Mueggenborg APWH Timeline Project: Unit 2 (600CE-1450CE)

By penaj
  • Period: 224 to Jan 1, 651

    Sasanid Empire

    It was the last pre-Islamic Persian empire. Covered most of the Middle East. This period was the peak of Persian civilization.
  • Period: 250 to

    Maya Civilization

    In central Mexico. Major contributions were in math, astronomy, and development of the calendar. Large-scale construction and urbanism. Mesoamerican long-distance trade.
  • Period: 330 to Jan 1, 1453

    Byzantine Empire

    Eastern part of the Roman Empire after collapse of Western Roman Empire. Capital at Constantinople. At end, most began part of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Period: 330 to Jan 1, 1453


    Capital of Byzantine Empire. Turks renamed it Istanbul after fall of Byzantine Empire. Founded by Constantine.
  • Jan 1, 610

    Foundation of Islam

    Foundation of Islam
    Started with Muhammad having "divine relevations." His stories appealed to people because they were distressed over weatlh replacing kinship as the most important aspect of social relations.
  • Jan 1, 632

    Split between Sunni and Shi'ite

    Split between Sunni and Shi'ite
    80-90% of Muslims are Sunni and 10-20% are Shia. Split occured when Muhammad died, leading to a dispute over his successor of the caliph.
  • Period: Jan 1, 661 to Jan 1, 750

    Umayyad Caliphate

    Second of the four major Arab Caliphates. Established after Muhammad's death.
  • Period: Jan 1, 711 to

    Muslims conquer Spain

    Islamic Ummayad Caliphate's conquest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain). Took control of most of Spain and some of France.
  • Period: Apr 8, 750 to Apr 8, 1513

    Abbasid Caliphate

    Capitol in Baghdad. Overthrew Umayyad caliphs. After flourishing for two centuries, it started declining because of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. Abbaside rule ended briefly when Mongols sacked Baghdad, then resumed in Mamluk Egypt until power was transferred to the Ottomans.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1037 to Jan 1, 1194

    Seljuk Turks

    Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire. They united the fractured political scene of the Eastern Islamic world and they played a key role in the first and second crusades.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1095 to Jan 1, 1291


    Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1138 to Jan 1, 1193


    Sultan of Egypt and Syria. Led Islamic opposition to Europeans in the Crusades. Recaptured Palestine.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1200 to Jan 1, 1533

    Inca Civilization

    Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Pacific side of South America from Ecuador to Chile. Ended with Spanish conquest.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1206 to Jan 1, 1324

    Mongol Invasions

    Covered most of Asia and Eastern Europe by 1300. Started by Genghis Khan started it. His descendants continued the conquests. Conquered by large-scale slaughter--this created fear.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1206 to Jan 1, 1227

    Genghis Khan

    Was founder and ruler (Khan) of Mongol Empire. United many nomadic tribes. Started Mongol invasions.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1206 to Jan 1, 1527

    Delhi Sultanate

    Five short-lived Islamic kingdoms. Replaced by Mughal dynasty. Defeated Mongols so saved India from invasion. Indian cultural renaissance.
  • Jan 1, 1215

    Magna Carta

    Magna Carta
    An English charter that forced King John of England to recognize liberties and rights. Important because many other law documents are based on this.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1230 to

    Mali Kingdom

    Founded by Sundiata Keita. Was know for wealty rulers, especially Mansa Musa I. Extended over large area with many vassal kindgoms and provinces.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1250 to Jan 1, 1517


    Ruled Egypt. Fought against Mongols and the Crusades. Were soldiers of slave origins. Were considered "true lords" and had a social status above freeborn Egyptian Muslims.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1300 to


    A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a "rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture. Began in Italy.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1312 to Jan 1, 1337

    Mansa Musa I

    Tenth king (or mansa) of the Mali Empire. VERY wealthy. His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca established the empire's reputation for wealth.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1325 to Jan 1, 1521

    Aztec Civilization

    Also known as Mexica. Created powerful empire in central Mexico. They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as tax.
  • Period: Apr 8, 1336 to Apr 8, 1405


    Founder of Mughal Dynasty. Wanted to restore Mongol Empire. Very destructive campaigns.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1337 to Jan 1, 1453

    Hundred Years' War

    Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1340 to

    Songhai Kindgom

    One of the largest Islamic empires in history. Was part of Mali Empire but broke away. Was a monarchy.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1368 to

    Ming Empire

    Followed collapse of Yuan Empire (ruled by Mongols). Big constuction projects: restoration of Grand Canal and Great Wall and Forbidden City. China became involved in Columbian Exchange (global trade of goods).
  • Period: Jan 1, 1405 to Jan 1, 1433

    Zheng He

    Voyages of Zheng He: made voyages as a explorer and diplomat to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa. Empire stopped his voyages--Chinese isolationism.
  • Jan 1, 1440

    Gutenberg Press

    Gutenberg Press
    A mechanical device for transferring text or graphics from a woodblock or type to paper using ink. Were used throughout Europe by 1450.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1462 to Jan 1, 1505

    Ivan III

    Ivan the Great. Was Grand Prince of Moscow. "Gatherer of the Russian lands." Laid foundation for Russian state.
  • Establishment of Holy Roman Empire

    Establishment of Holy Roman Empire
    Charlemagne was first emperor. Pope and Catholic Church very powerful. Covered most of central Europe.
  • Period: to

    Sui Empire

    Unified rival regimes after centuries of division. Founded by Wen of Sui. Construction of Grand Canal. Various reforms: equal-field system, coinage standardized, Great Wall expanded. Buddhism spread and encouraged.
  • Period: to Jan 1, 1279

    Song Empire

    First to issue bank notes and paper money. First known use of gunpowder. Invention of compass. Divided between north and south. Conquered by Kublai Khan. Yuan Empire by Mongols followed.
  • Period: to Jan 1, 1235

    Ghana Kingdom

    Societies had existed here since 1500 BCE. Introduction of camel brought gold, ivory, and salt trade. From the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt grew rich the empire--this caused urban centers to develop.
  • Period: to Jan 1, 1349

    Kievan Russia

    Reign of Vladimir the Great. Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Westernization.
  • Period: to


    King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans. Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and Parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival.
  • Period: to

    Tang Empire

    Wu Zetian became first empress. Capital at Chang'an most populous city in the world at the time. Considered better than the Han. Period of progress and stability. Civil service system by standardized examinations. Woodblock printing invented. Buddhism was a major influence in Chinese culture at the time.