Elizabeth succession allegory


  • Period: 1509 to 1547


    Created the Church of England. Paved the way for Protestantism (Anglicism).
  • 1517

    Martin Luther's "Ninety-Five Theses"

    Martin Luther's "Ninety-Five Theses"
    Martin Luther writes the "Ninety-Five Theses" to denounce the sales of indulgences and other Church's corruption.
    He published it on October 31st 1517 and nailed it on the Wittenberg University Door. This text is spread thanks to the invetion of printing press, it will cause the start of the European Reformation. He will be expelled from Church in 1521 and considered a "heretic".
  • 1526

    Tyndale Bible

    Tyndale Bible
    After Luther publishes his own German translation of the Bible in 1522, called the "New Testament", it's William Tyndale who translates it in English in 1526 in order for the Bible to be more accesible to the laity. Indeed, it was only in Latin before, only the Priests could read and interpret it. So the Tyndale Bible allows Protestantism to grow even further.
  • 1529

    Pope's rejection of Henry VIII's divorce petition

    Pope's rejection of Henry VIII's divorce petition
    After 18 years of marriage with Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII wanted to divorce but couldn't due to the Church rules. He used the Act in Restraint of Appeals to annul his marriage by himself - legally. In 1533, Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn and made her legitimate queen through the Act of Succession. These two acts generated the start of the schism between the King and the Pope's authority.
  • 1534

    Act Of Supremacy

    Act Of Supremacy
    Foundation of Anglican Church. Henry VIII is crowned sole and supreme head of the Church. => SCHISM separating the Church of Englanc and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Period: 1534 to


  • Period: 1536 to 1537

    Pilgrimage of Grace ⚔︎

    Rebellions in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire against the dissolution of monasteries and the reformation. They demanded the restauration of the Pope and of Mary TUDOR to the royal succession.
  • Period: 1545 to 1563

    Council of Trent

    Held in the Italian city of Trent, symbol of the counter reformation. The Roman Catholic Church attempted to correct some of the abuses of the Church and harshly condemned protestant heresies.
  • Period: 1547 to 1553


    Introduced the book of Common Prayer and Protestant Measures.
  • 1549

    Publication of the Book of Common Prayer

    Publication of the Book of Common Prayer
    One of the measures Edward VI made to carry on the Protestantism in England. The book was made to replace the mass book which was in latin while the Book of Common Prayer is in English.
  • Period: 1553 to 1558


    First Queen regnant. Restored Catholicism in 18 months. Married to Phillip II of Spain. Not popular in England. Nicknamed "Bloody Mary" because she sent 200 protestants to the stake.
  • Period: 1558 to


    Stabilished the Church of England by giving it principles: "The Religious Settlement". Expanded England's influence on her neighbors. Stayed in power for 45 years. Reign is associated with the idea of "Golden Age"
  • 1559

    1559's Act of Supremacy & Act of Uniformity

    1559's Act of Supremacy & Act of Uniformity
    AoS: Abolished the authority of the Pope, and restored the Queen's one over the church. Elizabeth I became "Supreme Governor of the Church of England". AoU: Every parish had to use the book of common prayer. People who did not attend an Anglican service were fined (£2).
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    The 39 Articles of Faith

    Stated the doctrine (religious belief) of the church. Three important changes: a new ecclesiology, a new doctrine of Salvation and a new definition of Sacraments and of the mass.
  • 1569

    The 1569 Northern Rebelllions ⚔︎

    The 1569 Northern Rebelllions ⚔︎
    Rebellion against religious reforms with 6000 insurgents. Attempt to replace Elizabeth I by Mary Queen of Scots. Revolt was led by the Earls of Westmorland and Northumberland.
  • 1570

    Elizabeth I's excommunication by the Pope

    Elizabeth I's excommunication by the Pope
    Pope Pius V issued the Papal Bull "Regnans in Excelsis" where he called Elizabeth "the so-called queen" & "a heretic favouring heretics" and excommunicated her.
  • 1571

    The 1571 Treasons Act

    The 1571 Treasons Act
    It became treason for anyone to say that Elizabeth I was not the true queen of England and Wales.
  • 1581

    The 1581 Act

    The 1581 Act
    "Act to retain the Queen's Majesty's subjects in their due obedience."
    Death penalty to anyone converting or already converted to Catholicism. Forbidden to participate or celebrate the Catholic Mass. Anglican services were compulsory, or else you were fined £20 per month.
  • The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

    The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots
    She was given a shelter by her cousin Queen Elizabeth after leaving Scotland because of a civil war in 1968. She was a threat to Elizabeth as she was a catholic and many plots were made against the Queen to be replaced by her cousin.
    Elizabeth kept her under close watch for 19 years before someone deciphered a coded letter between Mary Stuart and a group ploting for the Queen's death. She was then executed in Fotheringam Castle, wearing a bright red dress, colour of Catholics martyrs.
  • Defeat of the Spanish Armada ⛴

    Defeat of the Spanish Armada ⛴
    Phillip II, King of Spain, attempted to invad England after Elizabeth decided to support Dutch in their revolt against Spain. It was a defeat for Spain for multiple reasons: a new fleet was constructed under Elizabeth I, accompanied by a new strategy and a human advantage. England was victorious and this victory acted as a proof of Elizabeth's qualities and as a reaffirmation both of the English national cohesion and insularity, as well as a divine protection because of the storm.
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    Son of Mary Queen of Scots (executed by Elizabeth I), he has been King of Scotland since 1567 and become King of England after Elizabeth I's death as he was the only legitimate heir. He was a strong believer in the rights of Kings. His reign was ruled by religious divisions, financial problems and issues with the Parliament.
  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    Conspiracy devised by a small group of Catholics to blow up Parliament and kill James I, but the plot failed. The group was arrester and Guy Fawkes (one of the conspirators) was harshly executed.
  • Establishment of Jamestown in Virginia

    Establishment of Jamestown in Virginia
    The first permanent settlement. In 1585, there was a failed attempt by Sir Walter Raleigh to establish a settlement in Roanoke, Virginia. It was named after James I. Virginia was a reference to Queen Elizabeth II's reputation of "virgin queen". They discovered a new type of tobacco discovered by John Rolfe (a Jamestown settler) helped by his wife Pocahontas (daughter of the Powhatan’s chief)0 There was then a new brand of tobacco first sold in England in 1614, it was a huge success.
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    The Starving Time

    Period of starvation, only 60 of the 500 colonists survived.
    It was du to a shortage of drinkable water, insufficient growing of crops, and conflicts with the Native Powhatan tribe. Some settlers even turned to cannibalism.
  • The Great Contract

    The Great Contract
    It's the centerpiece of the financial reforms:
    the King would receive a fixed sum but some members of Parliament feared the King wouldn't need to call Parliament anymore - he would be financially independent.
    The House of Commons refused to vote for the Great Contract, so James I dismissed the Parliament.
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    To soothe the conflict between Catholics and Protestants, James I decided to marry his daughter to the Protestant prince of Germany, Elector Palatine, and to marry his son to a Spanish Catholic Princess. Elector Palatine was invited to take the throne of Protestant Bohemia in place of Ferdinand Habsburg, who sent his army. James I had to intervene to help his son-in-law, and to support protestant side. It's one of the cause of England's debt of £1M
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    Charles I had similar issues as his father: religious issues as he favored a minority wing of Anglicans -> Arminians, believed in the divine rights of Kings, interpreted all criticisms as a challenge to his authority, more conflicts with Parliament.
  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    The members of Parliament requested Charles I to recognize that there were limits to his powers (illegality of extra-parliamentary taxation, martial law, imprisonment without trial and billeting). Charles reluctantly and furiously signed it. He suspended the Parliament after the members were discussing impeaching Lord Buckingham.
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    The Personal Rule

    After the members of Parliament passed three new resolutions in 1629, Charles I decided to dissolve Parliament (and imprisoned the members) as it was an act of open defiance towards him. There were no parliaments for 11 years.
  • Burton, Prynne and Bastwick's Case

    Burton, Prynne and Bastwick's Case
    William Prynne, Henry Burton and John Bastwick were pilloried and got their ears cut off for publishing pamphlets attacking the views of Archbishop Laud. It was shocking as they were gentlemen.
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    The Scottish Crisis (The Bishops' War) ♗

    The introduction of the Book of Common Prayer in 1637 set Scotland aflame as the changes were unnaceptable for them. It generated a riot in St Giles' Cathedral in 1637 which would turn into a widespread rebellion "THE BISHOPS' WAR" when the Scottish National Covenant removed bishops. Charles called Parliament for the first time in 11 years, but dissolved it after 3 weeks: the short parliament. The Scots invaded England and were victorious & made Charles pay for the cost of the Scots Army.
  • The Irish Rebellion + Militia Act

    The Irish Rebellion + Militia Act
    An armed revolt broke out in Ireland as James I had implented a plantation policy there. It was the Irish Catholic Rebels against Protestant Settlers. It resulted in a massacre of 3000/4000 protestants. But false rumors were spread that the Irish atrocities were led by Charles I, with 200.000 protestants killed. An army was needed so Parliament passed the Militia Act saying the army should be placed under the control of a general chosen by Parliament: they were taking away the King's rights.
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The Grand Remonstrance
    TGR is an important document voted by Parliament after heated debates where all the wrong doing of Charles I were summarized. It concluded on revolutionary demands: the right of the House of commons to choose the King’s ministers, the right for Parliament to control any army sent to Ireland and the right for Parliament to reform the Church. It created two groups: Parliamentarians and Royalists.
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    ⚔ First Civil War

    Opposed the Royalists and the Parliamentarians. The latter group won as they had better finances, better alliances, and a stronger army (with the New Model Army). Royalists and King surrendered in May 1646.
  • Declaration of War

    Declaration of War
    On January 1642, Charles I marched into the House of Commons with his troops to arrest five members of the Parliament who were supposedly plotting against the Queen. It was a breach of privilege. Charles decided to left London for York. He then declared war against Parliament.
  • The New Model Army seized the King

    The New Model Army seized the King
    Thinking the war was over, the House of Commons decided to disband the New Model Army without paying the soldiers what they were due. It led to mutiny and to the seizing of the King by the NMA. The war encouraged groups with radical ideas such as the NMA (religious and political radicalism influenced by the Levellers). The army then issued the "Agreement of the People" on November 1647 : no authority above parliament and elections. The Putney Debates discussed these demands but no agreement.
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    ⚔ Second Civil War

    In November 1647, Charles I escaped from the Army Custody and allied himself with Scots to invade England and restore him on the throne. The 2nd Civil War was a series of revolts in the South of England, in Wales and in Scotland. Royalists were easily defeated.
  • England becomes a Commonwealth

    England becomes a Commonwealth
    Monarchy and the House of Lords were abolished,
    England was then declared a Commonwealth.
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    A law abolished monarchy, described as unecessary and dangerous, as well as the House of Lords. The House of Commons had supreme authority, England was declared a commonwealth (ruled as a republic). It failed because of Royalists Revolts in Ireland and Scotland but repressed by Cromwell, and also because of issues with the Rump Parliament which was then dissolved by Cromwell on April 20th 1653.
  • Charles I's Execution

    Charles I's Execution
    The Army wanted the King to be tried while conservative MPs wanted to negotiate. In December 1648, Colonel Pride entered the House of Commons, stopped the vote and arrested the 45 conservative leader MPs: it was called the "PRIDE’S PURGE". The remainder of MPs (Rump Parliament) put the King on trial for High Treason. He was executed on January 30th 1649.
  • The Instrument of Government 🕮

    The Instrument of Government 🕮
    Problems with the Rump Parliament pushed Cromwell to dissolve it on 20th April 1653 when he ordered the members of Parliament to leave. It was followed by the "Barebones Parliament" but due to internal tensions, it was dissolved. The end of the Commonwealth was proclaimed, making the start of the Cromwellian Protectorate with the Instrument of Government. It was England's first and only written constitution.
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    It was a military dictatorship, similar to a Monarchy but without a King but with Cromwell as "Lord Protector". Cromwell died in 1658, his son Richard replaced him but resigned after 6 months. It led to a period of Anarchy where 7 different governments ruled in less than a year.
  • The Restoration

    The Restoration
    In 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda. It promised: a general amnesty, to continue religious toleration, to share power with Parliament in return for the restoration of monarchy. It worked and the King was restored on 29th May 1660.
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    Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda in 1660. He was then restored as King on May 29th 1660. His reign was ruled by issues such as the 1665 outbreak of Plague, the 1666 Great Fire of London and the second Anglo-Dutch war. A plot was made to replace him with his Catholic Brother James II, but Parliament tried to modify the rules of succession which made Charles II dissolve the Parliament. He died in 1685 and was succeeded by James II.
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    The Political Crisis

    The Popish Plot of 1678 when the French tried to murder Charles II to replace him with his Catholic brother James II in order to restore Catholic ideas and absolute monarchy. The Parliament feared it would happen and it led to exclusion crisis from 1679 to 1681 when Parliament attempted to debar James II from the succession to the English throne. They were trying to modify the rules of succession as well as the Divine Right of Kings. Charles decided to dissolve the Parliament.
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    James II's reign was met with a deep seated fear of Catholicism Absolutism. But he was old and didn't have a male heir so there was still hope, only until his second wife gave birth to a son, a catholic heir. Parliament invited the King's protestant daughter's husband, William of Orange to invade England and seize the crown. He came with an army of 15000 men and was met with no resistance from James II who fled to France.
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    With their reign, it's the start of the Glorious Revolution as there was no shedding of blood and english subjects' liberties were reinforced. It was a Constitutional Monarchy where there were limits for the monarch's powers. Those limits were fixed by: the Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement. They had no surviving children for them to succeed them but thanks to the Act of Settlement, it ensured a Protestant succession.
  • The Bill of Rights 🕮

    The Bill of Rights 🕮
    This text was to fix the monarch's limits, it:
    ° Lists King James’ misdeeds
    ° Fixed limitations on the sovereign’s powers (no not Parliament-confirmed taxes)
    ° Set out the rights of Parliament
    ° Set out basic civil rights
    ° Is a key political text (essential document of the uncodified British constitution and a Model for the US Bill of rights)
  • The Act of Settlement 🕮

    The Act of Settlement 🕮
    As William II and Mary II had no surviving children and every other possible succesor were Catholic, this act settled the order of succession and ensured a Protestant succession, ignoring dozens of Catholic heirs Successor (Hanoverian descendants of James I). This text has a key role in the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain It put an end to the 16th and 17th quarrel between King and Parliament. A new balance of powers in favour of Parliament.
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    She was the last Stuart Monarch. During her reign, it was the development of the Parliamentary Monarchy with:
    the impact of the european war (against Louis XIV) which was costly (led to changes in the government finances); development of cabinet ministers; development of the press. She ratified the 1707 Act of Union to create a single Kingdom.
  • The 1707 Act of Union 🕮

    The 1707 Act of Union 🕮
    It's the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain: England (and Wales) and Scotland:
    - A single kingdom.
    - Scotland lost its parliament but gained 45 seats in the House of Commons + 16 seats in the House of Lords.
    - Scotland kept its Presbyterian church and own laws.
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    War of the Spanish Succession ⚔︎

    After acquiring new colonies: Viriginia (1607) Plymouth (1620), Maryland (1634), New Netherland (1664 / renamed New York), Pennsylvania (1682), the British Empire got in a war ("Queen Anne's War") agaisnt France and Spain. Britain gained Acadia over the French.
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    Seven Years’ War ⚔︎

    Britain gained Florida over the Spanish and (most of) Canada over the French.
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    American War of Independence ⚔︎

    It was a turning point in British history, as the nation lost a huge part of its empire. This marked the end of what is now called the ‘First British Empire’. 
  • Act of Union of 1801

    Act of Union of 1801
    Union between the Kingdom of Great-Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland, creating the United-Kingdom of Great-Britain and Ireland. The Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and Wales were united through the 1707 Act of Union, to compose the Kingdom of Great-Britain.