Luther nailed his devastating critique of the Indulgences to the door of the University in Wittenberg.
The Tyndale Bible
William Tyndale translated the New Testament (the bible) into English.
Act in Restraint of Appeals
This Act gave the King the legal power to annul marriages (and marry Anne Boleyn)
Act of Supremacy
The king was made “Supreme Head of the Church of England" and that is when the schism happened. The King’s Great Matter had led England to break from the Roman Catholic Church!
Period: 1547 to 1553
Edward VI's reign
He was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
The publication of the Book of Common Prayer
The protestant Revision of the mass-book, led to the publication of the Book of Common Prayer.
Period: 1553 to 1558
Mary I's reign
She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. And the first Queen regnant.
Period: 1555 to 1558
She restored Catholicism in 18 months. Protestants were burned:200 Protestants went to the stake.
Period: 1558 to
She had to appease religious tensions after 25 years of religious
The Act of Supremacy
She became “Supreme Governor of the Church of England”.
Period: 1563 to 1571
The 39 articles of faith
Anew conception of the church was brought which retained Catholic features and adopted new Protestant ones.
The Pope excommunicated Elizabeth
Pope Pius V issued the papal bull “Regnans in
Excelsis” which excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I.
The Babington plot
Young Catholics wanted to kill Elizabeth and put Mary
Stuart on the throne but their strategies were discovered.
The execution of Mary Queen of Scots
Mary Queen of Scots was convicted for complicity and sentenced to death.
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
The King of Spain attempted to invade England but failed.
James I's reign
He was the son of Mary Queen of Scots (who had been executed by Elizabeth).
The GUNPOWDER PLOT
A conspiracy devised by a small group of Catholics to blow up Parliament and kill James I.
The GREAT CONTRACT
The King could've received a fixed sum from the Parliament but the Parliament refused because it would have made him "financially independent" : James dismissed Parliament.
Thirty Years' war
England at war with Spain and France which led to a huge strain on finances and impacts on the local population.
Charles I's reign
Petition of Rights
The Parliament requested the King to recognise his wrongdoings but the King declared the adjournment of the session. The Members of Parliament did not let the Speaker of the House put an end to the discussion
The Parliament declared that whoever tried to bring in “Popery or Arminianism” was an enemy of the Kingdom
as well as anyone advising the King to collect custom duties without Parliament’s consent
The Personal Rule
The King ruled without calling a parliament for 11 years after the Parliament had commited an act of open defiance.
The Scottish crisis
The introduction of the New Prayer Book set Scotland aflame as they were calvinist. The changes were deemed unacceptable. It led to a riot which turned into a widespread rebellion known as the Bishops’ Wars.
The Irish Rebellion
An armed revolt broke out in Ireland because James I had implemented a plantation policy which consisted of sending English and Scottish protestant colonists to Ireland, taking the lands of Irish Catholics.
Charles I marched into the House of Commons with troops
Charles I believed that John Pym and 4 other MPs were plotting against the Queen. He then formally declared war on Parliament.
The First Civil War
The King and the Royalists surrendered.
The Second Civil War
The Second Civil War was made of a series of revolts in the South of England, Wales and Scotland.
England was declared a Commonwealth
Monarchy and House of Lords abolished.
Between 2 reigns.
Charles II's reign
He was proclaimed king of Scotland after his father’s execution.
King Charles I's execution
The end of the Commonwealth
Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament and started the Protectorate.
The Instrument of Government
England’s first and only written constitution.
The Cromwellian Protectorate
The Protectorate was a MILITARY DICTATORSHIP, similar to a monarchy without a King.
This led to a period of Anarchy.
The Declaration of Breda.
Charles made promises to return to monarchy.
The early restoration of monarchy
The outbreak of Plague
The Great Fire of London
Charles II's death
The Glorious Revolution
The King’s son in law invaded England and seized the crown.
The Bill of Rights
It limited the monarch’s power for the first time.
Act of Union between England and Scotland
A single kingdom commposed of England, the Wales and Scotland.