French Revolution & Napoleon

By kwolf14
  • Period: to

    French Revolution and Napoleon

  • 1787: Dutch Patriot Revolt:

    Their purpose was to reduce the powers of the prince of Orange, kinglike that favored with Great Britain.
    Built support in middle class that helped the Patriots to gain a more popular audience from demanding political reforms.
    Organized armed citizen militias that were called Free Corps.

    Free Corps soon took upper hand from the prince of Orange, soon after thousands of Prussian troops helped prince of Orange to regain formal position.
  • The Belgiuan Independence Movement

    the Enlightenment-inspired reforms were introduced by Joseph II
    He abolished torture, brought the toleratoin for Jews and Protestants and suppressed monastaries.
    He eliminated mulitple offices throught the reorganization of the administrative and judicial systems. This angered the ones the offices belonged to like the lawyers and the nobles.
  • Revolutionary Wave (1787-1789)

    Liberty broke out in the Dutch Republic, Austria Netherlands, France, and Poland.
    During that time the United States of America was independent and readied for a new federal constitution.
    The French Revolution caused France to become the richest, most powerful, and most populous state in Europe.
  • The Fall of the Bastille

    started when the king fired Jacques Necker who was the Swiss Protestant minister
    this caused the common people to intervene in a violent way toward the political movement.
  • The Great Fear

    The was when the French rural had a panic about beggars and vagrants.
    This led peasants to attack the aristocrats.
    Peasants refused to pay dues to their lords the peasants raised alarm because of their persistence and their possible insurrection.
  • Jacobin Club

    This was a French political club
    This clubs inspired the formation of a national network, the members were able to dominate the revolutionary government during the Terror.
    this club was named after a former monastery in Paris, that is were the club first met.
  • End of Feudalism

    decided by the National Assembly
    noble deputies were giving tax exemptions
    remaining serfs were freed
  • General Estates opens at Versailles

    before it opened up at Versailles 12 hundred deputies when the the king’s palace for the opening of the Estates General.
    The Third Estate took and action and declared themselves the National Assembly.
    the result was having the clergy voted to join the National Assembly.
  • Declaration of the Right of Man and Citizen

    It established the sovereignty of the nation and equal rights for citizens.
    It made women in denial of accept their exclusion
    It was the cause of the Women’s Club
    Subordination of the Church
    disband of the nobility
    citizens were all frenchmen regardless of class
    Removes power from the king
  • Constitution

    established a hereditary monarchy that had some strength of authority.
    ended veto power with all aristocrats that had over legislation.
    townspeople received political rights that were limited.
    the constitution was made because of the Polish patriots.
    the Polish patriots’ leader was August Poniatowski
  • Louis XVI (1774-1792)

    Louis XVI (1774-1792)
    He ruled from 1774 through 1792
    he was tried of treason
    He eventually got executed on January 21, 1793
    During the fiscal crisis people complained that he didn’t show much interest in the problems that were happening in the government.
    He married Marie-Antoinette
  • When War Broke Out

    this caused new tensions in the second revolution.
    before the war broke out the French Revolutions tried to establish a constitutional monarchy.
    That constitutional monarchy was based on the Enlightenment principles.
  • Brunswick Manifesto

    Issued by Charles, Duke of Brunswick
    Austria and Prussia came together for the protection of Louis XVI and the restoration of royal authority.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    His fate and the future of the republic had divided the deputies elected to the National Convention.
    During the king’s trial the first showdown was between Girondins and the Mountain in December 1792.
    Louis XVI was killed by the guillotine after Girondins found him guilty of treason.
  • De-Christianization

    This was a campaigned that inckuded closing churches both Protestant and Catholic ones.
    The churches (buildings) would be sold to the highest bidder.
    the churches resulted in being; store- houses for arms or grain, either that other the parts (stones) were sold to the contractors.
  • The Catholic and Royal Army

    Is was caused because of the resistance that turned into a bloody and prolonged civil war.
    peasants, artisans , and weavers joined noble ladership and that lead to form the Catholic and Royal Army.
    The republicans killed the king and had chased away the priests, said by one the the rebels.
  • Monarchy to Republic (1789-1793)

    the French revolutionaries tried to establish a constitutional monarchy that were based on the principles of human rights and rational government.
    The Revolution of Rights and Reason was one cause of the conversion to Republic.
  • Queen Marie-Antoinette (1755–1793)

    wife of Louis XVI
    She was queen of France, she was known as beautiful, blond, and elaborate hairdos.
    She had sixteen children
    Had a love for nature and would escape out to the barns to be with the animals. The wallpaper in her room has flowers.
  • The Republic of Virtue

    civic festivals were set up in order to encourage republican art
    also the republic set up politicizing aspects of daily like including measurments of space and time.
  • Maximilien Robespierre

    Maximilien Robespierre
    he was the leader of the committee of the Public Saftey.
    he wanted to go beyond the stop gap measures and wanted tp create a “republic of Virtue”
    he was a lawyer from France, he laid out the principles of a republic
    he was arrested and executed in July of 1794
    his death resulted in the end of the Terro.
  • The Terror

    Napoleon appointed prefects to look over local affairs.
    Created the Bank of France to make it easier for the government to borrow and rely on gold and silver coinage rather than paper money.
    People were not executed, but those who opposed him couldn’t meet in clubs, have any part in elections, or publish newspapers (newspapers in Paris went from 73 to 13, and later 4 that were controlled by the government)
    The government had to approve of operas and plays, and more artwor
  • National Convention

    two factions within the Jacobians
    France is declared a repubic in 1792
    Sans culottes and external wars
  • Thermidorian Reaction

    This was caused because of the men that led the attack on Robespierre in Thermidor
    This was a violent backlash versus the rule of Robespierre
    because of this the Terror was torn apart, it also punished Jacobins and their people
  • Politicizing Daily Life

    Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794): was a deputy and also Robespierre’s main competitor as theorist in the Revolution.

    this caused one-fifth as many boys enrolled in the state secondary schools as had studied in the church schools in the year 1799
    the tricolor was planned in July of 1789 that became the France flag.
  • Coup against Directory

    conspirators moved the legislature to leave Paris to escape an imaginary Jacobian plot.
    Napoleon came in the next day to demand charges in the constitution, but he was welcomed with cries of “Down with the dictator!”
    His brother, Lucien, summoned troops to stand guard to throw out those who opposed of Napoleon and left the ones to vote to abolish the Directory and establish the consulate.
    Napoleon establishes the fourth constitution since 1789.
  • Napoleon named First Consul

    Napoleon named First Consul
    He promised to restore order to the republic and be a man above party.
    A vote was taken and even though many people didn’t vote, the government falsified the result to go in Napoleon’s favour.
    5 years later, Napoleon crowns himself as Napoleon I, emperor of the French.
  • Politicizing Daily Life

    Georges-Jacques Danton (1759-1794): was a deputy and also Robespierre’s main competitor as theorist in the Revolution.

    this caused one-fifth as many boys enrolled in the state secondary schools as had studied in the church schools in the year 1799
    the tricolor was planned in July of 1789 that became the France flag.
  • Anne-Louise-Germaine (1766-1817)

    Anne-Louise-Germaine (1766-1817)
    A talented French writer put into exile.
    while exiled in the German states, she wrote, Corinne (1807) and On Germany (1810)
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte
    a general who took over the French Republic.
    He made a compromise with the Catholic Church and exiled aristocrats that wanted to come back to France.
    Civil Code: eased the ideas of the Enlightenment and the Revolution with the pushing of the powers that some people have over others.
    Named the commander of the French army in Italy due to military success.
  • Napoleon signs concordat with pope

    This ended a decade of church-state conflict in France.
    Pope approved of the sale of church lands.
    The government approved of providing the salaries of bishops and priests and long as they swear loyalty to the state.
    French was seen as a majority of Catholic and the pope supported Napoleon in his regime.
  • Legion of Honour

    He chose senators, generals, ministers, prefects, scientists, rich men, and former nobles as the new social hierarchy.
    He wanted to replace the nobles of old birth and the republic’s strict emphasis on equality.
    Honor was usually aligned with military success.
  • issues Civil Code

    This code reemphasized the Old Regime’s patriarchal system of male dominance of women and pushed for father’s control over his children.
    It protected property rights, promised religious liberty, and provided a system of laws that would show the equality of all adult males.
    Napoleon did not agree with abortion, which were common in with the paupers, so he helped set up charities and organizations to help women and make it easier to anonymously put their children up for ado
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    Napoleon crowned emperor
    Plebiscites approved of his decision, but there wasn’t much room for alterations.
    His face and name appeared on coins, engraving, histories, paintings, and public monuments.
    He was an intellectual and surrounded himself with scientists, artists, jurists, etc.
    He brought his companions and those loyal to him to work at his side.
    He didn’t start out with plans to expand through all of Europe.
    He placed his family in the highest of rankings.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    The British fought against Spain and France.
    The British navy maintained its superiority.
    France lost multiple ships while Britain didn’t lose any.
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Napoleon demanded that Austria become neutral in the conflict with Britain.
    He captured 25,000 soldiers at Ulm.
    He came upon the Austrians again with Russia by their side and defeated them a second time.
    Was told to be Napoleon’s greatest victory.
  • Prussia declares war on France

    In 1806 the French routed the Prussian army at Jena and Auestädt.
    In 1807, Napoleon defeats the Russians at Friedland.
    Negotiations between Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon led to the Treaties of Tilsit.
    Treaties of Tilsit: Prussian lands west of the Elbe River were turned into the kingdom of Westphalia and Prussia’s Polish provinces became the duchy of Warsaw.
  • Confederation of the Rhine

    Included the German states except Austria and Prussia.
    The Holy Roman Emperor gave up his title and went down to the emperor of Austria.
    The territories annexed by France and the kingdoms of Italy and Naples were the three units of Italy established by Napoleon.
  • Continental System

    Although France was expanding throughout Europe, they still had one problem– Great Britain.
    Great Britain controlled the seas and financed anyone opposing France.
    The Continental System prohibited all commerce between Great Britain and France and France’s dependent states and allies.
    British exports dropped down 10%, their manufacturing declined by 10% and this resulted in strikes and revolts in Northern Great Britain.
    The British came back by taking over merchandise on
  • France invades Portugal

    The French go through Spain to get to Portugal.
    The royal family fled to Brazil.
    The Portuguese were allied with the British.
  • Napoleon invades Russia

    Napoleon invades Russia
    Napoleon invades Russia
    Invading Russia was the undoing of Napoleon.
    The Russians kept retreating eastward. The French caught up with the at the battle of Borodino. The Russians left the city of Moscow in flames.
    With the winter just around the corner, supplies failed, artillery was left, horses died, diseases came, and only ⅙ of the population was left to later be captured by the Russians.
  • Battle of the Nations

    With British financial support, Russian, Austrian, Prussian, and Swedish armies took down the French near Leipzig.
    Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of the Nations.
    German allies deserted France and began on the German nationalist “war of liberation”.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    The Congress settled the boundaries for the new European states, who would rule each state and establish international relations.
  • French Senate deposed Napoleon

    Spanish–Portuguese army under British command invaded France and headed for Paris.
    Napoleon was sent into exile on the island of Elba.
    His wife refused to join him.
    Louis XVIII was restored to the throne, but lacked a solid base of support.
  • Escape from Elba

    Napoleon fled from Elba and returned with open arms.
    the Hundred Days: the point of Napoleon’s escape to his defeat.
    Louis fled.
  • Napoleon defeated at Waterloo, exiled to St. Helena

    Belgian, Dutch, German, and British troops came together against the French. Napoleon had to abdicate once again.
    Napoleon died at St. Helena in 1821.