Leah Drew World History Timeline

  • Period: 5000 BCE to 611 BCE

    Mesopotamian Civilization

    Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which both empty into the Persian Sea. It was the earliest civilization and was part of the fertile crescent. They are also responsible for the Code of Hammurabi, one of the oldest written law codes. Link
  • Period: 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE

    Indus River Valley Civilization

    The Indus River Valley Civilization lived on the Indus River in Northwest India. The largest city in this civilization was Mohenjo-Daro, which had advanced engineering for its time and was one of the first urban centers of the world. Link
  • Period: 3000 BCE to 30 BCE

    Egyptian Civilization

    Egypt is located in Northeast Africa and is centered around the Nile River. It was both one of the oldest and one of the longest lasting civilizations in the world, and is most famous for its giant pyramids. Link
  • Period: 2750 BCE to 332 BCE

    Phoenician Civilization

    Phoenician Civilization was located on the Mediterranean and was made up of several trading city-states. They traded purple dye and invented the alphabet. Phoenicians originated on the East coast of the Mediterranean, but eventually made colonies in Africa, Spain, and Italy, all of the Mediterranean Sea. Link
  • 2550 BCE

    Pyramid of Cheops

    Pyramid of Cheops
    The Pyramid of Cheops is the largest pyramid ever built, located at Giza in Egypt. It was built as a tomb for the Pharaoh Khufu by workers during his lifetime.
  • Period: 2070 BCE to 960

    Chinese Civilization

    China is located in Eastern Asia and began on the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers. China was very well protected by the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts, the Himalayas, and the Pacific Ocean. Its government was made up of several dynasties, each one lasting a period of a few centuries before being thrown over by a new one. Link
  • Period: 1800 BCE to 550 BCE

    Hebrew Civilization

    The Hebrew Civilization began when the prophet Abraham led the Jewish people to Caanan, which is in present day Israel. Israel is located on the eastern Mediterranean coast in the Middle East. Over time the Hebrews went through periods of enslavement and exile, which led the the Jewish Diaspora where Jews traveled- or were forced- away from their homeland. Link
  • 1750 BCE

    Hammurabi's Code

    Hammurabi's Code
    A complete collection of Babylonian laws from the civilization of Mesopotamia. It was one of the first written law codes and was the origin of the 'eye for an eye' principle.
  • Period: 1500 BCE to 232 BCE

    Indian Civilization

    It is located in South Asia on the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the Himalayas to the Northeast, the Hindu Kush to the Northwest, and the Indian Ocean to the south. This period takes place from the arrival of the Aryans until the death of Asoka. Link
  • Period: 1200 BCE to

    Mesoamerican Civilization

    There were multiple Mesoamerican Civilizations, all of which were located in South or Central America. The Aztecs were located in modern-day Mexico, with their capital at modern-day Mexico City (then known as Tenochtitlan.) The Mayans lived in the rainforest of Central America. The Incas lived in the Andes Mountains on the west coast of South America, in modern-day Chile. Link
  • Period: 563 BCE to 330 BCE

    Persian Civilization

    The Persian Empire spanned from Egypt all the way to India in the East. It was united by Cyrus the Great, who built a great empire on former Babylonia and other conquered lands. Link
  • Period: 509 BCE to 476

    Roman Civilization

    Rome started on the Italian peninsula, right in the middle on the west coast. It eventually expanded to include the entire Mediterranean and it's surrounding land, and even parts of Europe including modern day France and Great Britain. Rome started as a republic, but in time it grew to be an entire empire. Link
  • Period: 507 BCE to 323 BCE

    Hellenic Civilization

    Also known as Classical Greece. Greece is a peninsula in the Mediterranean bordered by the Aegean Sea to the East and the Ionian Sea to the West. Hellenic Civilization also includes the island of Crete. This period lasted from the birth of democracy in Athens until Alexander the Great's death. Link
  • 480 BCE

    Battle of Thermopylae

    Battle of Thermopylae
    the Battle of Thermopylae was a major battle in the Persian Wars located in northern Greece at the pass of Thermopylae. It lasted for several days and despite the fact that the Greeks were heavily outnumbered they managed to inflict major losses on the Persians. Unfortunately the Greeks had to retreat after a traitor showed the Persians a secret path that gave them an advantage over the Greeks.
  • 460 BCE

    Democracy Begins in Athens

    Athenian Democracy began with the end of the Persian Wars and the start of Athens' Golden Age. During this period all adult male citizens could speak and vote on the Assembly, which met about every month. However, it ended with the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
  • 410 BCE

    Siddhartha/Buddha Dies

    Siddhartha/Buddha Dies
    Siddhartha was the Buddha, or 'enlightened one' who traveled spreading Buddhism around the world. Buddhism was an atheistic religion (a religion without a god) which was based on a belief in reincarnation and release from suffering. He was 80 years old when he died of natural causes in the city of Kusinara.
  • Period: 400 BCE to

    Japanese Civilization

    Japan is located on a group of islands right off the coast of East Asia in the Pacific Ocean. It was eventually taken over by Feudalism in the 12th century CE. Link
  • 334 BCE

    Alexander the Great Defeats Darius

    Alexander the Great defeated his Persian rival Darius III in the battle of Gaugamela, which established him as the ruler of the former Persian Empire. It was the final battle of Alexander's conquests in Persia as well.
  • Period: 323 BCE to 30 BCE

    Hellenistic Civilization

    Hellenistic Civilization was the period between Hellenic Greece and the rise of the Roman Empire. It began with Alexander the Great's death and lasted until his empire was conquered and broken apart by the Romans. Hellenistic Civilization was located all the way from Greece to the Northwest border of India, passing through Asia Minor and the Middle East. Link
  • 221 BCE

    Qin Rule Begins

    The beginning of the Qin Dynasty marked the beginning of China's first empire. The beginning of the Great Wall's construction began during this dynasty, which lasted less than 20 years before being overthrown due to its cruel treatment of the people.
  • 313

    Decree of Milan

    The Decree of Milan was a proclamation issued by the Emperors Constantine and Licinius which allowed religious freedom throughout the entire Roman Empire. This ended persecution for Christians and gave them legal rights.
  • 324

    Constantinople Made the Capital

    The Roman emperor Constantine attempted to reunite the empire after Diocletian divided it and chose Byzantium as his new capital as it was strategically located, both close to the center of the empire and easy to protect from invaders. After Constantine's death, the capital was renamed Constantinople and eventually became the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
  • Period: 330 to 1453

    Byzantine Civilization

    The Byzantine Empire was the surviving Eastern half of the former Roman Empire after its fall. It was located in modern-day Bulgaria and Greece and Asia Minor. Its culture greatly influenced the rising Russian culture of the time. Link
  • 476

    Fall of Rome

    Fall of Rome
    Rome fell due to barbarian invasions by Germanic tribes after the empire was split. While the eastern half survived the fall of the western half, the surviving half was given a new name: the 'Byzantine Empire. '
  • Period: 500 to 1500

    Middle Ages in Europe

    The Middle Ages, also known as the Medieval Period, took place in the continent of Europe. It gave rise to the Feudal system, a system of government based on land ownership and interconnected loyalties. The Middle Ages ended with the Hundred Years' War between Britain and France and the Great Schism of the Church. Link
  • Period: 500 to

    African Kingdoms

    The major African kingdoms were all located in West Africa and were important trading kingdoms. They established a trans-Saharan trade route that enabled them to cross the expansive Saharan Desert. Most of them specialized in Gold-for-Salt trading, though a few kingdoms like Great Zimbabwe in South Africa traded other things such as cattle. Link
  • 532

    Hagia Sophia is Built

    Hagia Sophia is Built
    An Eastern Orthodox cathedral built by Justinian in the Byzantine Empire. It was one of the Byzantine Empire's biggest achievements in architecture and is still open to the public today.
  • Period: 610 to 1300

    Islamic Civilization

    Began in the middle east and eventually spread to Africa, Spain, and Western Asia. It was started by the prophet Muhammad on the basis of the religion Islam. It's golden age was from 1000 CE - 1300 CE. Link
  • 622

    Hegira Begins

    The Hegira was the Prophet Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina under the threat of religious persecution because he attempted to spread Islam at the Kaaba. When he arrived in Medina, he again began preaching Islam and gained a large number of followers who spread the religion even farther.
  • 632

    Schism of Sunni and Shia

    After Muhammad died, a disagreement over who should be the new Muslim leader (caliph) broke out. Some people believed it should only be a direct ancestor of Muhammad, while others supported someone who wasn't a direct ancestor but had ties to his family. These two groups eventually split into two sects of Islam, called the Sunnis and the Shia.
  • 732

    Battle of Tours

    A battle between Muslim invaders and Frankish kingdoms in France that stopped the spread of Islam in Europe. Charles Martel, a Frankish king, came out victorious.
  • Period: 800 to 1100

    Viking Civilization

    Vikings originated from modern-day Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. They set out to raid Europe and ended up settling in England, parts of France, and Iceland. Link
  • Period: 1000 to

    Russian Civilization

    Located in northern Asia and Europe. Vladmir was the first king of Russia and established Orthodox Christianity as the religion. The Cryllic alphabet was invented so a bible could be translated for Russians to read. Link
  • 1054

    Great Schism

    The Great Schism occurred when Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael I excommunicated each other from the Church. This split Christianity into the Roman Catholic Church (under the Pope) and the Eastern Orthodox Church (under the Patriarch.)
  • Period: 1204 to 1502

    Mongol Civilization

    The Mongols began as a group of separate tribes that were united as one empire by Genghis Khan in 1204. At its largest it spanned the entire Asian continent except for India and the north part of Russia. Link
  • 1215

    Magna Carta

    Magna Carta
    The Magna Carta was a charter that gave British commoners rights and freedoms, such as a right to trial by jury and equal protection under the law. King John was forced to sign it under the threat of civil war because citizens were unhappy with his decisions as king. This 'Great Charter' greatly influenced the US Constitution centuries later.
  • 1324

    Mansa Musa's Hajj

    Mansa Musa's Hajj
    Mansa Musa was the king of Mali and one of the richest people in history because of Mali's rich gold mines. As a Muslim, he took a pilgrimage to Mecca and showed off his and his country's wealth, even giving away gold to merchants on the way. His Hajj was both of religious interest and to advertise trade with his incredibly wealthy country.
  • 1337

    Hundred Years War Begins

    Hundred Years War Begins
    The Hundred Years War broke out between Britain and France over a disagreement about who should rule France because an English king had claimed the throne. The French came out victorious with the help of a teenager named Joan of Arc and England lost all of its land in France.
  • 1345

    Tenochtitlan Founded

    Tenochtitlan Founded
    Tenochtitlan was located on an island in Lake Texcoco in modern-day Mexico and was the capital city of the Aztec Civilization. It is said that the Mayan priests looking to find a new place to live were directed by a god to look for a prickly pear cactus and build a temple there in his honor. They obeyed, selecting Tenochtitlan for their temple and built a city around it, and later an empire.
  • 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    Fall of Constantinople
    The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople, which caused the Byzantine Empire to finally collapse. The Hagia Sophia was repurposed as a Muslim mosque and the city because part of the Ottoman Empire.