Liberty leading the people1336010385191 e1360354595663

French Revolution

By lnaeem
  • Calling of the Estates-General

    Calling of the Estates-General
    -general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy (First Estate), the nobility (Second Estate), & the peasantry (Third Estate)
    -King Louis XVI calls the meeting of the Estates-General at Versailles to help resolve France's financial problems
    -first time the Estates-General is called since 1614
    -shows the desperate condition of France
  • Period: to

    Formation of the National Assembly

    -Third Estate members couldn't vote by representatives in the Estates-General meeting
    -they break the dread lock by declaring themselves the representative body of France
    -King locks them out of the meeting hall so they meet in his tennis court
    -swear to keep meeting till they give France a constitution: Tennis Court Oath

    -liberal minded Clergy and Nobility members joined them, support rose
    -Louis was forced to recognize the new body and stated it was now the parliament of France
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    -Bastille was regarded as a symbol of the oppression perpetrated against the French people in the ancien regime
    -an angry group went to the Bastille in search of gunpowder, shots fired in confusion & a huge crowd stormed the prison
    -governor of the prison, de Launey and other guards were killed by the crowd and their heads were hoisted on pikes, depicting the vengeance of the people of France
    -represented the victory of the people, first use of violence to achieve revolutionary arms
  • Period: to

    Grande Peur and Feudalism abolished

    -period in the early revolution w/ an absence of a strong central authority
    -rumours about counter-revolutionaries increased & a wave of peasant riots swept across France
    -individuals armed themselves to protect themselves & their property
    -millions of livres of private & feudal property was stolen/destroyed
    -hysteria put down by militias that imposed law & order
    -Aug. 4: National Assembly abolished feudalism, sweeping away the seigneurial rights of the nobility & tithes gathered by the clergy
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen published

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen published
    -set of basic principles approved by the National Assembly, upon which the revolution and the new government were to be based
    -outlined the basic inalienable rights of man based on Enlightenment principles
    -reoccurring theme of equality, liberty and freedom of opinion, speech, religion, etc.
    -emphasis on everyone being equal before the law
    -gave the Third Estate a voice and brought them a sense of equality
  • March on Versailles

    March on Versailles
    -an angry mob of working women, armed with pitchforks, pikes and muskets, marched from Paris to Versailles
    -crowd chanted "Bread"
    -portrayed the desperation of the starving population of France
    -the crowd broke into the palace looking for the Queen
    -Marie escaped by fleeing to the King’s secure apartments through a secret passageway
    -demanded the King to sanction Declaration of the Rights of Man
    -forced monarchy to return to Palace of Tuileries in Paris, ending the great monarchy of Versailles
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy published

    Civil Constitution of the Clergy published
    -law passed that subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government
    -collection of tithes abolished & church lands confiscated
    -# of bishops to be reduced from 135 to 83
    -bishops & parish priests to be elected by enfranchised citizens
    -made the clergy paid employees of the gov.
    -required members of the clergy to swear an oath of loyalty to the nation
    -fuelled more opposition than any other reform & made many devout Catholics turn against the Revolution
  • Royal family flees to Varennes

    Royal family flees to Varennes
    -Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette and their immediate family tried to flee to Austria
    -escape was organized w/ the help of a loyal friend, Count Axel von Fersen, & supported by Marie Antoinette
    -royals were recognized and stopped at Varennes
    -National Guardsmen escorted them back to Paris through jeering crowds
    -showed that Louis XVI could no longer be trusted
    -Louis XVI lost what remained of his popularity
  • Massacre at the Champs de Mars

    Massacre at the Champs de Mars
    -following the King's attempt to flee, petitions demanding the dissolution of the monarchy and the creation of a republican state were drafted
    -Parisians were called to gather and sign the petitions at the Champs de Mars
    -Lafayette and the National Guard attempted to control the public order by marching on the crowd
    -it was a victory for Lafayette at first, however, later the crowd returned with even greater numbers
    -approx. 40 people killed & dozens wounded
  • Declaration of Pillnitz

    Declaration of Pillnitz
    -statement issued by Leopold II of Austria, Marie Antoinette's brother, and Frederick William II of Prussia
    -declared that the restoration of absolute monarchy in France was in the interest of all European sovereigns
    -implied that Prussia and Austria would intervene militarily in France if any harm came to the king
    -made the French Revolution a European question
    -regarded as an avowal to undo the Revolution in France
    -led to France declaring war on Austria and Prussia
  • Constitution adopted

    Constitution adopted
    -first constitution written in France
    -all legislative powers went to a single Legislative Assembly (elected by a system of indirect voting), which alone had the power to declare war and raise taxes
    -monarch had only limited powers; had no control of the army, or any authority over local gov.
    -huge accomplishment for National Assembly
    -however, the revolution was turning in a more radical direction
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    Declaration of War on Austria and Prussia

    -Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria as a result of the Declaration of Pillnitz
    -revolutionaries wanted war because they thought it would unify the country
    -had a genuine desire to spread the ideas of the Revolution all over Europe
    -as an ally of Austria, Prussia also went to war with France
    -first step towards about a decade of fighting European conflicts
  • Period: to

    War of the First Coalition

    -members: France against Austria, Prussia, Britain, Spain, & Sardinia
    -coalition collapsed w/ General Napoleon Bonaparte’s success in Italy; led to the Treaty of Campo Formio
    -most important battle was probably the Battle of Lodi (May 10, 1796)
  • Brunswick Manifesto

    Brunswick Manifesto
    -issued by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, & commander of the Allied Army of Austria & Prussia
    -warned the French revolutionaries that harm to the royal French family would bring retribution
    -expected to intimidate the revolutionaries and force them to give up the revolution
    -however, it backfired and further fuelled the fire of the revolution, angered the French people
    -provisional gov. called for more armed volunteers & they eventually drove the invading Allied Army from France
  • National Convention created

    National Convention created
    -a crowd of several thousand people, most carrying weapons, stood outside the Tuileries at dawn; wanted to depose the king and abolish the monarchy
    -king fled and took refuge in the Legislative Assembly
    -the attackers invaded the Tuileries and slaughtered most of the soldiers there
    -Legislative Assembly suspended the King & abolished the monarchy
    -unverified feudal dues were cancelled
    -Legislative Assembly voted for its own dissolution and convened elections for a new national convention
  • Period: to

    September Massacres

    -dark side of the revolution
    -rumours that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were planning to break out & attack French armies from the rear
    -mass killing of prisoners took place in Paris; killing over 1000 people
    -made a profound impression abroad; publicized as proof of the horrors of revolution
    -massacres became a political issue; moderate Girondins blamed their radical enemies, especially Jean-Paul Marat, Georges Danton, & Maximilien de Robespierre
  • Battle of Valmy

    Battle of Valmy
    -first major victory by the army of France during the Revolutionary Wars
    -fought b/w the French Army & the combined forces of Prussian & Austrian troops
    -stopped the advance of the allied armies, led by the Duke of Brunswick, on their way to Paris to suppress the Revolution & reestablish the absolute monarchy
    -casualties were relatively light; Allied approx.164 & the French around 300
  • French Republic proclaimed (Girondin rule)

    French Republic proclaimed (Girondin rule)
    • National Convention voted to abolish the monarchy immediately and establish a republic -National Convention consisted of the Girondins, who support the bourgeoisie, the Montagnards, who favor a central regime, & the Marais who are positioned in between the two -first French Republic in history -day one of the Republican calendar -depicted the political instability in France after the abolition of the monarchy -contributed to the trial & execution of King Louis XVI
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    -evidence of Louis XVI’s counterrevolutionary intrigues with Austria and other foreign nations discovered in Nov. 1792
    -put on trial for treason by the National Convention
    -convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority
    -executed by guillotine in the Place de la Revolution in Paris
    -the ultimate rejection of the old system of gov.
    -the clearest act of defiance to the idea of "Divine Right of Kings"
    -revolutionary gov. declared the right of people to make decisions for themselves
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    Vendée rises in revolt

    -centre of the largest counter-revolutionary uprising of the Revolution
    -residents took up arms against National Convention
    -fuelled by rising land taxes, national gov,'s attacks on the church, execution of Louis XVI, expansion of the revolutionary war and introduction of conscription
    -gov. triggered a war in the region
    -war lasted 3 years and caused approx. 200,000 casualties

    -illustrated that the revolutionaries were ready to do anything to achieve their goal; even kill their own countrymen
  • Committee of Public Safety created

    Committee of Public Safety created
    -formed by National Convention
    -intended to function as a war council and de facto executive cabinet
    -seats were to be rotated monthly to stop one individual or faction from accumulating too much power
    -despite this, within six months the Committee was dominated by radicals
    -began directing the Convention
    -consisted of men like Maximilien Robespierre, Louis Saint-Just, and Georges Couthon, who became revolutionary leaders
    -considered the body most responsible for the Reign of Terror
  • Levée en Masse

    Levée en Masse
    -the Committee of Public Safety made a decree that mobilized the entire French population for war
    -all unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25 were conscripted
    -added fuel to the residents of the Vendée region rising in revolt
    -led to a significant expansion of the French military, later used in the French Revolutionary Wars
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror (Jacobin Rule)

    -began after the execution of Louis XVI
    -Committee of Public Safety exercised virtual dictatorial control over the French gov.
    -committee obtained the Law of 22 Prairial, year II, which suspended a suspect’s right to public trial & legal assistance; left the jury a choice only of acquittal or death
    -at least 300,000 suspects arrested; 17,000 officially executed, mostly by guillotine, & perhaps 10,000 died in prison or without trial
    -contributed to the fall of Robespierre
  • Execution of Marie Antoinette

    Execution of Marie Antoinette
    -imprisoned in the Tower of the Temple after the fall of the monarchy
    -transferred to the jail of La Conciergerie in August 1793
    -put on trial for treason in the beginning of October
    -guillotined nine months after her husband Louis XVI
  • Battle of Fleurus

    Battle of Fleurus
    -most significant battle in the First Coalition of French Revolutionary Wars;decisive battle in the 2 year long campaign in the Austrian Netherlands
    -fought b/w the French First Republic’s Arm & the Austrian, Dutch, & German allied forces
    -approx. 2,000 collective casualties & French took 3,000 prisoners
    -Austria finally lost interest in defending the Austrian Netherlands
    -invalidated the argument that continuation of the Reign of Terror was necessary b/c of military threat to France's existence
  • Execution of Maximilien Robespierre (Thermidorian Reaction)

    Execution of Maximilien Robespierre (Thermidorian Reaction)
    -as the leading member of the Committee of Public Safety from 1793, Robespierre encouraged the execution of over 17,000 enemies of the Revolution
    -arrested by the National Convention
    -guillotined alongside 21 of his followers, before a cheering mob in the Place de la Revolution in Paris
    -marked the end of the Reign of Terror
    -first step towards new gov. style trying to impose new revolutionary culture
    -reassertion of the rights of the National Convention against the Committee of Public Safety
  • France adopts Constitution of 1795 (Directory rule)

    France adopts Constitution of 1795 (Directory rule)
    -ushered in a period of governmental restructuring
    -placed executive power in a Directory of five members & legislative power in two chambers; the Council of Ancients & the Council of the Five Hundred
    -the executive body of the new gov. would be a group of five officers called the Directory; having authority to appoint people to fill other positions in the gov.
    -annual elections would be held to keep the new gov. in check
  • National Convention dissolved

    National Convention dissolved
    -the National Convention was dissolved after it approved the constitution for the regime that replaced it
    -the new gov. was the bourgeois-dominated Directory
    -dissolution of the Convention marked the beginning of a new governing body of France
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    Napoleon's First Italian Campaign

    -1795: anti-French coalition was dissolving & only Austria & England remained at war with France
    -Napoleon convinced Directory to let him attack Austria's position in Northern Italy
    -1796: Directory made him commander of the Army of Italy
    -first defeated Austria's allies in the region (Piedmont & Sardinia)
    -various republics soon surrendered to French control
    -helped end the French Revolutionary Wars in favour of France
    -established Napoleon as one of Europe’s brightest military talents
  • Battle of Lodi

    Battle of Lodi
    -small but dramatic engagement in Napoleon Bonaparte’s first Italian campaign fought at Lodi, Lombardy
    -fought b/w French forces under General Napoleon Bonaparte & an Austrian rear guard led by Karl Philipp Sebottendorf
    -played an important part in convincing Napoleon of his potential for greatness
    -earned the confidence & loyalty of his men
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    Siege of Mantua

    -crucial episode in Napoleon's first Italian campaign
    -excluded Austrians from northern Italy
    -French blockaded the city
    -enemy troops began to get weaker
    -spreading diseases and food shortages forced the surrender of Mantua on Feb. 2 after a series of battles
    -French conquest of northern Italy virtually completed
  • Establishment of the Cisalpine Republic

    Establishment of the Cisalpine Republic
    -republic formed by General Napoleon Bonaparte in conquered territories centred in northern Italy
    -later confirmed in the Franco-Austrian Treaty of Campo Formio
    -had a constitution and government modelled on that of the Directory in France
    -later reconstituted as the Italian Republic with Bonaparte as its dictatorial head, before being ceased altogether in 1805
    -portrayed Napoleon & the French army's victory in the First Italian campaign
  • Coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor

    Coup d'etat of 18 Fructidor
    -Directory called upon Napoleon to send a general to command troops guarding the legislature at the Tuileries
    -Gen. Pierre-François-Charles Augereau, commanding the troops, purged more than 130 royalists & counterrevolutionaries from the Corps Législatif; deported to Guiana, South America
    -royalists once against prevented from achieving what they wanted
    -republican constitution also fatally weakened
    -confirmed the new power of the army, thus prepared for the military despotism of Napoleon
  • Treaty of Campo Formio

    Treaty of Campo Formio
    -a peace settlement b/w France & Austria, signed at Campo Formio, a village in Venezia Giulia
    -followed the defeat of Austria in Napoleon Bonaparte's first Italian campaign
    -Austria gave up its Belgian provinces to France & also agreed that France could annex the territory it occupied on the left bank of the Rhine River
    -France promised to use its influence to help Austria obtain Salzburg and part of Bavaria
    -concluded the War of the First Coalition & marked the victory of France
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    Napoleon's Egyptian and Syrian Campaign

    -attempt to exert influence over Egypt
    -landed w/ 400 ships, 54,000 men
    -fuelled by economics, political need to weaken Britain & personal needs of Napoleon
    -attempted to modernize and westernize Egypt, had to flee to Syria in Feb. 1799 to preempt the Turks preparing to attack them
    -encountered tough siege at British-controlled Acre & returned to Egypt
    -war was breaking out in Europe & the Cisalpine Republic had crumbled
    -Napoleon decided to return to France
    -led to many scientific discoveries
  • Battle of the Pyramids

    Battle of the Pyramids
    -significant battle in Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign
    -fought b/w French army under Napoleon Bonaparte & Mamluk forces commanded by Murad Bey & Ibrahim Bey
    -involved approx. 25,000 French troops
    -introduced his significant tactical innovation; the massive divisional square
    -battle won Cairo and Lower Egypt for France
    -signaled the final chapter of seven hundred years of Mamluk rule in Egypt
  • Battle of the Nile

    Battle of the Nile
    -major naval battle fought b/w the British Royal Navy & the Navy of the French Republic at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast
    -British fleet was under the command of Rear Admiral Horatio Nelson & French fleet under Admiral Paul D'Brueys
    -Bristish got inside & behind French line of battle
    -British: 900 casualties; French 9x as many
    -isolated French army in Egypt, ensuring its disintegration
    -ensured that Malta would be retaken from the French
    -secured British control of the Mediterranean
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    War of the Second Coalition

    -members: France against Britain, Russia, Austria, Portugal & the Ottoman Empire
    -Britain, Austria, and Russia, which were unhappy with French expansion, were main culprits
    -Napoleon was in Egypt for part of this time
    -rushed back in 1799 & took control of France as First Consul
    -his campaign in Italy, mostly against the Austrians, was highlighted by the Battle of Marengo (June 14, 1800)
    -ended with the Treaty of Amiens, 1802
    -led to a brief period of peace from 1802-1803
  • Napoleon returns to France

    Napoleon returns to France
    -Napoleon Bonaparte returned to France from his Egyptian Campaign
    -well aware of the instability of the Directory; gov. bankrupt, inflation, taxation & unemployment soaring, & even virtual civil war in some areas
    -Napoleon was ready to bring it down & take charge himself
    -signalled the end of the French Revolution and the beginning of Napoleon Bonaparte's dictatorship
  • Coup d'etat of Brumaire

    Coup d'etat of Brumaire
    -coup d’état that overthrew the system of government under the Directory in France and substituted the Consulate
    -strategy: convince the Directors to resign, convene the Councils, the Five Hundred and the Ancients, to name in their place a Triumvirate (w/ Siéyès, Ducos and Bonaparte as its three members) which would govern until the proclamation of a new constitution
    -brought Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France
    -viewed as the effective end of the French Revolution
  • Consulate established

    Consulate established
    -new constitution after 18 Brumaire created an executive consisting of three consuls
    -First Consul, Napoleon Bonaparte, wielded all real power; Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès & Pierre-Roger Ducos were figureheads
    -Napoleon moved rapidly to institute order in France;
    -put down rebellions in the French provinces
    -created a secret police
    -centralized gov. of the various French dep'ts under prefects
    -issued general amnesty so that exiles could return home
    -wanted the best men he could find, despite class
  • Battle of Marengo

    Battle of Marengo
    -fought b/w Napoleon's French & Gen. Michael Friedrich von Melas' Austrian troops
    -Napoleon was mistaken about the Austrians' position; split up his troops
    -French troops were widely separated when Austrians attacked, pushing back the French line
    -Melas thought they had won & gave commanded to subordinate, enabling Napoleon to counter attack
    -casualties: 11,500 Austrian, 6,000 French
    -resulted in the French occupation of Lombardy
    -secured Napoleon’s military & civilian authority in Paris
  • Civil Code drafted

    Civil Code drafted
    -Napoleon appointed a commission to prepare a draft of a uniform civil code for France
    -seen as a legal necessity & means of consolidating the new regime
    -meant to enable every citizen to know "the principles of his conduct"
    -written with moderation & compromise in mind, borrowing what was useful from a variety of sources
    -completed draft submitted to the legislature
    -dealt with specific ascpects of law
    -one of the first of it's kind in Europe & became an example for ones to come in the future
  • Concordat agreement with the Pope

    Concordat agreement with the Pope
    -an agreement b/w Napoleon and Pope Pius VII
    -solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority Church of France & brought back most of its civil status
    -first consul, Napoleon, was given the right to nominate bishops; the bishoprics and parishes were redistributed & the establishment of seminaries was allowed
    -however, the Church did not become tied with the state
  • Treaty of Amiens

    Treaty of Amiens
    -signed by Britain, France, Spain, & the Netherlands at Amiens
    -France and its allies recovered most of their colonies; Britain kept Trinidad & Ceylon (taken from Spain & the Dutch)
    -France to evacuate Naples & the Papal States
    -Britain was to restore Egypt to the Ottoman Empire & Malta to the Knights of St. John within 3 months
    -territories of the Ottoman Empire & Portugal to be respected; exception: France to keep Portuguese Guinea
    -achieved peace in Europe for 14 months during Napoleonic Wars
  • Napoleon proclaimed Emperor

    Napoleon proclaimed Emperor
    -Napoleon was already a dictator in France
    -had all the power as First Consul, as well as the right to choose his successor
    -proclaimed himself as Emperor
    -the Senate, all chosen by Napoleon, passed a law officially making him Emperor & his family made hereditary heirs
    -had a vote: over 3 million for & less than 3,000 against
    -vote manipulated to get results that Napoleon wanted; yes casted automatically all military members
    -marked the beginning of a new gov. style in France (The Empire)