• Period: 1299 to 1453

    The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople

    Many Greek thinkers and works travel westward, seen as a moment of massive cultural transfer between east and west; end of a hundred years.
  • Period: 1304 to 1374

    Death of Petrarch

    A man called the father of the Renaissance (although that may be overstating things) but undoubtedly a genius.
  • 1347


    The Renaissance was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
  • Period: 1347 to 1362

    The Black Death

    The Black Death ravages Europe for the first time. By changing the economic situation, the devastating disease helps lay the preconditions for the Renaissance: spare money to invest in display.
  • Period: 1503 to 1503

    Leonardo: Mona Lisa

    Mona Lisa was created in 1503. The Mona Lisa is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as "the best known" painting in the Renaissance.
  • Period: 1515 to 1547

    Francis I takes power in France

    He was the first king of France. Reined from 1515 till his death in 1547.
  • Period: May 21, 1527 to 1527

    King Phillip II of Spain

    Philip II, called "the Prudent", was King of Spain, King of Portugal, King of Naples and Sicily, and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland. He was also Duke of Milan. From 1555, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands.
  • Period: to

    The Spanish Armada

    The Spanish Armada in 1588 against England did not go as planned. Phillip II was married to Mary of England. When she died he lost power over England. As he tried to gain it back he failed.
  • Period: to

    King Louis XIV

    Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
  • Period: to

    Hobbes publishes "Leviathan"

    Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes and published in 1651. Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan.
  • Period: to


    King Louis XIV of France created the palace of Versailles. It showed he was devoted to his work and cared about the environment.
  • Period: to

    "Serious Proposal To The Ladies"

    Mary Astell wrote "Serious Proposal To The Ladies". This stated that women needed to become better educated.
  • Period: to

    The Steam Engine

    Thomas Newcomen invents the first steam engine. It is not very useful yet, but the idea of using steam to make machines go will be important to the Industrial Revolution.
  • Period: to

    "Persian Letters"

    Montesquieu published "Persian Letters". Reason to liberate the mind.
  • Period: to

    Peter the Great

    In 1725 Peter the Great died. He left with a mixed legacy. He died not getting a warm water port. He on the other hand died with some success. He expanded Russian territory, and created a great army.
  • Period: to

    "Philosophic Letters To The English"

    Voltaire published "Philosophisc Letters To The English". Criticized problems facing France at the time.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes.
  • Period: to

    Spinning Jenny

    James Hargreaves, a British carpenter and weaver, invents the spinning jenny. The machine spins more than one ball of yarn or thread at a time, making it easier to and faster to make cloth.
  • Period: to

    Steam Engine Improvements

    James Watt from Scotland designs a more efficient steam engine. One of the most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution, steam engines power the first trains, steamboats, and factories.
  • Period: to

    British Alliance

    British governor, Lord Dunmore, issues a proclamation offering freedom to any slaves of rebellious Americans who are able to enter British lines.
  • Period: to

    Lexington and Concord

    The first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. The news of the bloodshed spread down the eastern coast. Thousands of volunteers converged on Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  • Period: to

    Battle of Bunker Hill

    In the first major action of war, inexperienced colonial soldiers hold off hardened veteran British troops. The colonial troops were able to hold off the British for two hours killing half of the British army.
  • Period: to

    Loyalists defeated at Moores creek

    A force of loyalists were defeated by a patriot army. This setback quieted the loyalist activity in the Carolina's for three years.
  • Period: to

    America Declares Independence

    America declared independence from Britain. The Declaration of Independence is adopted by the second Continental Congress.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
  • Period: to

    Declaration of the Rights of Man

    Assembly issues the rights of man.The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, passed by France's National Constituent Assembly in August 1789, is an important document of the French Revolution and in the history of human and civil rights.
  • Period: to

    France Declares War

    France declared war on Austria and Prussia. Revolutionaries wanted war because they thought war would unify the countries..
  • Period: to

    France Declares War Again

    France declares war on the 1st coalition of Austria, Prussia, Britain, Holland, and Spain. It was war of the 1st coalition.
  • Period: to

    Cotton Gin

    Eli Whitney creates a machine that makes it much easier to separate cotton seeds from cotton fiber. It greatly reduces the time it takes to clean cotton and helps southern states make more money from cotton crops.
  • Age of Absolutism

    Age of Absolutism
    The Age of Absolutism describes a period of European history in which monarchs successfully gathered the wealth and power of the state to themselves.
  • Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
  • Napoleonic Era

    Napoleonic Era
    The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe. It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the French Revolution.
  • Period: to

    Napoleon Emperor

    Napoleon crowns himself emperor of France.
  • Period: to

    Battle of Austerlitz

    Napoleon defeated the 3rd coalition. Viewed as the most brilliant battles in history. The battle was fought in what is now the Czech Republic.
  • Period: to

    Treaty of Tilsit

    After the battle of Friedland, where Napoleon defeated the Russians, Alexander of Russia negotiated a treaty that would bring peace to Russia
  • Period: to

    Napoleon Suffers Defeat

    Napoleon suffers defeat of Russia. 40,000 of 611,000 survive the battle.
  • Period: to

    Russian Campaign

    Napoleon amassed a huge army and marched to Moscow, not recognizing the challenges of supplying a large army such a long way from home. As the Russians army retreated, they applied a "scorched earth" policy, destroying or carrying off anything that might be useful. As they retreated from Moscow they set it on fire.
  • Period: to

    German Campaign

    Napoleon's army regrouped in Germany territory, and the battled the coalition successfully in several locations before suffering a decisive defeat in the battle of the nations.
  • Period: to

    Invention of Telegraph

    Samuel Morse invents the telegraph, which allows messages to be sent quickly over a wire. By 1860, telegraph wires stretch from the east coast of the United States west of the Mississippi river.