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Chapter 8 Timeline

  • George Washington is inaugurated as the first US president

    This event inspired many other countries on the idea of democracy and led many countries in their attempts to gain freedom. The election of George Washington was a very symbolic and important moment in American history.
  • Storming of Bastille

    A mob was searching for gunpowder to defend themselves, becuase they were fearful that Louis would send the military to attack them. They attacked the Bastille and took control of the prison. This was a very symbolic moment in the French Revolution and also ignited it.
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    Chapter 8 Timeline

    The events that happened during Chapter 7 and Chapter 8.
  • King Louis XVI was executed

    Louis XVI was not capable of ruling France and placed them heavily in debt. He was often bored by matter of the state and his queen was a very heavy and extravagant spending. He was eventually captured by an angry mob of common people and by a close vote, was executed.
  • Great Britain seizes Cape Colony

    After the Battle of Muizenberg, Britain was able to control a significant trading port in South Africa, Cape Colony. They defeated the Dutched to achieve this.
  • Napoleon becomes commander of French forces in Italy

    Napoleon rised from an abmitious military officer to the comander of the French army. With serveral ingenious victories now on his belt, he marched over the Alps to defeat Italy with a series of remarkable victories.
  • Napoleon overthrows the Directory through a coup d'etat

    The government during Napoleon's time was weak, and Napoleon wanted power. This caused him to lead and army and eliminate the Directory to gain power over France, thus beginning Napoleon's empire.
  • Opium trade begins in China

    During this year, trade began to emerge even though it had been outlawed by the emperor of China, Kia King. By 1834, a very large amount of Chinese were addicted to the narcotic.
  • Haiti wins freedom from France

    Previously known as Saint Domingue, Haiti was the first Latin American territory to free itself from European rule. The Revolution was lead by Toussaint L'Ouverture , a slave. Toussaint started the revolution and Jean-Jacques Dessalines ended the revolution to declare Haiti independent.
  • Napoleon crowns himself emperor

    Napoleon crowning himself emperor was significant because it showed that Napoleon was the most powerful. It brought fear and distress among other countries because they were scared that Napoleon might conquer them.
  • Padre Hidalgo calls for Mexican Independence

    On this day, Hidalgo called for independence and began a march to Mexico City with 80,000 people. Upper class citizens and leaders became afraid of Hidalgo's revolt, and defeated his army in 1811.
  • Venezula declares independence and wins it, with the help of Simon Bolivar

    A brilliant general and strategist, Bolivar suffered numerous defeats at first. However the tide shifted when he took his troops across the Andes and attack by surprise.
  • Czar Alexander I reduces Napoleon's Grand Army from 420,000 soldiers to 10,000

    Probably Napoleon's worst military defeat. Russia was against Napoleon's continental blockade and refused to strop trading with Britain. This made Napoleon angry and he marched all his troops into Russia. Napoleon's army was not trained for Russia's harsh weather and with Russia's clever plan of burning all the crops and supplies, Napoleon's army was essentially left in shambles after Russia.
  • Congress of Vienna balences power in Europe

    The goal of the Congress of Vienna was to create a balence of power and undo the empire of Napoleon in France. They united many Germaminc tribes and states along with Prussia to create the German confederation. Many monarchies were restored as well to rejuvenize political affairs.
  • The War of 1812 ends

    The War of 1812, between Britain and America was started by several outstanding issues America had with Britain. It ended in no territorial changes nor any major policy changes.
  • Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo

    The defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo led to the downfall of his empire. After the loss, Napoleon was banished to St. Helena, where he remained there and died six years later. Napoleon's large empire and its expansion led to the Congress of Vienna.
  • Morelos leads the Mexican Revolution

    After the defeat of Hidalgo, Jose Maria Morelos rallied the rebels and restarted the fight for Mexican independence. Morelos led the revolution for four years. On December 22, 1815 Agustin de Iturbide defeated Morelos and executed him.
  • Mary Shelley writes Frankenstein

    Mary Shelley, wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley, a poet, wrote a very successful Gothic Novel. The story was called Frankenstein and was very popular among the Romantic era. The story was about a monster created by dead human parts.
  • Mexico gains independence

    After the a long hard war by the rebels, the rebels could not defeat the Spanish empire. In the end, Iturbide declared himself emperor and also made Mexico an independent nation.
  • Brazil gains independence

    In 1807, Napoleon began his invasion of Spain and Portugal. Prince John took his family to Brazil which is the largest colony that Portugal had. King John began to run his empire in Brazil for 14 years. After this time, many Brazilians demanded independence. King John allowed it and Brazil became independent on September 7, 1822.
  • Sam Bolivar defeats the Spanish for Argentina's independence

    Jose de San Martin had lead, through many triumphs and grueling battles, his army to the point where he needed larger forces to succeed. He gave Bolivar control of his troops and won the Battle of Ayacucho to lock Argentina's independence in place.
  • 1830's Uprisings Crushed

    Nationalism began to play a strong role and people were slowly turning away from the rules arranged at the Congress of Vienna. During the 1830s, a series of riots broke out. The Belgians successfully declared independence during this time however the Italians were unable to break free from Austrian control and the Polish were unable to break from Russian control. After the uprisings, everything seemed to be alright, but the order would not last long.
  • Greece Gains Independence

    Many countries began to support the idea for the Greeks to gain independence. Popularity of Greek independence soared, and a fleet of British, French, and Russian ships defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Navarino. The Ottomans gave the Greeks their independence and Britain, France, and Russia agreed to Greece's independence.
  • Louis Daguerre perfects a method of photography

    Louis Daguerre was a French inventor and he invented something called a daguerreotype. This method allowed for mass production of pictures and further increased the amount of pictures in papers and books. This began the photography in the new industrial age.
  • Revolts shake Europe

    This entire year was highlighted by a series of ethnic uprisings throughout Europe. It first began with a mob in Vienna. Metternich resigned during this time which caused many uprisings throughout Austria. Louis Kossuth of Budapest was calling for self-government in Hungary and in Prague, many Czech liberals demanded independence for Bohemians.
  • Russia frees serfs/Alexander II

    The abolition of serfdom began with Alexander II. He called for a freeing the serfs in a decree in 1861. The reform he put out was not entirely successful because it still tied the peasant to the land but it gave them freedom from nobles.
  • Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation frees enslaved persons in Confederate states

    The Emancipation Proclamation was primarily a war measure used against the Confederate army. Lincoln did not issue it until the Union won a battle to further increase the potency of the statement. He won the Battle of Antietam and then announced the Proclamation 100 days later. It guaranteed freedom to all slaves in the Confederate states.
  • Seven Weeks War

    The Seven Weeks War was the war between Austria and Prussia. Bismarck invoked Austria to cause war between the two countries. Metternich used his more advanced and superior soldiers to his advantage and crushed Austria. By August 23, 1866, the Austrians lost and Prussia took over northern Germany.
  • Suez Canal completed

    The Suez Canal was really helpful to Europe's trade with the Middle East. It drastically cut the time from traveling from Europe to the Middle East and heavily influenced trade in this area.
  • Franco-Prussian War

    The Franco-Prussian war was the final war to fully unite Prussia into one. Bismarck still needed the southern kingdoms of Prussia to join his side, so he deceptively started a war with France by spreading rumors. Bismarck crushed the French army and captured Versailles. In May 10, 1871, the French surrendered the Bismarck earned the trust of the southern kingdoms of Prussia. They united and Wilhelm I became Kaiser of Prussia.
  • Cavour and Garibaldi unite Italy

    Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi were both nationalists that had one goal, to unite Italy into one. Cavour used diplomacy and alliances to gain control of northern Italy and uniting it. In two quick wars Sardinia conquered all of northern Italy. Garibaldi made an agreement with the king of Piedmont-Sardinia and conquered the rest of southern Italy for them. This became known as modern day Italy.
  • With the help of Bismarck, Wilhelm I is crowned Kaiser of united Germany

    Otto van Bismarck lead a series of battles to unite Prussia which gave Wilhelm the title of kaiser. Bismarck won the Seven Weeks' War, Franco-Prussian War and a series of other military victories to unite the separated kingdoms of Prussia into Germany.
  • Alexander II Assasinated

    Some Russians became upset with Alexander II's reforms, and assasinated in March 1881. Alexander III took over the country and pushed towards industrial expansion heavily.
  • Berlin Conference divides Africa among European nations

    The Berlin Conference began because of the European nation's desire to control the land in this country. Each and every country attempted to obtain some of the land and expand their country. In the end the conference divided Africa and gave a piece to each country.
  • Russian Empire crumbles/Russification

    The Russian Empire was so large and was so diverse, that nationalism was bound to break it apart. The czar issued a policy of Russification, which made nationalist feelings stronger and helped to disunify Russia. Eventually, the czars became weak and could not control Russia. After World War I, Russia could not handle the shock of what happened. The czar gave up control in 1917.
  • Breakup of the Austrian Empire/Nationalism

    The Austrian Empire contained many cultures, from Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs and Italians. The Austro-Prussian War in 1866 partly broke down the empire into half, but it was now called the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After World War I, Austria-Hungary broke apart into several separate nation-states.
  • Ottoman Empire weakens/Balkans

    The Ottoman Empire collapsed when feelings of nationalism began among the people it controlled. The Ottomans were forced to grant equality to all of the people under rule in 1856. Then when feelings of nationalism rose among the Armenians, the Ottomans killed and deported many of them for a long period of time. After World War I, the empire could not handle the shock from the war and collapsed.