The history of England (1534-1801)

By Bassema
  • Period: 1485 to

    The Tudors's reign

  • Period: 1509 to 1547

    Henry VIII

    Following the death of Henry VII, Henry VII take the throne.
    He is know for his romantic adventures, he had six wives:
    -Catherine of Aragon, mother of Mary I (Bloody Mary)
    -Anne Boleyn, mother of Elizabeth I
    -Jane Seymour, mother of Edward VI
    -Anne of Cleves
    -Catherine Howard
    -Katherine Parr
    He also has an important role in the spread of Protestantism's faith in England, starting with his desire to annul his first mariage with Catherine of Aragon which was prohibited in Catholicism.
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    Henry VIII and all his future heirs are designated "Supreme Head of the Church of England".
  • 1536

    Act Extinguishing the authority of the bishop of Rome

    Act Extinguishing the authority of the bishop of Rome
    This act is against the power of the Pope (Paul III). People who defend his previous power can be arrested.
  • 1539

    Publication of the Great Bible

    Publication of the Great Bible
  • 1539

    Six Articles of Faith

  • May 12, 1543

    Act for the Advancement of True Religion

    Approved by the parliament of England. Henry restricted the reading of the Bible to the noblemen, clerics, the gentry and richer merchants. Women of the nobility were only allowed to read it in private, just like Katherine Parr and her closest friends.
  • Period: 1547 to 1553

    Edward VI

    Following the death of his father King Henry VIII, he took the throne at age nine which makes him the youngest king of England. Being too young, he was supported by important Protestants men of the court who commanded in his name.
  • 1549

    First Book of common prayer

    First Book of common prayer
  • Period: Jul 10, 1553 to Jul 19, 1553

    Lady Jane Grey

    After the death of Edward VII who was very fragile. Lady Jane Grey, also known as 'The Nine Days Protestant Queen', took the throne with a heavy heart. She was then killed by Mary Tudon, who took her place.
  • Period: Jul 19, 1553 to 1558

    Mary I (Mary Tudon)

    Also known as Bloody Mary because of all the executions she ordered .
    Being a devoted Catholic, like her mother Catherine of Aragon, she wanted to make England Catholic again.
    She married Phillip II of Spain who influenced her to take place in the war in France.
  • 1554

    Mary I marries Prince Phillip II of Spain

    Mary I marries Prince Phillip II of Spain
    This marriage wasn't as romantic as it should have been.
    More blood was spilled than flowers bloomed.
    Both devoted Catholic, they attempted to make Catholicism the official religion of England.
    Mary in love, listened to her husband and participated in the war against France - but it was a disaster. Mary Tudor then lost a lot of credibility.
  • Nov 30, 1554

    Reunification with Rome

    Being a devious Catholic, just like her mother Catherine of Aragon, Mary I made Catholicism the official religion of England again. So, she wanted to reunite with Rome which was directed by the Pope.
  • 1558

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    Queen Elizabeth I becomes the "Supreme Governor" of the Church of England.
  • Period: 1558 to

    Elizabeth I

    Known as the queen with black teeth and for her love for sugar. Elizabeth I established the Protestantism back after her Catholic step-sister, Mary's death. Her late sister's husband, Phillip II wanted to marry her (his real intentions were to keep Catholicism in England) but he failed to conquer her heart, like anyone else, that's why we call her "The Virgin Queen".
    She had the longest reign of the Tudors.
  • 1559

    New version of the Book of Common Prayer

    An update of the BOCP.
  • May 8, 1559

    Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    It requires everyone to worship on Sunday at the church and use the Book of Common Prayer.
  • 1570

    Separation with Rome

    Separation with Rome
    Elizabeth I is excommunicated by the Pope Pius V for heresy.
  • 1578

    Humphrey Gilbert's patent

    Humphrey Gilbert's patent
    Humphrey Gilbert is know for being the first man to receive a patent from Elizabeth I which means that he is authorized to found a colony in America.
  • 1580

    Phillip II inherit Portugal and the Azores

    This means that for the first time England ships amount is overpowered. It's a threat for Elizabeth I because Spain and England are both powerful in Europe and religious enemies at the same time. Indeed, Phillip II, King of Spain and Portugal is a devious Catholic, while Elizabeth I, Queen of England is Protestant.
  • England defeats Spain's Invincible Armada

    England defeats Spain's Invincible Armada
    The Invincible Armada founded by Philip II with the aim of invading England is luckless. England's developed artillery and the bad weather have led to Spain's disgraceful defeat.
  • Period: to

    The Stuarts' reign

    They are considered as one of the least successful dynasty. (John Morris)
  • Period: to

    James I

    He is the son of Mary, Queen of Scotts who was killed but Elizabeth I.
    James I was known as an intellectual King but was also involved in many scandals such as spending money, being gay and so on.
    For the first time, England and Scotland were reunited in the same government.
    During his reign, Catholics were discriminated and they had to pay charges and taxes.
  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    The Gunpowder Plot is a failed killing attempt against James I led by Robert Catesby.
    A group of Catholic English men plot to kill the King.
    People think that God saved England from the Catholics again (just like with the Spanish Armada).
  • King James Bible

    King James Bible
    It is considered as the most beautiful Bible because of its lyrical and poetic aspect.
  • Period: to

    Charles I

    Charles I was seen as a "bad" King because he abused of his power:
    - he married a Catholic who could influence him to make England Catholic again
    - he dissolved several times the Parliament
    - he wasted the country's money
    - he made illegal taxes
    - he made an alliance with the Irish Catholics...
    He then refused the grievances proposed by the Parliament and tried to murder 5 MPs, which led to the beginning of the Civil wars.
    He was the first English monarch to be killed by his people in 1649.
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    Charles I's Personal rule / Eleven Years Tyranny

  • Period: to

    Bishops' Wars

  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The Grand Remonstrance
    It is a list of grievances made by the Parliament for Charles I because of his abuse of power.
    The Parliament had to play a part in the appointment and dismissal of Privy Councillors and Crown Officers.
    The Star Chamber Court and the Court of High Commission were suppressed.
    Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford and William Laud (King's close ministers) were arrested and executed.
    The King's rejection led to the beginning of the Civil wars
  • Charles declares War to his people

    Charles declares War to his people
    The King declares war to the Parliamentary in Nottingham.
    There were two oppositions:
    - the "Roundheads" fought for the Parliament (South of England + London)
    - the "Cavaliers"/ Royalists supported the King (North and West of England)
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    The 1st Civil war

  • Period: to

    Civil wars

  • Solemn League and Covenant

    Solemn League and Covenant
    Agreement signed by Scotts and English.
    Scotts promised to support the English Parliamentarians against the Royalists.
  • Battle of Marston Moor

    Battle of Marston Moor
    Won by Cromwell's army
  • Battle of Naseby

    Battle of Naseby
    Cromwell reorganized the troops in a "New Model Army". The New Model Army under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax won the battle of Naseby in June 1645.
  • Period: to

    The 2nd Civil War

  • Period: to

    Battle of Preston

    Won by Cromwell's army.
  • Period: to

    Oliver Cromwell

    Thanks to his great military qualities, the Puritans won many battles during the Civil wars and he earned the people's respect. He, then became the leader of the Country and established the first and only Republic of England: the Commonwealth in 1649.
    He was very religious and thought that he was chosen by God to lead the country.
    He abolished the House of Lords.
    He tried to abuse of his power by dissolving the "Rump Parliament" in 1653.
  • Charles I's execution

    Charles I's execution
    It is a very important event of the Britain's history because it was the first time ever that a king was legally executed.
  • Period: to

    The 3rd Civil War

  • Period: to

    The Protectorate

    Oliver Cromwell and then his son in 1558 became Lord Protector and Head of State.
    Their power were defined by two Constitutions:
    - 1653-57: The instrument of Government by the Army Council
    - 1657-58: The Humble Petition and Advice by a Parliament
  • Declaration of Breda

    Declaration of Breda
    This Declaration promised the freedom of religion. It expresses a desire for a general amnesty
  • The Restoration of the Stuarts

    The Restoration of the Stuarts
    Charles II, son of Charles I is crowned: the Stuart family takes the power again.
  • Period: to

    Charles II

    Charles II, son of Charles I became the king of Scotland in 1649 then officially became the king of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1660.
    He wanted his people to practice their religion freely but it was constantly rejected by the Parliament.
    He had no heir so when he died in 1685, his brother James II took the throne.
  • Act of Uniformity

    This Act of Uniformity restored the old Church of England.
  • Period: to

    James II

    Charles II had no child so his brother James II was the next in line to take the throne.
    James II converted to Catholicism (in 1668 or 1669) and people were afraid to have a Catholic King.
    He wanted Catholics to practice their religion freely so in 1688 he publishes the Declaration of indulgence.
    But, people were afraid that the country may return to Catholicism so they started The Glorious Revolution.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    James II being a bit "too Catholic" and having a son (James III) was a threat to the Protestants and the Parliament. The King was also not listening to their grievances, so Whig and Tory MPs contacted Protestant William of Orange, Mary's husband and asked them to oppose James II.
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    Mary II and William of Orange

    Mary II was James II's daughter, but unlike him, she was Protestant. She was asked to rule the country with her husband, William of Orange instead of his father to avoid returning England to Catholicism.
    She died before her husband in 1694, so he ruled alone until he died in 1702.
  • Period: to

    Anne I

    She was the second daughter of James II so when her sister Mary II and her husband died, she was next in the line to take the throne.