JHills World History Timeline - 1450 C.E. - 1750 C.E.

  • Period: Jul 27, 1299 to

    Ottoman Empire

    Flag of the Ottoman EmpireThe Ottoman Empire was a Turkish state that became an Empire after the conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453
    - At its peak during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Empire was worldly known as one of the most cosmopolitan, most powerful states in the world
    - It acted as a sort of interactive midpoint between the Western and Eastern worlds during its reign
    - It seemingly became an economical, political, cultural, and military superpower at its time, with seemingly endless resources
  • Period: Nov 12, 1340 to

    Songhai Empire

    The Empire's Area of Influence The Songhai Empire was one of the largest Islamic states in the African continent located along the bend of the Niger River
    - At its peak, the Songhai Empire was one of the largest cultural and commercial centers in Africa, containing African, Jewish, and Islamic merchants all gathered to trade
    - Revived the Islamic Scholarship in the University of Timbuktu
  • Period: Mar 4, 1394 to Nov 13, 1460

    Prince Henry the Navigator

    Infante HenryPrince of Henry of Portugal is an important figure of the early Portuguese Empire and one of the kickstarters for early Maritime exploration
    - His Voyages:
    ~Expanded the Portuguese Empire by occupying the empty, barren lands he discovered
    ~ Diffused Christianity
    ~ Contributed to the development of European exploration and maritime trade
  • Period: Jan 1, 1400 to Nov 12, 1492

    Sunni Ali

    Sunni Ali Sunni Ali was a ruler of the Songhai Empire, ruling from 1464 to 1492 (death)
    - Under his rule, the Songhai Empire expanded tremendously, capturing many cities such as Timbuktu and Djenne, exceeding even that of the Mali Empire
    - He also was able to gain complete control of the Niger River, explaining the Cosmopolitan-like nature of the Empire
  • Period: Mar 30, 1432 to May 3, 1481

    Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

    Mehmed the ConquerorMehmed II was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, twice. His first reign was from 1444 to September 1446, and his second lasted February 1451 to 1481
    - During his first reign, he conquered Constantinople, a feat that ended the Byzantine Empire and made the Ottoman state become the Ottoman Empire - at the age of 21
    - He pushed the empire to become more cosmopolitan, making a council with Arabs, Muslims, Greeks, and provided immense religious freedom. He also developed and codified law
  • Period: Nov 8, 1450 to

    Beggining of Portuguese Slave Trade

    The Portuguese slave trade started when the Portuguese started seeing Slaves as a profitable commodity
    - The Slaves helped expand the Portuguese Empire due to their hardened physique and natural tolerance of extreme heat
    -Portugal made a large monopoly from the Slave trade
    An advertisement during the Slave Trade
  • Period: Nov 8, 1466 to Jun 29, 1520

    Moctezuma II

    Moctezuma IIMoctezuma II is the ninth ruler of the Aztec Empire (r. 1502 - 1520)
    - During his reign, the Empire reached its largest size yet
    - He also widened the gap between nobles (rich) and commoners (poor) He was on good terms with the Spainards until 1519, during Hernan Cortes' visit
    -The Aztec citizens rebelled against the visiting Cortes and Moctezuma was taken as his hostage as a result
    - Moctezuma became known as the last ruler of a fallen
    empire after he was killed by Cortes
  • Period: Nov 10, 1483 to Feb 18, 1546

    Martin Luther

    Martin LutherMartin Luther was a German monk, priest, professor of theology, and a prominent figure during the Protestant Reformation.
    - He proposed the idea that salvation was predestined, and could not be changed by one's faith
    - He also repented Indulgences and the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased
    - His philosophy that only the Bible is the true (and only) source of divinely revealed knowledge led to his followers being called Lutherans
  • Period: Oct 10, 1487 to Dec 8, 1488

    Dias' Voyage into the Indian Ocean

    Dias' Voyage RouteBartolemeu Dias was a knight of the Royal Court apoointed by King John II of Portugal to look around the Southern tip of Africa for a possible Indian trade route
    - He became the first European to round Africa's southernmost tip, the Cape of Good Hope
    - His voyage was successful, as he discovered a new trade route that can be used to trade directly with India and Asia, avoiding the long and costly trip throught the Middle East
  • Period: Aug 3, 1492 to Mar 4, 1493

    Columbus' First Voyages

    Columbus' Discovery of the New WorldColumbus left Italy with three large vessels given to him by the Monarchs
    - During his voyage, he accidentally witnessed the magnetic pull of the Earth, proving the early belief that compasses' followed the North Star was false
    - He captured the first sights of the Americas, the Carribbean, Cuba, and met the Indigneous peoples
    - He was hailed as a hero when he returned along with some enslaved Indigneous peoples and his discoveries of new lands
  • Period: Nov 12, 1492 to

    Columbian Exchange

    What was traded between the two worlds The Columbian Exchange was the international exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations, ideas, and (unintentionally) infectious diseases
    - The spread of crops revolutionized agriculture and completely transformed the way of life (diets) in America, Africa, Asia, and Europe
    - Contributed to the decimation of most of the Native American population due to diseases such as Smallpox
  • Period: Nov 6, 1494 to Sep 5, 1566

    Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent

    Suleyman the MagnificentSuleiman the Magnificent was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 until his death
    - His reign was at the peak of the Ottoman Empire's military, political, and economic
    - Expanded the empire to cover most of the Middle East, Hungary, and rule seas such as the Mediterranean and the Red Sea
    - Known for his complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system
    - Reign starts the golden age of Ottoman artistic and architectural development
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to

    Safavid Empire

    Flag of the Safavids The Safavid Empire is known as one the most important empires in Iran and a turning point in Muslim history adopting Shi'a Islam as its religion
    - Revived Islamic philosophy, another influce in the Muslm world
    - Spread Shi'a Islam to Iran, South Asia, Central Asia, and Anatolia, which is still a modern influence
    - Revived Persia as an economic stronghold between the East and West
    - Advanced in the fine arts, architecture
    - Established a new, more efficient state bureaucracy in Iran
  • Period: Jul 10, 1509 to May 27, 1564

    John Calvin

    John Calvin was a French Theoligist and a prominent figure during the Protestant Reformation
    - He had a major role in the development of Christian Theology, which would later be called Calvinism
    - Introduced new forms of church government and Christian liturgy
    - Reformed several churches in France, including the Church of Geneva
    John Calvin
  • Period: Feb 1, 1519 to Aug 15, 1521

    Spanish Conquest of Mexico

    Hernan Cortes, one of the leaders of the Spanish Conquest The Spanish Conquest of Mexico is the overthrowing of the Aztec Empire in order to colonize the Americas
    - The Aztec Empire was overthrown with Spain victorious and the surviving Aztecs were either killed or enslaved
    - New Spain began to be formed after the Empire was taken down
    - Later on, the Spainards would suppress most of the Indians from Mexico, purshing them towards what is now North America
  • Period: Nov 12, 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

    Flag of the Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent ruled by Muslim descendants of Ghenghis Khan, controlling most of India at its peak in the late 17th and early 18th centuries
    - During its timespan, there was immense cultural and economic progress in India
    - Mughal influence spread around India, its most influential monuments still stand today, such as the Taj Mahal,
    - The Empire was able to unify most of the Indian country, creating its own standard writing system and currency
  • Period: Oct 15, 1542 to

    Reign of Akbar

    Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Akbar Muhammad Akbar was born in the Mughal Empire, and became its third emperor at the age of 13 on February 1566, ruling until his death
    - During his reign, he was able to expand the empire to engulf most of northern and central India, increasing his influence on the Indian subcontinent as a whole
    - He was a great patron in the arts, culture, and especially architecture, creating murals all over the Empire
    - Pushed towards the development of education in the Mughal Empire
  • Period: Dec 13, 1545 to Dec 4, 1563

    Council of Trent

    The Counciil in Santa Maria Maggiore Church
    The Council of Trent was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church
    - Mainly answered the disputes and questions of the Protestants towards the Catholic doctrine, such as the sacraments, salvation, and Biblical canon
    - Was the main driving force of the Counter-Reformation against the Protestant reformation
  • Period: Feb 15, 1564 to

    Galileo Galilei

    Galileo GalileiGalileo Galilei was am Italian physicist, astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher.
    -Had a major role in the Scientific Revolution:
    ~ Improved the telescope and refined astronomical observation
    ~ Was known for supporting Copernicianism
    ~ Roughly developed precursors to classical mechanics and measuring the speed of light
    - He is regarded today as the "Father of Modern Science
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    Tokugawa Ieyasu, Founder of the Historical RegimeAlso known as the Edo period, it is a feudal regime of Japan when it was under dictatorship of the Shoguns of the Tokugawa family
    - Established a rigid social hierarchy
    - During its reign, there was a large line between the nobles and commoners
    - Was a period of cultural and artistic advancement in Japan
    - The alphabet was improved, and the Geisha sub-culture began to bloom
    - Integrated Confucian values to traditional Japanese Culture
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    The Battle of White MountainThe Thirty Years' War was a mainly religious war between the Protestants and the Christians in the Holy Roman Empire
    - During the war, famine and disease became widespread as a result, reaching Germany, Bohemia and Italy
    - Many of the powers involved became bankrupt, as mercenary units and other armies funded themselves mainly through looting or "tribute"
    - Is known as one of the largest and most destructive wars in European history
  • Period: to

    John Locke

    John LockeJohn Locke was an English Philosopher and physician mainly known for his influential role during the Age of Enlightment in Europe
    - Mainly argued on subjects concerning liberty and social contract
    - His works overall had a greater impact on epistemology and political philosophy
    ~ Later influenced the written works of Founding Fathers of the U.S., such as Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    Flag of the Qing Dynasty The Qing Dynasty is known as the last imperial dynasty of China before it became the Republic of China
    - During its reign, there was a greater emphasis on traditional Chinese but also attempts at modernizing it in later years
    - The fine arts reached their apex at this time, even being recognized by world cutlure in general
    - The New Culture Movement began at the Empire's end, intending to put behind the traditionalist views and meet with Global and Western standards
  • Period: to

    Manchu Empire

    Hong Taiji - Founder of the Manchu Empire The Manchu Empire is also known as/became the Qing Dynasty after overthrowing the Ming Dynasty
    - Preserved Manchu virtues, but the Manchu people have taken bits of influence from Chinese people over time
    - The Manchus actually lost power and influence near the Empire's end, when many men were slaughtered protecting it.
  • Period: to

    Peter the Great

    Peter the Great
    Peter the Great was the ruler of the Tsardom of Russia along with Ivan V from 1682 to 1689
    - Replaced the traditional, social and political systems from the age before and after the Mongols with a new science-oriented, European-influence rationalist system
    - His wars successfully expanded the Tsurdom of Russia into the great European power, the Russian Empire
  • Period: to

    England's Glorious Revolution

    William III, who will become the new King of EnglandThe Glorious Revolution was the overthrow of King James II organized by a union of Parliamentarians led by William of Orange
    - Permanently ended Catholic dominance in Europe
    - The overthrow began England's shift from a Monarchy with absolute power, to what is now known as the modern English parliamentary democracy
    - The English Bill of Rights began to be drafted prior to the war's end, it becomes one of the most important documents in Britain's political history
  • Period: to

    Russian Empire

    The Flag of Russia The Russian Empire was a Russian state that became one of the largest empires in world history
    - Saw the end of serfdom since the Mongols ruled in 1861
    - The absolute monarchy at the time became a constitutional monarchy after the Revolution of 1905
    - Established a new railway network in 1860, having massive effects on the Russian economy, culture, and lifestyle