French Revolution and Napoleon

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    French Revolution and Napoleon

  • The Great Fear

    The Great Fear
    • Used to describe the French rural panic of 1789
    • Led to peasant attacks on aristocrats or on seigneurial records of peasants' dues
  • The Estates General opens at Versailles

    • Twelve hundred deputies journeyed to the king's palace for the oepning
    • The Estates General was a body of deputies represented from the three estates or orders of France
  • Third Estate Deputies declare themselves the National Assembly

    • After six weeks of stalemate in Versailles, they came to this conclusion.
    • The National Assembley represented each deputy as an individual.
  • "Tennis Court Oath"

    • Showed determination of deputies to carry out a constitutional revolution
    • Nobles were forced to join
  • The French Revolution Begins

    The French Revolution Begins
    • July 14 1979 armed Parisians captured Bastille
    • Several thousand women march to the center of Paris to Versailles three months later *Both of these events led to the beginning of the French Revolution
  • National Assembly abolishes feudalism

    • Noble deputies announced their willingness to give up their tax exemptions and seigneurial dues.
    • Freed the remaining serfs and eliminated all special privileges on matters of taxation.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

    • Passed by National Assembly
    • The preamble to the French constitution
    • Established the sovereignty of the nation and the equal rights for citizens
  • Women's March to Versailles

    Women's March to Versailles
    • Marched to Vesailles to confront the king
    • Led to the king agreeing to move his family and governmen to Paris
    • Everyone realized that the French Revolution wasn't only a men's affair
    • Ended on the 6th of October
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    Monarchy to Republic

    • The Revolution of Rights and Reason
    • Monarchy ends with the execution of Louis XIV
  • Fall of Bastille

    Fall of Bastille
    • Armed crowd marced on the Bastille
    • Common people proved they were willing to interven violently at a crucial polititcal moment
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy

    • Set pay scales for the clergy
    • Provided that the voters elect their own parish priests and bishops
  • Marie-Antoinette and Louis attempt to flee

    • Drssed in disguises
    • They were captured at Vareness
    • Response to Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France
  • Rights of Man is written

    • Written by Thomas Paine
    • He defended the idea of reform based on reason
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    Legislative Assembly

    • New Group of legislatures
    • Members of the National Assembly agreed not to work in the new government
    • Dominated by Jacobins
    • Girodin are a small group of radical Jacobins who are committed to a liberal revolution
  • Declaration of War on Austria

    • Louis and Marie-Antoinette hoped it would lead to the defeat of the Revolution
    • Deputies thought it would lead to Louis' downfall
    • Continued for twenty-three years
  • Insurrection in Paris and attack on Tuileries

    • Lead to the removal of king's authority
    • Instituted universal male sufferage fo the first time
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    "September Massacres" occur

    • Murders of prisoners in Paris
    • Common people demanded instant revenge on supposed enemies and conspirators
  • Louis XIV is executed

    Louis XIV is executed
    • Trial during December of 1792
    • Tried and found guilty of treason
    • Executed by order of the National Convention
  • The Start of the Vendeé Rebellion

    • Led by Vendeeans, they resisted the new republican government
    • They were loyal to the king and the pre-constitutional church
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    The Vendeé Rebellion

    • Peasants artisans, and weavers joined under noble leadership
    • Formed a "Catholic and Royal Army"
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    Arrest of the Girondins

    • Were arrested because of insurrection
    • Became illegal to be Girondin
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    Reign of Terror

    • Robespierre and the Committee
    • The Republic of Virtue (1793-1794)
    • Resisting the Revolution
    The Fall of Robespierre and the End of the Terror
  • General Maximum is established

    • Set limits on the prices of thirty-nine essential commodities and on wages
    • Set during the reign of Terror
  • Robespierre is named to the Committee of Public Safety

    Robespierre is named to the Committee of Public Safety
    • He was it guiding spirit and the chief spokesman
    • He was chosen because he was considered incorruptible.
  • The execution of Marie-Antoinette

    The execution of Marie-Antoinette
    • Convicted for treason in Paris
    • Convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal
  • Slavery abolished in the French colonies

    • All men were given the rights provided by the Constitution
    • Slavery was abolished in all French colonies
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    Event with the ultra-revolutionaries

    • They were arrested on March 13th • Trial occured and they were executed March 24th
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    Events of Danton and his followers

    • Arrested on March 30th
    • Trials occurred then they were executed April 5th
  • Arrest of Robespierre and his supporters

    Arrest of Robespierre and his supporters
    • Happened when he appeared before the Convention with another list of deputies needed to be arrested
    • Out of fears the deputies shouted that he needed to be arrested instead
  • Execution of Maximilien Robespierre

    Execution of Maximilien Robespierre
    • Arrest and execution occur in July of 1794
    • His execution results in the end of the Terror
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    Execution of Robespierre and his followers

    • Robespierre tried to shoot himself but ended up breaking his jaw instead
    • Him and his followers were sent to the guillotine
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    Thermidorian Reaction

    • Violent backlash agaisnt the rule of Robespierre
    • It dismantled the Terror and punished Jacobins and their supporters
  • Directory government takes office

    • Was headed by five directors
    • Was the executive body of the new constitution
    • Lead to the Directory holding power for four years
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    Succession of the Italian Victories

    • Lead by Napolean Bonaparte
  • Coup against Directory

  • Conspirators persuade legislature to move out of Paris

    • In order to avoid an imaginary Jacobin Plan
    • Lead to the ejection of soldiers that were against Bonaparte
  • Napoleon named First Consul

    Napoleon named First Consul
    • He ended the French Revolution
    • His success in the Italian campaigns lead to him being name First Consul
  • Republic Ends

    • Napoleon becomes the First Consul
    • Gives the church power again
    • Napoleon struck against royalist conspirators as well
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    • He was first consul in 1799 then was made emperor in 1804
    • He effectively ended the French Revolution
    • Pushed France toward an authoritarian state
    • He compromised with the Catholic church
    • He was exiled to the island of St. Helena after 1815
  • Napoleon signs concordat with pope

    Napoleon signs concordat with pope
    • Ended a decade of fighting between Fchurch-state conflict in France
    * It brought back the French Catholic population
    • Napoleon was able to gain the pope's support of his regime
  • Napoleon crowned emperor

    • He crowned himself
    • Plebiscites approved his decisions but no alternatives were offered
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    • Fought by the Royal Navy
    * Between French and Spanish navies
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Battle of Austerlitz
    • Resultd in the Treay of Pressburg
    • Led to the end of the Third Coalition
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    The Spanish War for Independence

    • Not even Napoleon was able to quell the Spanish with the help of the French armies
    • Nationalsim had begun in Spain
    • Spanish Church spead anti-french propaganda
  • Napoleon introduces the heirarchy of noble titles

    Napoleon introduces the heirarchy of noble titles
    • Claims that titles can be inherited but had to be supported by wealth
    • Nobles must hold a certain amount of money to be each type of title
    • He also gave his favorite generals huge fortunes
  • Battle of Borodino

    Battle of Borodino
    • Occurred in Moscow
    • Lead by Napoleon
    • 30,000 French men were killed
    • Russia lost 45,000
  • Invasion of Russia

    • Napoleon invaded Russia and engaged in the battle of Borodino
    • Napoleon had difficulty getting the Russians to fight since they kept retreating
    • Russians burned down Moscow
  • Napoleon's Empire at its peak

    • Napoleon had at least some control over almost all of Westen Europe
    • It lead to the result of nationalism and people considering themselves for example Italian or Spanish
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    Congress of Vienna

    • Conference of ambassadors of European states
    • Was meant to setting issues that arose from the French Revolutionary Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Napoleon defeated at waterloo

    Napoleon defeated at waterloo
    • At the Battle of Waterloo
    • Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena