Battle of marston moor, 1644

The stuarts, the civil war and the commonwealth

  • James VI & I

    James VI & I
    The True Law of Free Monarchies.
  • James VI & I

    James VI & I
    Basilikon Doron.
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    Early Stuart Politics

  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    Some members of the Catholic opposition started plotting against James I to put a Catholic monarch on the throne. The attack they planned finally failed so that day is now named "remember, remember the 5th of November gunpowder".
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    James VI & I rules without Parliament

    James VI and I believed in absolute monarchy, they tried to avoid parliamentary interference.
  • King James Bible

    King James Bible
    King James "made" his version to have more uniformity in the English Bible.
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    Puritans emigration from England

    Puritans migrated to the colonies to purify the church of England, which created tensions over time.
  • Petition of Right

    Petition of Right
    Under Charles I there is a rising of tensions between the Crown and the Parliament because the Crown wanted the support of the Parliament but the Parliament expected more power in return.
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    Charles I rules without Parliament

    Charles I believed in absolute monarchy but wanted to reign without parliament. “Eleven Years of Tyranny”.
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    Personal Rule of Charles I

  • Book of Common Prayer

    Book of Common Prayer
    Charles I and William Laud are Arminians who wanted to change the Kirk.
  • Scottish elite issue “The Covenant”

  • Abolition of episcopacy in the Kirk

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    Bishops’ War

  • Covenanters challenge the power of the king

  • Charles forced to summon Parliament

    • April-May 1640 – “Short Parliament”
    • September 1640-1660 – “Long Parliament”
  • Rebellion

    Massacres of English Protestants.
    Longer-term causes:
    - Loss of economic and political power
    - Religious tensions
  • Breakdown of relations between Charles and Parliament

    • 1 December 1641: Grand Remonstrance
    • January 1642: King tries to have 5 leading MPs arrested
    • 22 August 1642: Charles raises his standard at Nottingham
  • Grand Remonstrance

    Increasing polarization, the Parliament tries to get concessions from an unwilling king.
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    War in Ireland, England, and Scotland

    • Ireland:
    - Confederation of Kilkenny
    - 1643 – truce b/w Confederation and Charles’s forces
    • England:
    - Extremely deadly conflict (“80 000 killed in the fighting, 100 000 died of war-related causes”) + divided population
    - Parliament develops its own powers:
    --> Finances
    --> New Model Army (1645)
    • Scotland:
    - Increased marginalization of the Covenanters
    - Tensions between England’s Parliament and the Scots
    - 1646: the King surrenders to the Scots
  • Putney Debates

  • ”Engagement”

    Secret negotiations between Charles and some Scottish lords.
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    Second Civil War

    “Pride’s Purge”: New Model Army takeover.
    • 5 December: Parliament decides to settle with Charles
    • 6 December: Col. Thomas Pride arrests/exclude MPs who voted to settle.
  • Execution of Charles I

    Execution of Charles I
    Charles I got executed in 1649 because he sought to govern without Parliament, favored Arminianism and was seen as too close to Catholicism. He also opposed the Presbyterianism of the Kirk.
  • Charles I on trial

    He refuses to plead. Executed on January 30.
  • Abolition of the monarchy and the House of Lords.

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    The Occupation of Scotland

    • Strong support for the Stuarts (Engagement and after)
    • Resistance to Commonwealth (up to 1655)
    • Military occupation of Scotland
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    The Conquest of Ireland

    • Alliance against the Commonwealth --> Cromwell sends 12000 troops: massacres at Wexford & Drogheda.
    • Shift in economic and political power: new Protestant
  • Dissolving of the Parliament

    Cromwell dissolves Parliament and becomes “Lord Protector”.
  • The Instrument of Government

    The Instrument of Government
    Attempt at reforming the Constitution.
  • The Humble Petition and Advice

    The Humble Petition and Advice
    Attempt at reforming the Constitution.
  • The fall of the Commonwealth

    • George Monk (former Royalist; New Model Army commander in Scotland) marches on England.
    • Charles II was invited to take the crown.