Histoire Britannique 1

  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy is passed

    Act of Supremacy is passed
    Henry VIII passes the Act of Supremacy, making himself the "Supreme Head of the Church of England". This was the schism; the separation of the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England. This was passed as the Pope refused Henry VIII's request to divorce Catherine of Aragon, despite his argument that his marriage was morally wrong, as she was previously married to his brother.
  • 1536

    Dissolution of the monastries

    Dissolution of the monastries
    Between 1536-1541, Henry VIII ordered the dissolution of the monastries with the Crown assuming their wealth and property, which was about 25% of all land in England. By 1536, only the largest remained, which were then disbanded two years later.
  • 1537

    Pilgrimage of Grace

    Pilgrimage of Grace
    Catholic rebellions to the dissolution of monastries that took place in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. They were also protesting for the restoration of the Pope and Mary Tudor to assume the throne. They had also lost the majority of their wealth and land as this had been taken by Henry VIII.
  • 1543

    Edward VI assumes the throne

    Edward VI assumes the throne
    As Henry VIII's only son, Edward VI took the throne at 9 years old. He was also the son of Jane Seymour.
  • 1549

    Publication of the Book of Common Prayer

    Publication of the Book of Common Prayer
    Edward VI was fiercely Protestant, so he released a new religious text that was to act as the new mass-book. This revision also included further eradication of Roman Catholicism within society, such as statues, stained glass and practices. This implementation caused rebellions in Devon and Cornwall.
  • 1553

    Mary I becomes the first Queen of England

    Mary I becomes the first Queen of England
    After Edward VI's death aged just 15, Mary I assumes the throne as next legitimate heir
  • 1553

    The Catholic Restoration

    The Catholic Restoration
    Mary I was fiercely Catholic. During her reign of five years (1553-1558), she restored Catholicism. She was married to Phillip II of Spain, who himself was very Catholic. However, many people disapproved of this marriage and she lost popularity very quickly. Furthermore, Protestantism had to now be practiced in secret, as over 200 Protestants were burnt at the stake during her reign. They were, therefore, made to flee. Her death in 1558 was welcomed by the English people and even her husband.
  • 1553

    Passing of the Poor Laws

    The Poor Laws reinforced the idea that the state and local government have to provide somewhat for the poor. However, this created the divide between the 'deserving poor' and 'undeserving poor'. There were very strict laws that ostricised beggars and variants. However, this system remained until the 19th century. Further laws were passed in 1597 and 1601
  • 1558

    Queen Elizabeth I assumes the throne

    Queen Elizabeth I assumes the throne
    Elizabeth I was unmarried and 25 years old when she took the throne. Her mother was Anne Boleyn, and due to the tenuous way that her mother became Queen alongside her father Henry VIII, she had to prove her legitimacy.
  • 1558

    Defeat of the Spanish Armarda

    Defeat of the Spanish Armarda
    King Philip II of Spain commanded a fleet of ships to invade England alongside an army of 30000 men which was ordered by Duke of Medina-Sidonia and Duke of Parma. The English ships were much better designed both in shape and their weapons (cannons). The Spanish fleet was also impacted by miscommunication and poor weather. The English were victorious and Elizabeth I was commended for her speech to the troops at Tilbury, which showed her power as Queen and General Commander and Chief of the Army
  • 1559

    Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    Elizabeth I made it mandartory for every parish to use Edward VI's Book of Common Prayer. Also, people who did not attend an Anglican service were given a fine
  • 1559

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    Elizabeth had the difficult job of apeasing both Catholics and Protestants in England. Elizabeth herself, however, was Protestant. The Act of Supremacy abolished the authority of the Pope and returned the power of the monarchy over the Church. Therefore, Elizabeth became "Supreme Governor of the Church of England"
  • 1559

    Elizabeth I's affair with Robert Dudley

    Elizabeth I's affair with Robert Dudley
    Robert Dudley (1st Earl of Leicester) and Elizabeth were rumoured to be having an affair, which spanned over two years until 1561. However, Robert was married at the time. William Cecil, one of Elizabeth's councillors, strongly disapproved of this relationship and started a rumour that Dudley wanted to poison his wife. His wife had breast cancer at the time, however, noone knows how she died. Dudley was suspected and so Elizabeth could not marry him, due to this scandal
  • 1563

    The 39 Articles of Faith

    The 39 Articles of Faith
    Between 1563-1571, Elizabeth passed the 39 articles of faith, which included the doctrine of the Church. It also included 3 significant changes: a new ecclesiology, a new doctrine of Salvation and a new definition of sacraments and of the mass
  • 1569

    The Northern Rebellion

    The Northern Rebellion
    Throughout Elizabeth's reign, the significance of the Catholic population in England was diminshing. 6000 Catholic insurgents led a rebellion against the religious reforms that Elizabeth was making that were ostracising the Catholic population in England. Therefore, they wanted to make Mary, Queen of Scots (Elizabeth I's cousin) the new queen. It was led by the Earls of Westmorland and Northumberland, but was crushed.
  • 1570

    Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth I

    Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth I
    Until 1570, the small Catholic population in England was somewhat tolerated by Elizabeth I. However, at this point, they began to be persectured, as Protestantism, was now being viewed as a way of expressing patriotism in England. In response, Pope Pius V issued the papal bull 'Regnans in Excelsis', which berated Elizabeth I and, significantly, called her 'The so-called Queen'. In 1571, the Treason Act made it illegal to say that Elizabeth I was not the true Queen of England and Wales.
  • 1570

    Mary, Queen of Scots is executed

    Mary, Queen of Scots is executed
    She wore a bright red dress as a symbol of the Catholic matryr.
  • 1581

    Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in their due Obedience

    Act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in their due Obedience
    Enforced the death penalty for any person who had, or will, convert to Catholicism. It was now forbidden to attend Catholic mass- people had to attend Anglican mass or face a monthly £20 fine. Over the course of 1577-1603, 163 people were killed in response.
  • The Babingdon Plot

    The Babingdon Plot
    At this time, Mary, Queen of Scots had been living essentially as a prisoner of Elizabeth for 19 years, as she had escaped the civil war in Scotland. Mary was a Catholic and very close to France and Spain, so was a threat to Elizabeth. The Babingdon Plot was the most significant, as young Catholics had vowed to kill Elizabeth and replace her with Mary. However, Francis Walsingham deciphered a letter between this group and Mary. She was sentenced to death for complicity.
  • Queen Elizabeth I dies

    Queen Elizabeth I dies
    By Elizabeth's death in 1603, she had a major impact both within Engladn and the world. She had imposed Protestantism as the main religion in England and also raised England's prominence within the world.
  • James I takes the throne

    James I takes the throne
    As Elizabeth I did not bear an heir, James Stuart, also James VI of Scotland, takes the throne of England, taking the title of James I of England. He was the son of Mary Queen of Scots, who Elizabeth I had executed.
  • Gunpowder Plot

    Gunpowder Plot
    The Gunpower Plot was devised by a small group of Catholics within the intention of blowing up Parliament, thus killing James I. However, he was caught and did not succeed.
  • The Great Contract

    James I inherited a substantial amount of debt from his predecessor, Elizabeth I, which amounted to £100 000. James, himself, also had extravagant spending habits. The 'Great Contract' was James' way of ensuring that he received the money he needed from Parliament. However, Parliament refused to vote in its favour, so James dismissed it.
  • The Thirty Years' War

    The Thirty Years' War
    The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), which started due to the Elector Palatine being invited to take the throne of Bohemia and replacing Emperor Ferdinand Habsburg. The Emperor was supported by Catholic Spain and the Elector Palatine had German princes, Scandinavia, France and the Dutch Republic. James I wanted Elizabeth Stuart, his daughter, to marry a prince from Palatine and, thus, was invested. James called Parliament to request money for the war, but they refused. Therefore, he dissolved it.
  • James I dies

    James I dies
    James I dies. His son, Charles I, takes the throne.
  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    The Petition of Rights was the product of MP's complaints and sought for the King to appreciate the fact that extra-parliamentary taxation, billeting, martial law and imprisonment without trial are illegal. Charles I was a strong believer in the divine rights of kings, but Parliament wanted Charles to acknowledge the limits to his powers. Charles reluctantly signed this, but then suspended parliament as they sought to impeach Lord Buckingham; Charles' advisor.
  • Passing of the Three Resolutions

    Passing of the Three Resolutions
    Parliament passed the Three Resolutions, which declared that anyone who tried to bring in ‘Popery of Arminianism’ or to change the protestant forms of the Church of England or anyone advising the King to collect custom duties without Parliament’s consent was an enemy of the Kingdom. This was a clear act of rebellion, so Charles dissolved Parliament and imprisoned the MPs that created this bill. This situation triggered the Personal Rule, lasting eleven years,
  • The Personal Rule

    The Personal Rule
    The Personal Rule refers to 11 years when King Charles I ruled without a parliament. This period included the implementation of very unpopular religious policies by Archbishop Laud (an Arminian), due to their connections with Catholicism.
  • The Scottish Crisis

    The Scottish Crisis
    The Scottish Crisis lasted from 1637-1640 and contributed towards the termination of The Personal Rule. The introduction of the Book of Common Prayer into the Calvinist Kirk (Scottish Church). The response was a riot then turned into a large rebellion, known as the Bishops' Wars. The Scottish National Convenant was created in 1638 as a response to these changes and the Scottish General Assembly removed the bishops. This rebellion meant both England and Scotland raised armies for war.
  • The Short and Long Parliaments

    The Short and Long Parliaments
    In a response to the Scottish uprising, Charles I ended his Personal Rule and summoned Parliament to request money to fund his army. However, Parliament wanted to address the issues they had, so Charles dissolved it after three weeks. After the Scottish defeated the English, the Treaty of Ripon (October 1640) stated that Charles had to pay the cost of the Scots' army. Therefore, Charles called parliament again, except, this time, it was not dissolved until 1660.
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The product of heated parlimentary debates that contained the wrong dongs of Charles I and, thus, contained 'revolutionary' demands. This text, however, created the two sides needed for the impeding Civil War; the Parlimentarians and the Royalists
  • Militia Act

    Parliament passed the bill that they must be the ones to control the army, not the king. This removed the King's ability to appoint whoever he decided was best
  • The Irish Rebellion

    The Irish Rebellion
    This marked the uprising of Irish Catholic rebels against Protestant settlers and 3000/4000 Protestants were killed. There were rumours that the figures were closer to 20000 deaths, which reinforced the anti-Catholic sentiment in England.
  • Irish Rebellion

    Irish Rebellion
    The Irish Rebellion was run by Irish Catholics, but overcome by Cromwell and his troops. This was through the massacre of Irish Royalist troops and civilians in Drogheda and the Wexford massacre. The result Cromwell banning Catholicism, as well as arresting Irish priests and confiscating Irish Catholics' lands.
  • The First Civil War

    The First Civil War
    The first civil war began when Charles I marched into the House of Commons, fuelled by the idea that 5 MPs were plotting to kill the Queen. This was a breach of privilege, after which, Charles fled from London to York. Subsequently, Parliament presented 19 propositions to the King and, in response, Charles declared war on Parliament. The two sides were the Royalists (led by Charles) and the Parliamentarians (led by Parliament). The Parliamentarians won this war, that lasted 1642-1646.
  • Second Civil War

    Second Civil War
    After the first civil war, Charles was kept captive. However, in November 1647, the King escaped and joined forces with the Scots. The Scottish would invade the English and Charles, to repay them, would introduce Calvinism in England. This war was very short and, once again, was won by the Parlimentarians. Charles was subsequently executed on 30th January 1649, following which, England was declared a Commonwealth.
  • The Interregnum Period

    The Interregnum Period
    The definition of this period is that of being between two reigns and two kings. This was because, after the execution of Charles II, there was no stability and creation of a military protectorate ruled by Cromwell. During this period, there were many experiments with republican forms of government. This period contained both the Commonweath (1649-1653) and the Cromwellian Protectorate (1653-1660).
  • The Regicide

    A law abolished monarchy, as well as the House of Lords. The House of Commns had supreme authority, so England was declared a Commonwealth and thus was ruled as a Republic
  • Scottish Rebellion

    Charles II, the proclaimed king of Scotland, raised a Scottish army to invade Engladn after his father's death. However, they were defeated by Cromwell's army and, furthermore, crushed the uprising of the Scots Royalist force led by Charles in 1651.
  • Dissolving the Rump Parliament

    The issues with the Rump Parliament were that of slow progress with electoral reform and the army become more frustrated with the Rump Parliament. Therefore, in 1653, Cromwell dissolved it and replaced it with the 'Barebones Parliament'. This was dissolved shortly after, which marked the end of the Commonwealth and start of the Protectorate
  • The Instrument of Government

    Remaining today as England's first and only written constitution. It gave a large amount of power to the 'Protector' at any one time.
  • The Cromwellian Protectorate

    The Protectorate was a military dictatorship, which essentially was a monarchy without a King. Cromwelll was appointed Lord Protector, so had executive power. Therefore, he had militia and diplomatic control. Parliaments were elected every 3 years of 460 MPs and, to vote, a man had to own £200 worth of personal property.
  • Declaration of Breda

    Following the period of anarchy, many people were vying for the return of the monarchy. In response, Charles II (son of Charles I) issued the Declaration of Breda, which promised a general amnesty, maintaining religious toleration and to share power with Parliament. However, this was in return for monarchy restoration. On 29th May 1660, Charles II was restored at monarch, so the proposition worked.
  • Cromwell dies

    Cromwell dies
    Oliver Cromwell dies and his brother takes over as Lord Protector for 6 months and then resigns. This led to anarchy, as there was no one leader and seven governments within a year.
  • Early Restoraton Period

    Early Restoraton Period
    The Early Restoraton Period spanned across 11 years and marked the beginning of the reinstatement of the monarchy. The King desired reconciliation, but did not comply with all his demands because he ordered all 100 people that signed Charles I's death warrant to be executed.
  • The Plague Outbreak

    The Plague Outbreak
    The Plague broke out in London due to the dense population and unsanitary conditions. Those rich enough fled, but the remaining people had to suffer. Rats and fleas spread the disease and, at its peak, 7000 died a weak.
  • The Clarendon Code

    A series of laws passed over the course of the first five years of the Restoration
  • The Great Fire of London

    The Great Fire of London
    The Great Fire of London began in Pudding Lane and destroyed the majority of London's buildings. This was because they were very close together and made of flammable materials such as straw, so the fire could spread easily.
  • The Exclusion Crisis

    Parliament's attempt to remove James II from the succession to the English throne. However, Charles II's response was to dissolve Parliament.
  • The Popish Plot

    The Popish Plot
    Rumour of a plot constructed by Catholic France to murder Charles II and replace him with his Catholic brother James II. This was an issue because the recent, at the time, King of France, Louis XVI had become an absolute monarch and persecuted Protestants. Therefore, Parliament feared this potential implementation of absolute monarchy and persecution of Protestants.
  • Charles II dies

    Charles II dies
    His brother, James II, succeedes him and takes the English throne. James II was Catholic and this ignited the deep rooted fear of Catholic absolutism. This was furthered by James's attempt to enforce toleration of Catholic worship, which Parliament prevented. However, noone wanted to return to the same levels of animosity that lead to the Civil Wars
  • William of Orange invades and takes the throne

    William of Orange invades and takes the throne
    To solve the issue of James' potential enforcement of Catholicism, Parliament relied on the fact that James was old and did not have a male heir. However, his second wife gave birth to a son in 1688. Therefore, in the same year, Parliament gave the Dutch William of Orange to invade and seize the crown, as he was the King's son-in-law. He did so, with an army of 15000 men and met no resistance. Therefore, in 1688, William of Orange became King William III alongside James' daughter, Mary II.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights was a document produced by Parliament that set out King James II's misdeeds and, therefore, set limits on the monarch's power, as well as giving Parliament certain powers. These included the fact that Parliament had to consent to new laws and now had control over finances and the army. Furthermore, the rights of Parliament included regular parliaments, free elections and freedom of speech in Parliament. For the English people, the Bill of Rights introduced basic civil rights
  • Act of Settlement

    This Act ensured that there would always be a Protestant monarch to succeed (which, at the time, ignored many Catholic heirs to the throne after William's death). Importantly, this Act also solved the dispute between King and Parliament, whilst giving powers to Parliament. William was quite compliant. This Act was also preceeded by the Toleration Act of 1689, which established religious pluralism and freedom of worship for all Protestants.
  • William III dies

    William III dies
    William III dies and is subsequently succeeded by Queen Anne, who was the last Stuart monarch.
  • Ratification of the Act of Union

    Ratification of the Act of Union
    This signified the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland (later joined by Northern Ireland)). This meant the King of England was always also Scotland's monarch. Therefore, Scotland lost its parliament, but it did gain 45 seats in the House of Commons, as well as 16 seats in the House of Lords. Scotland also retained its Presbyterian church and own laws