty

    The Safavid Dynasty established the Shi'ite Islam as the state religion in Iran and challenged the Ottoman empire. Though they fell to the Central Asian invaders in early 18ths century. The dynasty is important as they conquered many Persian-speaking land and expanded west. They conquered Baghdad and Basra and imposed Shi'ite beliefs on people including Sunni Muslims and followers of the Zoroastrian faith. The Dynasty's capital was Isfahan (a showcase of Persian architecture and art.)
  • Period:
    1509
    to
    1564

    John Calvin

    A protestant leader whose followers emphasized individual scriptural study and the absolute sovereignity of God. He said that the salvation of a person lay entirely with God. He had attempted to take down the Dutch resistance but the struggle was never resolved. Until they signed a treaty that led to the effctive independence of the Dutch, and in this the Dutch East India Company emerged. He also sent a great naval army to invade Rngland, but they lost.
  • Period:
    1519
    to

    Habsburgs: Charles I

    Habsburgs domain central Europe. Charles I was the greatest of the Habsburg monarchs, who ruled Spain and some parts of Europe. In 1520, the pope crowned him as the Holy Roman Emperor, He became the principal defender of the Catholic faith. The Ottoman Turks challenged the Habsburgs in eastern Europe and the Mediterranean. Charles had become the Holy Roman emperor just as Martin Luther was challenging the church, so he gave up his attempt to impose Catholicism within their own territories.
  • Period:
    1520
    to
    1566

    Suleyman

    Suleyman developed much of literature, art, archtecture, and law and policies toward religious minorities. He extended the Ottoman Empire while maintaining economic and political stability. He was a master strategist and strong military leader who devised an administrative system that reconciled central authority with local autonomy. He was especially known for bringing peace and stability to the realm and being very tolerant to other religions.
  • Period:
    1533
    to

    Tsar Ivan IV

    This Russian ruler centralized power in his own hands while extending Russia's frontiers. His strategy of maintaining a large territorial buffer around the core Russian lands to protect them from invasion became a perennial element of Russian imperial policy. He was significant because of his accomplishments that allowed the Russian empire to expand, created centrally controlled government, and reshaped the history of Russia, though he gained the nickname of "Ivan the Terrible" for his cruelty.
  • 1534

    Capture of Baghdad

    Capture of Baghdad
    The capture of Baghdad restored Sunni authority over Arab society since Arabs were divided into Sunni and Shiites. This allowed the Ottomans to access Islam's holy pilgramage sites since they dominated Red Sea. They got rich as they conquered many land such as North Africa (Nile River), Hungarian plains, and dominated rich commerce of the Black Sea
  • Period:
    1556
    to

    Philip II

    Son of Charles V and king of Spain. Considered himself as a defender of Catholicism, Philip launched attacks on Protestants in England and the Netherlands. He rules over a magnificient court in Madrid, the Spanish empire in the Americas, and the Philippines. He increased much the taxes and used military to impose Catholicism. There was even a rebellion in 1568 of Spanish moriscos, Arabic-speaking Iberians, for they did not want to convert to Christianity.
  • Period:
    1569
    to

    Puritans

    The Puritans were reformers of the Church of England who attempted to purge Catholic influence and were Calvinists who emphasized Bible reading, simplicity and modesty, and the rejection of priestly authority and elaborate rituals. As a result of these reforms, people began interpreting the Bible for themselves and having their own opinions and thoughts instead of letting the church control them. This also led to the rise of literacy and learning since Puritans emphasized reading the Bible.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    It began as an anti-Protestant conspiracy led by the mother of the French king. The assassinations of many Huguenot leaders followed by many assaults on Protestants that began in Paris, spreading across the country. Thousands of Huguenots were killed and it crippled the Protestants community. This kept continuing as Edict of Nantes granted limited toleration of Protestant worship within a specific group of cities.
  • Period: to

    Abbas I

    A Safavid ruler who created a long and stable reign, beautified Isfahan, promoted foreign trade, and repelled Ottoman invaders. Under his rule, Iranian culture spread both east and west. Economy boomed with irrigation works supporting agriculture, extensive markets for handicrafts, and pilgrim trade servicing visitors to holy sites of Shi'ite Islam. He invited many European merchants and diplomatic representatives to Isfahan to have them as their ally against the Ottomans.
  • Period: to

    Oliver Cromwell

    Oliver Cromwell was a Puritan leader who organized the opposition to the king's forces, which included stabling their horses inside Anglican cathedrals, smashing statues, and knocking out stained-glass windows. This was during the English Civil War that led to the replacement of the English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England (with Cromwell as the Lord Protector), the initiation of a series of radical reforms which significantly affected the development of England.
  • Period: to

    Evliya Çelebi

    The most famous of Ottoman travelers; his writings contain rich portraits of his own society as well as those he visisted in Europe, Iran, Arabia, and North Africa. He wrote the competition between Ottomans and Safavids in his book "Book of Travels" because both wanted the same geographic islamic locations. He is important as he showed how societies and described their contrasting beliefs and faiths as they clashed against each other through not only his experience but from accounts of others.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    Series of wars fought by Europeans powers on German-speaking lands. It began because of a compettition between the Catholic and Lutheran rulers and was complicated by Europe's powers. Many people from the rural population died from famine and diseases. Finally the Peace of Westphalia, signed in 1648, recognized a permanent division between Catholic and Protestant Germany.
  • Period: to

    Stuart King Charles I

    Charles I pursued war with Spain and supported Huguenot rebels in France. He even tried to disband the Parliament but since he was desperate for money, he reconvened them. As a result of his rule, tensions exploded and the people of London reacted with violence as multiple attempts to abolish the Anglican ecclesiastical hierarchy failed. Thus, the English Civil War (1642-1649) began and weakened the nation.
  • Period: to

    The English Civil War

    With Oliver Cromwell as the leader, the Puritan soldiers won the civil war after 7 years, and the king is captured and beheaded in 1649. Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth and instituted a series of radical reforms even though it was only held together by his will and army. The English Civil War not only affected and replaced their government but improved their army as well (technological change!!).
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV

    Also, known as the Sun King, he epitomized royal absolutism and established firm control over the French state. He aggressively pursued military domination of Europe while patronizing French arts from his court at Versailles. His court rivaled Contantinople's Sublime Porte in luxury. He wanted to weaken Spain and Austria and position France as the world's dominant Catholic power. He was significant because he brought the French monarchy to its peak of absolute power (royal absolutism).
  • Period: to

    Safavid Collapse and Ottoman Persistance

    After the death of Shah Abbas in 1629, the quality of Iranian leadership declined. With their economy and military weakening, the Safavids were vulnerable. So, Afghan invaders came to Isfahan in 1722 and left it in ruins. Unlike Safavid Iran, where quality of Shah's character was determining factor, Ottoman administrative reforms had strong instiutions for civilian and military affairs. Instead of expanding, they started to defend more (lay siege in Vienna 1683 and Austrian in 1739).
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
    As a result of Louis XIV revoking the Edict of Nantes, which granted Protestants substantial rights in France and promoted civil unity, he emphasized the Catholic nature of his kingdom. Thousands of French Protestants fled to England, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Cape Town in South Africa. This led to the weakening of Spain and Austria and the positioning of France as the world's dominant Catholic power. This separated people with differing religions.
  • Period: to

    Peter the Great

    Tsar Peter the Great, who came back from Europe, noticed Russia was behind in technology+science so he gained greater power for himself by bringing nobles more tightly under control. With Western models, he ordered Russian aristocrats to shave off their beards (or else tax) and dress in the latest Western fashion. He built St. Petersburg with elegant buildings that reflected Central Asian architecture, showing that his rule led to cultural exchange as well as political and technological changes.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    This was when the Parliament took charge to make sure that the English Monarch--the head of the Church of England--would stay Protestant. So, they drove the last Stuart king out and appointed a reliably Protestant princess and her Dutch husband to take his place. As a result, Queen Mary and King William became permanent Protestant characters of the English monarchy (very important for the continuity of Protestantism in England). This revolution also required them to do annual parliamentary meets
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights was recognized by Queen Mary and King William, protecting the rights of their subjects against arbitrary seizure of person or property and requiring annual meetings of Parliament. However, English Catholics still had restrictions and substantial disabilities, while most people had no voice in governance. Still, the Bill of Rights established important precedents, including freedom of speech in the Parliament (right to trial by jury), for not only England but the world.
  • The Founding of the Bank of England

    The Founding of the Bank of England
    Due to most African and Asian rulers being wealthier than most European territories, the British were determined to create new Dutch innovations to flourish as well. Thus, the Bank of England was created to help the government strengthen their navy and expand their economy with fair prices to build equipments. In addition, Britain depended on maritime trade and with the bank's fundraising, they were able to expand and be enriched by slave-based sugar plantations.
  • Prussia

    Prussia
    Because of the Thirty Years' War, Prussia flourished in northern Germany, a protestant-dominated region. Its capital was located in Berlin and was ruled by King Frederick William I. With this, he focused on military innovations and the army, not allowing the middle class to have political influence. This created absolute monarchy, and their organized taxing system helped the king control the peasants and be the rising power of Germany in the 18th century.