Taj mahal

Ottoman, Safavid, & Mughal Empires

  • Period: Jan 1, 1289 to

    The Ottoman Empire

    This empire was an unusually successful frontier state. The term Ottoman derived from Osman Bey, the founder of the dynasty. He was the chief of a band of seminomadic Turks who migrated to northwestern Anatolia in the 13th century.
  • Jan 1, 1326

    The Capture of Bursa

    The Capture of Bursa
    The Ottoman's first great success, which also became the capital of their principality.
  • Jan 1, 1352

    Ottoman's Establish a Foothold in Europe

    Ottoman's Establish a Foothold in Europe
    The Ottomans were able to seize the fortress of Gallipoli whike aiding a claimant to the Byzantine Throne. The city of Edrine soon became the second Ottoman capital and served as a basse for further expansion into the Balkans.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1451 to Jan 1, 1481

    Mehmed II's Reign

    He became known as Mehmed the Conqueror, who worked diligently to stimulate Constantinople as a commercial center. He presented himself not just as a warrior-sultan but as a true emperor, ruler of "two lands" (Europe and Asia) and the "two seas" (the Black Sea and the Mediterranean). He laid the foundations for a tightly centralized, absolute monarchy, and his army faced no serious rival.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    The Capture of Constantinople

    The Capture of Constantinople
    This capture was played out by Mehmed II, and opened a new chapter in the Ottoman expansion. Due to its superb location and illustrious heritage, it became the new Ottoman capital.
  • Jan 1, 1499

    Ismail Seeks Revenge

    Ismail Seeks Revenge
    As a 12 year-old boy, Ismail left the swamps of Gilan near the Caspian Sea, where he had hidden from the enemies of his family for five years, to seek his revenge.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to

    The Safavid Empire

    This empire was founded by Shah Ismail, who proclaimed that the official religion of his realm would be Twelver Shiism and proceded to impose it. The empire was named after Safi al-Din, who was the leader of a Sufi religious order in northwestern Persia. Shah Abbas the Great was able to bring most of northwestern Iran, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia under the Safivd rule.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to Jan 1, 1524

    Shah Ismails' Reign

    He proclaims that the official religion of his realm would be the Twelver Shiism. Over the next decade he seized control of the Iranian plateau and launched expeditions into the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and central Asia.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1512 to Jan 1, 1520

    Selim the Grim's Reign

    He helped expand the Ottoman empire in the early 16th century by occuping Syria and Egypt.
  • Jan 1, 1514

    Battle of Chaldiran

    Battle of Chaldiran
    A critical battle on the plain of Chaldiran, where the Ottomans deployed heavy artillery and thousands of Janissaries equipped with firearms behind a barrier of carts. The qizilbash cavalry fearlessly attacked the Ottoman line and suffered devastating casualties.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1520 to Jan 1, 1566

    Suleyman the Magnificant's Reign

    Ottoman imperialism climaxed under the reign of Suleyman. He vigoriously promoted Ottoman expansion both in southwest Asia and in Europe. He is also able to make the Ottoman Empire a major naval power.
  • Jan 1, 1523

    Zahir al-Din Muhammad

    Zahir al-Din Muhammad
    He was also known as Babur, which meant "the Tiger". He was a Chaghatai Turk who claimed descent from both Chinggis Khan and Tamerlane, and suddenly appeared in northern India. Babur made little pretense to be anything more than an adventurer and soldier of fortune in the manner of his illustrious ancestors. His great ambition was to transform his inheritance into a glorious central Asian empire.
  • Jan 1, 1524

    Shah Ismail Dies

    Shah Ismail Dies
    Shah Ismail dies and is then succeded by his son, Tahmasp I, who was only ten years old at the time. Chaos in the empire soon begun.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1526 to

    The Mughal Empire

    This dynasty was founded by Babur. He was able to build this loosely knit empire that stretched from Kabul through the Punjab to the borders of Bengal. Its name comes from the Persian term for Mongol, and expands to embrace almost all the Indian subcontinent.
  • Jan 1, 1529

    Siege of Vienna

    Siege of Vienna
    Suleyman is able to subject the Habsburgs' prized city of Vienna to a brief but nonetheless terrifying siege.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    The Capture of Baghdad

    The Capture of Baghdad
    Suleyman the Magnificant conquers Baghdad and adds the Tigris and Euphrates valleys to the Ottoman domain.
  • Jan 1, 1555

    Treaty of Amasya

    Treaty of Amasya
    The Ottoman and the Safavid empires both signed this treaty, which helped maintain peace bewteen them for the next 25 years.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1556 to

    Akbar's Reign

    A brilliant and charismatic ruler, who took control of the Mughal government and did not tolerate challenges to his rule. He created a centralized administrative structure with ministires regulating the various provinces of the empire. His military campaigns consolidated Mughal power in Gujarat and Bengal. He also began to absorb the recently defeated Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, thus laying the foundation for later Mughal expansion in southern India.
  • Jan 1, 1561

    Adham Khan Defeated

    Adham Khan Defeated
    Akbar gathered the reigns of power in his own hands following an argument with Adham Khan, a powerful figure at the imperial court and commander of the Mughal army. Akbar threw Adham Khan out a window, then dragged him back from the palace courtyard, and tossed him out again to make sure he was dead.
  • Jan 1, 1576

    Ismail II Takes Over

    When Tasmasp dies, his son takes over. Historians believed he was mad, because of his brutality. He attempted to return the Safavid Empire to Sunnism, executed many members of his family and followers for unclear reasons, and was murdered a year after taking power.
  • Period: to

    Shah Abbas the Great

    He was able to fully revitalize the Savaid Empire. He moved the capital to the more central location of Isfahan, encouraged trade with other lands, and reformed the administrative and military institutions of the empire.
  • Period: to

    Shah Abbas' Victories

    He attacked and defeated the nomadic Uzbeks in central Asia, expelled the Portuguese from Hormuz, and harassed the Ottomans mercilessly in a series of wars from 1603 to the end of his reign.
  • Jahangir Assumes Throne

    Jahangir Assumes Throne
    He was the son of Akbar, and openly rebelled his father on taking over the throne. When Akbar died, Jahangir reconciled and assumed the throne. Under Jahangir, the empire continued to be a war state attuned to conquest and expansion. He lacked the political enterprise of his father, but he was an honest man and a tolerant ruler. He strived to reform society and was tolerant towards Hindus, Christians and Jews.
  • The Capture of Qandahar

    The Capture of Qandahar
    Jahangir always feared the Persians and the Uzbeks of Central Asia. The Persians matched the Mughals in military strength and resources. Their relations were tolerably good because each feared the other's might. But in 1622, taking advantage of the disputes within the court, the Persians capitalized on the Mughals' preoccupation in internal affairs and captured Qandahar.
  • Period: to

    Aurangzeb's Reign

    The Mughal empire reached its greatest extent under Aurangzeb. He waged a relentless campaign to push Mughal authority deep into southern India. Although he was able to expand the territory, Aurangzeb presided over a troubled empire. He faced rebellions throughout his reign, and religious tensions generated conflicts between Hindus and Muslims. He demolished several Hindu temples and replaced them with mosques. He also imposed a tax on HIndus in an effort to encourage conversion to Islam.
  • Mughal Empire Becomes Extinct

    Mughal Empire Becomes Extinct
    Shortly after the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire ceased to be an effective force in the political life of India, but it was not until 1857-58, when the Indian Rebellion was crushed and the Emperor Bahadur Shah was put on trial for sedition and treason, that the Mughal Empire was formally rendered extinct.