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Islamic Empires

  • Jan 1, 1289

    Start of the Ottoman Empire

    Start of the Ottoman Empire
    The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman Bey. Osman was chief of a group of semi-nomadic Turks who migrated to Antolia in the thirteenth century. This group was very religious and sought to become ghazi, Muslim religious warriors. The Ottomans soon expanded and gained lands in the former Byzantine Empire, Tunisia, Egypt, and the Middle East. It became a military and economic powerhouse.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1289 to

    Ottpman Empire

    The Ottomans, getting their name from the founder of the dynasty Osman Bey, were a very successful empire. Lasting 634 years, the empire at it's highest enveloped lands in Tunisia, Egypt, the Middle East, and lands formerly in the Byzantine empire. During it's prime it was a military powerhouse, conquering and seizing lands with it's well trained military. It was one of the largest and most influential of the Islamic states.
  • Apr 6, 1326

    Capture of Bursa

    Capture of Bursa
    Bursa Osmen Bey began planning to besiege Burma in 1317. He cut off it's sea link so he built a fort by Kaplica, which he put his nephew Ak Timur in charge of. Bey then built a second fort in mountains behind the city, He put his slave Balabancik in charge of this fort. The Ottoman forces then destroyed the fort of Atranos Beyce. When Osman became ill he put his son in charge to take Burma. The Ottoman army entered Burma in 1326 after 8 years. On his deathbed Osman heard the news and died happy.
  • Mar 3, 1354

    Fall of Gallipoli

    Fall of Gallipoli
    After an earthquake hit Gallipoli, almost all of the buildings were destroyed. Towns and villages in the area surroundings area were also affected. Most of the inhabitants of Gallipoli left the city, which gave the Ottomans ample opportunity to take over. Within a few months the Ottoman brought thousands of troops and families to the city and was able to rebuild into a major stronghold within months.
  • Jan 1, 1451

    Mehmed II begins his reign

    Mehmed II begins his reign
    Mehmed II, also known as Mehmed the Conqueror reined from 1451 to 1481. He captured Constantinople in 1453 and believed he was ruler of "two lands" (Europe and Asia) and the "two seas" (Black Sea and the Mediterranean). Mehmed II set in motion a tightly centralized, absolute monarchy. He conquered Serbia, Greece, Albania, and took ports in Crimea.
  • May 29, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    Fall of Constantinople
    Constantinople: In 1453 Mehmed II, also know as Mehmed the Conqueror, captured Constantinople for the Ottoman Empire. With the fall of Constantinople came the fall of the last remains of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantinople became the new capital of the Ottoman empire and became known as Instanbul. Mehmed worked to make Istanbul into a vibrant commercial center.
  • Jan 1, 1501

    The Beginning of the Safavid Empire and the Beginning of Ismail's reign

    The Beginning of the Safavid Empire and the Beginning of Ismail's reign
    Two years prior to 1501, Ismail, a boy of twelve left Gilian to seek revenge. In 1501 he led an army into Tabriz and took the Persian imperial title shah. He would reign from 1501 to 1524. he made twelver Shiism the official language of his empire. In the next decade he conquerored the Iranian plateau.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to

    Safavid Empire

    After heading into Tabriz with an army behind him, Shah Ismail began what is now called the Safavid empire, which is named after Sufi religious leader Safi al-Din. Ismail would continue on to conquer the Iranian plateau. In his empire he made Twelver Shiism the official religion. This empire was constantly at ends with the Sunni Ottomans and went to war a couple of times. The Safavid empire would last for 235 years.
  • Aug 23, 1514

    Battle of Chaldrian

    Battle of Chaldrian
    At the Battle of Chaldrian the Sunni Ottomans and the Shiite Safavids waged war. The Ottomans came with heavy artillary (includng gunpowder), thousand of highly trained Janissaries with firearms, and a powerhouse of an army. The Safavids came with no firearms and no gunpowder. What they came with was a supposedly "protective" leader that would let no harm happen. They were slaughtered. The Ottomans temporarily occupided Tabiz, but didn't have the resources to totally wipe out the Safavids.
  • Jan 1, 1520

    Suleyman the Magnificant begins his reign

    Suleyman the Magnificant begins his reign
    Suleyman the Magnificant promoted Ottoman expansion. In 1534 he seized Baghdad and added the Tigris River and Euphrates valleys to his empire. He also led the Ottoman to become a major naval power. He would reign from 1520 to 1566.
  • Jan 1, 1523

    Zahir al-Din Muhammad comes to India

     Zahir al-Din Muhammad comes to India
    Zahir al-Din Muhammad also known as Babur comes to northern India claiming decent from Tamerlane and Chinggis Khan. He wanted to be a soldier of fortune and an adventurer. Babur, with gunpowder, including firearms and artillery, and man mounted invasions into India in 1523 and 1525.
  • Jan 1, 1526

    Battle of Mohacs

    Battle of Mohacs
    Suleyman the Magnificant of the Ottoman empire captured Belgrade in 1521. After that he conquerored the Kingdom of Hungary in 1526 after the Battle of Mohacs, where he killed the Hungarian King. He gained the land of present day Hungary, and parts of Central European territories.
  • Jan 1, 1526

    Babur takes Delhi: the Beginning of the Mughal Empire

    Babur takes Delhi: the Beginning of the Mughal Empire
    Babur and his men capture Delhi in 1526. He didn't care much for the land. Men in his group didn't like the hot conditions and just wanted to get the spoils of war and go home. Babur in the end decided to stay. He probably only stayed to use the wealth of India to make his central Asia empire fantasy come true. It never did. Nonetheless, he did form one empire, the Mughal empire, which would grow to incude most of India.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1526 to

    Mughal Empire

    The Mughal Empire began with Zahir al-Din Muhammad, also known as Babur. The empire, named for the Persian word meaning Mongol, would grow to include much of India and some of it's surrounding area. Throughout it's history the Mughal empire had three leading men who helped shape it, Babur, the founder of the empire; Akbar, the architect that set up a centralized administrative structure; and Aurangzeb, the conqueror that expanded the empire's boundaries. The empire would last for 332 years.
  • Jan 1, 1556

    Akbar begins his reign

    Akbar begins his reign
    Akbar, the grandson of Babur was the architect of the Mughal Empire. He reigned from 1556 to 1605. He created a central administrative structure that had ministries that regulated the provinces. He consolidated Mughal power in Gujarat and Bengal. Akbar was very interested in religion and philosophy, although he could not read. He encouraged the "divine faith" where the ruler was common to all religious, ethnics, and social groups in India.
  • Tobacco comes to the Islamic States

    Tobacco comes to the Islamic States
    In 1600 tobacco came to the Ottomans from the Europeans. they claimed it was form medical uses. Within decades it spread throughout the whole empire along with coffee. So much so that you could get coffee and nicotine at the same time. (To the left is a smoking pipe.)
  • Taj Mahal's constructions begins

    Taj Mahal's constructions begins
    The Taj Mahal's splendor and beauty stands as a tribute to eternal love. After the death of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, Shan Jahan commisioned a tomb to be built for her. Construction lasted 18 years.
  • Shah Jahan becomes emperor of Mughal Empire

    Shah Jahan becomes emperor of Mughal Empire
    As emperor he sat on the Peacock Throne, which took seven years to make. It had ten million rupees' worth of diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and pearls. On top of it was a golden peacock with a gigantic ruby, fifty carat pearl on it's chest, and a long tail made of blue sapphires and other precious stones. Jahan loved the finer things in life and commissioned architects to build the famous Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife.
  • Aurangzeb begins his reign

    Aurangzeb begins his reign
    Aurangzeb would reign from 1659 to 1707. He waged campaigns to get more land in southern India and greatly expanded Mughal territory. His empire was troubled though. Rebellions and religious tensions, waged during his reign. he was not tolerant of all religions, only Islam. He torched temples and taxed Hindus, which caused rebellions.
  • Safavid Empire Ends

    Safavid Empire Ends
    After being blockaded by Afghan tribesman, until the people were starving and resorting to cannibalism, the Safavid empire ended. The shah abdicaded the throne, thousands of officals and royal family members were killed, and the Safavid empire was no more.
  • Printing Press spreads through the Ottomans

    Printing Press spreads through the Ottomans
    A Turkish press opens, which spreads news throughout the Ottoman empire. Seveenteen books were published that dealt with history, geography, and language.
  • Muhammad Ali takes charge

    Muhammad Ali takes charge
    With peasants in the military, French and Italian officers to train his troops, and good leadership allowed Muhammad to lauch industrilization in Egypt. He would rule from 1805 to 1848. Although he was still subordinate to the Ottoman empire. They didn't have much control over Egypt and Egypt became an autonomous state.
  • Egypt becomes an autonomous region of Ottoman empire

    Egypt becomes an autonomous region of Ottoman empire
    After the failed invasion of Egypt in 1798, turmoil errupted in Egypt. Local elites battled for power, with the winner being Muhammad Ali. He built his forces after European armies. Egypt becomes nominally subordinate to the Ottomans, but the Ottomans don't have much control over it any more.
  • Crimean War starts

    Crimean War starts
    Crimean War: When Russian threatened to upset the balance of power in Europe other European power stepped in to help the Ottoman empire when the Russians were threatening them. Britain, France, and the Kindom of Sardina stepped in to help the Ottomans. The Russians suffered humiliating defeats in the war the spanned from 1853 to 1856.
  • Turkish War of Independence

    Turkish War of Independence
    The Turkish Was of Independence lasted from 1919 to 1922, with the Turkish nationalist winning. The sultan was abolished on November 1st, 1922 and the last sultan left on the 17th of November.
  • Republic of Turkey

    Republic of Turkey
    With the Republic of Turkey officially declared on October 29, 1923, came the official end of the great Ottoman empire.