LLCER British History

  • 1450

    Invention of the printing press

    Invention of the printing press
    German inventor Johannes Gutenberg finishes his printing press, and it starts printing for the public. This would mark a monumental moment in European history. Thanks to his printing press, Gutenberg was able to print widespread copies of the Bible. This would soon become an important tool in the upcoming Reformation that would sweep through Europe. While not a direct cause of the Reformation, the printing press made it easier to spread information.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther's 95 Theses

    Martin Luther's 95 Theses
    On October 31st, 1517, Martin Luther allegedly nailed his 95 theses on the door of the University in Wittenberg. The 95 theses were a scathing critique of the Catholic Church, especially in regards to indulgences. He argued that salvation couldn't be bought, only prayed for. Martin Luther would later be excommunicated by the Catholic Church and declared a heretic in 1521.
  • 1522

    Luther translates the New Testament into German

    Luther translates the New Testament into German
    One of the main tenets of Protestanism is how it attempts to make the relationship between God and believer closer, without the middle ground that is represented by the Catholic Church, By translating the Bible into a widely spoken language, Martin Luther allows people to read the Bible directly. The first edition of Martin Luther's complete translation of the Bible would be published in 1534 (the same year as Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy!)
  • 1526

    The Tyndale Bible is published

    The Tyndale Bible is published
    William Tyndale's translation of the New Testament is widely considered to have been the first have its kind to have been printed into English
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    Following the Pope's refusal to allow him to divorce from his first wife, Henry VIII established the Church of England, seperating himself from the Catholic Church. Henry VIII would go on to have six wives:
    - Catherine of Aragon (first marriage, annulled)
    - Anne Boleyn (beheaded)
    - Jane Seymour (passed away in childbirth)
    - Anne of Cleves (unconsummated marriage, annulled after only 6 months)
    - Catherine Howard (beheaded)
    - Catherine Parr (widowed)
  • Period: 1536 to 1541

    Dissolution of monasteries

    In 1536, Henry VIII declared that monastaries were 'bastions of “popery"', meaning they were merely a tool for the Pope. As a result, they were disbanded and the Crown took possession of their land and income. It's important to note that monasteries were particulary important prior to their destructions, as they played in important role in everyday life. They looked after the old and the sick, and even provided a place to stay for travellers.
  • Period: 1536 to 1537

    Pilgramage of Grace

    The dissolution of monasteries were met with massive rebellions Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, led by common people, gentry, and members of the clergy, had two main motivations. The first was opposition to the Henry VIII's Reformation. They were outraged by the dissolution of monasteries, and demanded a return of Catholicism, meaning a return to the Pope and the restoration of Mary Tudor as Henry VIII's rightful heir. This went alongside economic grievances that greatly troubled the population.
  • Period: 1545 to 1563

    Council of Trent

    As a result of the Reformation, Pope Paul III convened the Council of Trent. In 25 meetings over the course of 18 years, the Council of Trent was a main part of the Vatican's Counter Reformation, leading the Catholic Church to different conclusions about the Reformation. They denounced Protestant teaching, and took resolutions about , in order to strenghten the Catholic faith. Notably, they reinforced their approval for indulgences, but clarified that false indulgences were stricly forbidden.
  • 1547

    Henry VIII death // Edward VI takes the throne

    Henry VIII death // Edward VI takes the throne
    Following Henry VIII's death, his only son took the crown to become Edward VI. Edward was the only child from Henry VIII's third wife Jane Seymour. Being the male child, he took precedence over his half-sisters Elizabeth and Mary. He was a fiercely Protestant king, and because of his young age, his rule was mostly governed by his uncle, the "Lord Protector of England" Edward Seymor
  • 1549

    Publication of the Book of Common Prayer

    Publication of the Book of Common Prayer
    Under the Protestant Edward VI, the mass book underwent a revision in order to be fully in English. This went along with other anti-Catholic reforms, cementing the place of Protestanism in England.
  • Jul 6, 1553

    Edward VI dies

    Edward VI dies
    In 1553, Edward VI died at only 15 years old. It is believed that he passed away from tuberculosis.
  • Jul 19, 1553

    Mary I proclaimed Queen of England

    Mary I proclaimed Queen of England
    Despite Edward VI naming Lady Jane Grey his heir, his older half-sister Mary (daughter of Catherine of Aragorn) took the throne becoming Queen of England. She was married to the King of Spain Phillip II, which allied the two nations against France. In a span of 18 months, she repealed the Protestant acts from her father and half-brother and restored Catholicism. Her persecution of Protestants, leading to the burning of over 200 of them at the stake, earned her the nickname "Bloody Mary".
  • 1558

    Elizabeth I takes the throne

    Elizabeth I takes the throne
    Following the death of Mary I, her half-sister Elizabeth (daughter of Anne Boleyn) took the throne. Despite Mary I requesting her to keep England Catholic, Elizabeth I would restore Protestantism, establishing the Anglican Church. Thus began the Elizabethean era, a period of relative stability led by a "Virgin Queen".
  • 1559

    The Act of Supremacy and The Act of Uniformity of 1559

    The Act of Supremacy and The Act of Uniformity of 1559
    With these two Acts, Elizabeth I set the foundations for the Church of England. She rejected the Pope's authority and made the monarch of England the head of the Church. Additionally, she set up a common way of church services, with mandatory attendance and the use of the Book of Common Prayer.
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    The 39 articles of faith

  • 1567

    James proclaimed King of Scotland

    James proclaimed King of Scotland
    James, the son of Mary Stuart, was named King James VI of Scotland
  • 1568

    Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth

    Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth
    Originally, the Pope thought that Elizabeth I would go back to the Catholic Church as she had retained certain elements of it for the Anglican Church. However, he eventually issued the papal bull “Regnans in Excelsis”, which ex-communicated her and questioned her legitimacy, essentially giving Catholics a green light in any assassination attempt on her.
  • 1569

    The Northern Rebellion

    The Northern Rebellion
    6000 people, led by the Earls of
    Westmorland and Northumberland, rebelled against Elizabeth I and tried to replace her with Mary Stuart. This was ultimately futile, as the rebellion was crushed.
  • 1581

    The 1581 Act forbidding Catholicism

    The 1581 Act forbidding Catholicism
    In 1851, the "Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in their due Obedience" effectively banned Catholicism. The death penalty was given to all those converting or already Catholic, Catholic Mass was outlawed, and there were fines given to those not attending Anglican services. 163 people would be killed as a result of this ban over the next 26 years.
  • Establishment of Roanoke Colony

    Establishment of Roanoke Colony
    Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to start a settlement in the New World, which was called Roanoke. However, the people of it vanished and it was a failure.
  • The Babington plot

    The Babington plot
    During Elizabeth I reign, there were numerous Catholic plots to try and assassinate her. The plans often included replacing her with the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart). Indeed, since Mary Stuart was a threat to Elizabeth's rule, she was imprisoned. Mary Queen of Scots was found complicit in a plot to kill Elizabeth by the spymaster Francis Walsingham. As a result, Mary Queen of Scots was sentenced to death.
  • The execution of Mary Queen of Scots

    The execution of Mary Queen of Scots
    Mary was executed in Fotheringham Castle on Feburary 2nd, 1587. The first strike did not correctly behead her, and so she had to be struck multiple times. She wore a bright red dress for her execution, symbolizing the color of Catholic martyrs. Allegedly, when her head rolled on the floor, her wig fell off and revealed short grey hair
  • The Defeat of the Spanish Armada

    The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
    At the time, the Spanish Armada was considered the mightiest force in the world. Because of Elizabeth's support of the Dutch revolt, Spain attempted to invade England. This failed, and England's victory had enormous effects on Elizabeth's image in England. She used the victory as proof of English superiority, and as reinforcement of her legitimacy.
  • Foundation of the East India Company

    Foundation of the East India Company
    The East India Company was founded by a royal charter. It would go on to be a major trade force with India and China, and it was a considerable political power as well.
  • King James VI of Scotland is crowned King of England

    King James VI of Scotland is crowned King of England
    Following the passing of Elizabeth, her successor was James VI of Scotland, who also became James I of England. He maintained the religious status quo left by Elizabeth I. This led to conflicts with both Puritans and Catholics.
  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    The Gunpowder Plot was a plot by a group of Catholics to blow up Parliament and kill James I. However, one of the Catholics implicated in the plot, Guy Fawkes, was discovered with 36 barrels of gunpowder and so the plot was a failure.
  • Establishment of Jamestown in Virginia

    Establishment of Jamestown in Virginia
    Jamestown was the first permanent settlement in what eventually became the 13 colonies.
  • Publication of the King James Bible

    Publication of the King James Bible
    James I commissioned a new English translation of the Holy Bible. It is still widely used today.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    The Thirty Year's war was a bloody conflict that took place in the German kingdoms, pitting mostly Protestant kingdoms and France against mainly the Habsburgs and Spain.
  • Establishment of the Plymouth Colony

    Establishment of the Plymouth Colony
    Following the journey of the Mayflower, carrying Puritan pilgrims to the New World, they established Plymouth Plantation in the territory of the Wampanoag tribe. The Plymouth Colony is famous for being the story that led to the modern day American holiday of Thanksgiving.
  • Parliament discusses foreign policy, angering James I

    Parliament discusses foreign policy, angering James I
    Parliament disagreed with King James I over how to fight Spain. This outraged James I as he felt that only the King had the right to decide foreign policy, leading him to dissolve Parliament.
  • Colonization of St Kitts begins

    Colonization of St Kitts begins
  • Parliament agrees to finance war against Spain

    Parliament agrees to finance war against Spain
    After conflicts between James I and Parliament, they finally agreed to finance the war against Spain. However, James I would pass away the following year, and the war was left for his successor, Charles I.
  • Charles I becomes King of England

    Charles I becomes King of England
    The son of James I, he took the throne and proved to be an unpopular King. His wife was a Catholic, and he supported a group of Protestants called the Arminians that many feared were secretly Catholics due to their wishes to restore traditional elements of the Church).
  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    The Petition of Rights was a petition by Parliament trying to get Charles I to recognize the limit of his royal powers. While he did sign it, he was angered and dissolved Parliament.
  • MPs pass the Three Resolutions

    MPs pass the Three Resolutions
    The Three Resoltuons denounced the Catholic Church, Arminians, and anybody advising to the King that he could collect custom duties alone as enemies of of England. This infuriated Charles I, who would ask to imprison the MPs responsable and dissolve Parliament again.
  • Period: to

    The Personal Rule

    This was a period of 11 years where King Charles I reigned without calling Parliament once.
  • Period: to

    The Scottish crisis

    Religious reforms, such as the introduction of the New Prayer Book (Book of Common Prayer) caused mass outrage in Calvinist Scotland, leading to a petition opposing the religious policies of Charles I called the "Scottish National Covenant. This led to the Bishop's War between the Crown and Scotland.
  • The Short Parliament

    The Short Parliament
    As a result of the Bishop's war, Parliament was called for the first time in 11 years. However, instead of raising finances, Parliament decided to vent their grievances that had built up over more than a decade. As a result, Charles I dissolved Parliament after only 3 weeks.
  • Period: to

    The Long Parliament

    After the Scottish victory in the Scottish crisis led to the humiliating Treaty of Ripon in October of 1640. As a result, Charles I was forced to call forth Parliament once again. Parliament would remain in session for another 20 years. During the Long Parliament, in order to prevent King Charles I's Personal Rule from happening ever again, the members of Parliament passed acts ensuring that they meet at least every 3 years and that they must consent to being dissolved.
  • Irish Uprising

    Irish Uprising
    James I had implemented a plantation policy, which sent Protetants to take over Irish Catholic lands, which led up to the building of tensions between Ireland and England. Finally, in October of 1641 this led to rebellion among the Irish. In England, there were false rumors of the Irish massacring up to 4000 Protestants, enraging the English.
  • Militia Act

    Militia Act
    As a result of the Irish Rebellion, Parliament passed the Militia Act, placing the army in control of a general chosen by Parliament. This took away the King's former power who hitherto was the one in charge of deciding who he wanted to appoint.
  • The Grand Remonstrance of 1641

    The Grand Remonstrance of 1641
    This was a document voted by Parliament summing up Charles I's "wrongdoings" and making reforms, including giving the House of Commons the right to choose the King's ministers, and for Parliament to have the right to reform the Church and control any army sent into Ireland. When discussing this document, Parliament was split into two: the Parliamentarians thought that these reforms were needed, while the Royalists thought that they were too extreme and wanted a settlement with the King.
  • Charles I arrests 5 MPs in the House of Commons

    Charles I arrests 5 MPs in the House of Commons
    Charles I believed five members of Parliament were plotting against the Queen, as he tried to have them arrested. He marched into the House of Commons with troops to arrest them. As a result of this, Charles I left London for York, as he was scared for his life.
  • Period: to

    First English Civil War

    Civil War broke out for a period of 4 years between King Charles I and Parliament, leading to the death of roughly 190000 people
  • Charles I formally declares war on Parliament

    Charles I formally declares war on Parliament
    After the attempted arrest of five members of Parliament, Parliament drafted up the Nineteen Propositions, which would've made Charles I a constitutional monarch. Shortly after that, Charles I formally declared war on Parliament.
  • Establishment of The New Model Army

    Establishment of The New Model Army
    By 1944, the Parliamentarians had established the New Model Army. This was a national army that was paid for directly by Westminster, instead of being county-paid like in the past. The soldiers would carry a Bible in their breast pockets, representing the importance of their faith and sometimes even saving their lives.
  • Battle of Naseby

    Battle of Naseby
    The Battle of Naseby was a major battle in the English Civil War. It resulted in substantial losses for the King's troops, and was an important victory for the Parliamentarians.
  • Surrender of Charles I and the Royalists

    Surrender of Charles I and the Royalists
    Charles I officially surrendered, ending the First English Civil War Charles I turned himself in to the Scots, who then delivered him to Parliament.
  • An Agreement of the People

    An Agreement of the People
    These texts declared that there was no power above the Parliament and established the beginings of an electorate.
  • King escapes custody

    King escapes custody
    Charles I escaped from custody and went to Scotland to convince them to invade England, claiming that he would introduce Calvinism as a result.
  • Pride's Purge

    Pride's Purge
    After the defeat of the Royalists in the Second English Civil War, there was the question of what to do with the King. While the New Model Army wanted to put him on trial, conservative MPs wanted to negotiate with him. To prevent this Colonel Pride marched into Parliament and arrested the 45 leading consevative MPs. The remaining MPs were referred to as the "Rump Parliament" and put the King on trial for high treason.
  • Period: to

    Second Civil War

    King Charles I went to ask the Scottish for help invading England, sparking the Second English Civil War.
  • England declared a Commonwealth

    England declared a Commonwealth
    England abolished the Monarchy and the House of Lords, making the island a Commonwealth, ruled as a republic.
  • Period: to

    Cromwellian conquest of Ireland

    The Irish Catholic led Irish Rebellion was crushed by Oliver Cromwell. Memories of the rumors of the massacre of Protestants from 1641 remained, and so the conquest of Ireland had massacres against the Irish such as the siege of Drogheda and the Sack of Wexford in 1649. As a result of the conquest, Catholicism was banned, priests arrested, and Irish lands confiscated.
  • King Charles I executed

    King Charles I executed
    King Charles I was charged with high treason, and was subsequently executed.
  • Period: to

    Anglo-Scottish war

    Charles II, the son of the executed Charles I, was crowned the King of Scotland. He raised a Scottish Army to invade England, but his attempt was crushed by Cromwell.
  • The Instrument of Government

    The Instrument of Government
    The Instrument of Government was England's first and only written constitution. It set the fondations for the Protectorate.
  • The Commonwealth is replaced by the Protectorate

    The Commonwealth is replaced by the Protectorate
    On the 20th April in 1653, Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament. The subsequent "Barebones Parliament" broke down in a matter of months. Following that, the Commonwealth was repealed and replaced with a military dictatorship called the Protectorate, ruled by Oliver Cromwell.
  • British invasion of Jamaica

    British invasion of Jamaica
    The British invaded Jamaica, which was previously a Spanish colony
  • Death Oliver Cromwell

    Death Oliver Cromwell
    Oliver Cromwell passed away at age 59. He was replaced as Lord Protector by his son Richard Cromwell.
  • Restoration of English Monarchy

    Restoration of English Monarchy
    Following the death of Oliver Cromwell, there was great instability in England. His son proved to be an unsuitable fit for the position of Lord Protector, and the Protectorate collapsed. Charles II sought to return to rule over England. He issued the Declaration of Breda, declaring that the past was forgiven, that he would rule with Parliament, and that he would continue religious tolerant. This claim worked, and the English monarch was restored.
  • New Netherland becomes New York

    New Netherland becomes New York
    The English take over New Netherland and rename it New York.
  • The Great Plague of London

    The Great Plague of London
    A bubonic plague epidemic, caused by the bacteria Yersinia Pestis, broke out, with devastating consequences. It is estimated that over 100000 people in Pondon (up to a fifth of the population) passed away.
  • The Popish Plot

    The Popish Plot
    There were fears the the French were plotting to replace Charles II with his Catholic brother James II.
  • Period: to

    The Exclusion crisis

    Parliament tried to remove James II from the line of succession to the throne. This angered Charles II, as this was going against the divine right of Kings. As a result, he dissolved Parliament.
  • Pennsylvania founded by Quakers

    Pennsylvania founded by Quakers
    Quakers founded the Pennsylvania colony, yearning for religious freedoms.
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    The Glorious Revolution

    Parliament invited William of Orange to "invade" England and take the throne from James II. William was married to James II's daughter, Mary, which gave him legitimacy to the throne.
    James II fled to France, and William of Orange became King William III, ruling jointly with his wife Mary II.
    It was called the "Glorious Revolution" because of the lack of blood that was shed during it.
  • Toleration Act

    Toleration Act
    This act established freedom of worship for all Protestants in England.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights established the foundations for England following the Glorious Revolution. It established a constitutional monarchy, and it set up the rights of Parliament, basic civil rights, limited the sovereign's powers, and prevented any Catholic from ever taking the throne of England again.
  • The Act of Settlement

    The Act of Settlement
    William III and Mary II had no children, and all his Stuart successors were Catholic. As a result, the Act of Settlement established the Hanoverian succession.
  • Period: to

    War of Spanish Succession

    Following the death of the childless Charles II of Spain, a massive conflict broke out over what to do with the remains of the might Spanish empire. The American theater of this war is also called "Queen Anne's War". As a result of this war, Britain won Acadia over the French.
  • Coronation of Queen Anne

    Coronation of Queen Anne
    Following the death of William III, Anne, the daughter of James II, was crowned Queen of England. She was the final monarch from the House of Stuart.
  • The Act of Union of 1707

    The Act of Union of 1707
    This created Great Britain, uniting Scotland and England (Wales was already part of England), and thus realizing the dream of James I.
  • Period: to

    Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years War was a major global conflict, notably fought between France and Britain. The American theater was called the "French and Indian War". It resulted in Britain conquering Florida and most of Canada over the French.
  • Period: to

    American War of Independence

    The American War of Independance, also called the American Revolutionary War, was a conflict in the New World in which the 13 colonies declared independence from England, creating a new country called the United States of America.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    In 1800, Ireland and Great Britain passed acts unifying themselves in one United Kingdom. This new unified state came into effect on January 1st, 1801.