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Enlightenment of the 17th Century Through the Congress of Vienna

  • Publication of the Encyclopedia

    Publication of the Encyclopedia
    The product of the collective effort of more than a hundred authors, and its editors had at one time or another solicited articles from all the major French philosophes. It included the most advanced critical ideas of the time on religion, government, and philosophy. (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p. 523) The emergence of print culture made the Encyclopedia widely available.
  • Louis XVI Succeeds the Throne

    Louis XVI Succeeds the Throne
    During the eighteenth century, Rocco paintings and other popular prints convinced people of France that the monarchy, the court, and the aristocracy were frivolous and decadent. Louis XVI was a good intentioned, pious and highly moral monarch, but he could not undo the hostility toward political and social elites brought on by Rocco art.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p. 535)
  • Adam Smith's "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of teh Wealth of Nations"

    Adam Smith's "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of teh Wealth of Nations"
    Adam Smith is considered the “Father of Capitalism.” His publication suggested that “the best way to encourage economic growth was to allow individuals to pursue their own selfish economic interests.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.524) This notion undermined the old regime and further isolated the aristocracy of middle class and peasantry.
  • "What is Enlightenment" published by Immanuel Kant

    "What is Enlightenment" published by Immanuel Kant
    The "Age of Enlightenment" got it's start with the work of famous astronomers like Sir Isaac Newton, followed by enlightened thinkers: Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot, d'Alembert, Rousseau, Gibbon, Smith, Lessing and Kant. Kant published an essay in which he defined enlightenment as "man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity." Works like these were the catalyst for man to begin questioning the authority of aristocracy, church and government.
  • The Estates General becomes the Natural Assembly

    The Estates General becomes the Natural Assembly
    As France began to experience financial pressures and failed attempts at tax reform, the Third Estate asserted themselves and created the National Assembly.
  • July Attack on the Bastille

    July Attack on the Bastille
    King Louis XVI appeared to be considering the use of force against the National Assembly. Anxiety ensured and Parisians organized a citizen militia. This was the beginning of the people redirecting the Revolution.
  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
    “A statement of broad political principals; this declaration drew on the political language of the Enlightenment of eh Declaration of the Rights that the state of Virginia had adopted in June 1776.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.557)
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    When Louis XVI hesitated to ratify the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Women were particularly concerned with their rights as it related to property inheritance, family, and divorce. Suspicious of Louis XVI motives and potential use of force, 7,000 Parisian women marched to Versailles and demanded bread; The people also demanded his return to Paris.
  • Legislative Assembly

    Legislative Assembly
    The legislature of France during the French Revolution from October 1, 1791 through September 20, 1792. The primary focus was that of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Assembly and the National Convention.
  • Flight to Varennes

    Flight to Varennes
    Sensing hostilities of the people, Louis XVI and his family fled France on June 20th. Dressed as servants, they made it as far as Varennes before they were recognized and forced to return.
  • Legislative Assembly Declares War on Austria

    Legislative Assembly Declares War on Austria
    “The decision launched a period of armed conflict across Western Europe that with only brief intervals of peace lasted until the final defeat of France at Waterloo in June 1815.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.567)
  • Invasion of Tuileries Palace

    Invasion of Tuileries Palace
    The Royal family was forced to take refuge in the Legislative Assembly after a large crowd invaded the Tuileries Palace. After much blood shed, they were taken prisoner and forced out of power.
  • The National Convention

    The National Convention
    A newly elected body that declared France a republic. France was now a nation governed by an elected assembly without a monarch.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Beheaded on January 21st 1793, Louis XVI preceded his wife (Queen) Marie Antionette in death; she was executed in October of the same year.
  • The Reign of Terror - Robespierre

    The Reign of Terror - Robespierre
    Leader of the Committee of Public Safety, Maximilien de Robespierre took a radical approach to protecting and preserving the new republican political and social order that had emerged. “Thousands of people, from all walks of life were arbitrarily arrested and, in many cases, executed.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.572)
  • Robespierre Execution

    Robespierre Execution
    After calling out members of the government for conspiring against him, Robespierre alienated members of the Convention. They quickly arrested him before he could speak publicly again, and executed him without a trial.
  • The Directory

    The Directory
    A legislature of two houses devised to replace a system with only one chamber and unlimited authority. This legislature is comprised of members of the upper body, or Council of Elders; Members of the lower council; and the executive body.
  • Rise of Napoleon

    Rise of Napoleon
    As commander of the French army during the Revolution, Napoleon made a name for himself as a brilliant tactician on the battle field. His early victories and his dominating conquests across Europe made him a hero of France. His subordinates were very loyal and would fight the death for their country.
  • The Consulate

    The Consulate
    “The Consulate in effect ended the revolution in France. The Third Estate had accomplished most of their goals by 1799; abolishing hereditary privilege. Careers were now opened to those with talent; allowing them to achieve wealth, status, and security for their property. Peasants were also satisfied; they had gained the land they wanted and destroyed oppressive feudal privileges.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.586)
  • Emperor Napoleon Boneparte

    Emperor Napoleon Boneparte
    “Napoleon convinced Pope Pius to agree that the new emperor should crown himself. This approach was to prevent anyone from thinking that Bonaparte’s power and authority depended on the church.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.588)
  • British Royal Navy Defeats the French

    British Royal Navy Defeats the French
    “On October 21st, the British admiral Lord Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish fleets at the battle of Trafalgar off the Spanish coast.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.590)
  • Napoleon Defeats Austrian and Russian Forces

    Napoleon Defeats Austrian and Russian Forces
  • French Defeat Prussian Army

    French Defeat Prussian Army
    “After defeating Austrian and Russian forces at Austerlitz, Napoleon made sweeping political changes in the German states. In response, Prussia waged war on the French, but suffered a humiliating loss at Jena and Auerstadt on October 14, 1806” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.591)
  • French Defeat the Russians in 1807

    French Defeat the Russians in 1807
    Another defeat of Russian forces at Friedland; the French now occupied East Prussia. Having occupied or co-opted the west German states, humbled and humiliated Austria, and defeated Prussia, the Napoleon was master of all Germany.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.591)
  • Invasion of Russia

    Invasion of Russia
    Though France technically won the war with Russia, the invasion devastated French forces with an estimated half a million lives lost. The Russians mounted a defense that included the burning of Moscow; leaving the French without shelter and food during the brutal winter months.
  • Napoleon Exile to Elba

    Napoleon Exile to Elba
    With an inexperienced army, Napoleon was unable to prevail over the powerful coalition of Russia, Prussia, Austria and the financial backing of the British. To make matters worse, the French emperor was ill and lost the confidence of his generals; he was left out of some critical strategic planning that caused some serious losses. As a result, Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba.
  • The Treaty of Chaumont

    The Treaty of Chaumont
    “Allies banded together for a period of time, but it was British foreign secretary, Robert Steward who brought the signing of the Treaty of Chaumont on March 9, 1814. The treaty restored the Bourbons to the French throne and formed a four way alliance for twenty years to preserve their political accomplishments.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.599)
  • The Return of Napoleon

    The Return of Napoleon
    Napoleon retuned from Elba on March 1, 1815. He was met by the French army who was ordered to arrest him. Their loyalty would overshadow any authority of the Bourbons as they mounted what would be a final attack against the allies.
  • The Battle of Waterloo

    The Battle of Waterloo
    The Battle of Waterloo would be Bonaparte’s last stand. The British and the Prussians joined forces once again to bring the French to their knees.
  • Napoleon is Defeated

    Napoleon is Defeated
    “Napoleon again abdicated and was exiled on Saint Helena.” (The Western Heritage 11th Ed. 2013 p.600)
  • Death of Napoleon

    Death of Napoleon
    Napoleon Bonaparte dies on Saint Helena in 1821