French rev

The French Revolution


    France was cosidered the most advanced country of Europe. it was the center of the ENLIGHTENMENT. There was great unrest in France, caused by bad harvest, high prices, high taxes, and disturbing questions raised by the ENLIGHTENMENT ideas of Locke, Rousseau, and Voltaire.
  • Louis XVI

    His tutors made little effort to prepare him for his role as king. Louis was well intentioned and sincerely wanteed to improve the lives of the common people. His reing was a succession of feeble attemps at doing good, shows of weakness, and clear evidence of his inadequacy as a leader.
  • Marie Antoniette

    She was a preatty, lightearted, charmin woman. She referred to Louis as "the poor man"
  • Napoleon Bonaparte was born

    Napoleon was born on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. When he was 9 years old, his parents sent him to a military school. At the age of 16, he finished school and become a lieutenant in the artellery. When the Revolution broke, he joined the army of the new goverment.
  • Economic trouble

    This causesd alarm, particulary among the merchants, factory owners, and bankers of the THIRD STATE. However, the heavy burden of taxes made it alomost imposible to conduct business profitably within France.
  • Economic Trouble

    The bad weather in 1780's causede widespread crop failures, resulting in a severe shortage of grain.
  • Louis XVI and Marie Antoniette

    The bankers refused to lend the goverment any more money. However, was indecisive and allowed matters to drift. The queen only added to Louis 's problems. Marie Antiniette had been umpopular from the moment sh4 set foot in France. As queen, she spend so much money on growns, jewels, gambling, and gifts that she became known as "MADAME DEFICIT".
  • The Bread

    The priced of bread doubled ,and many people faced starvation.
  • The meeting of the Estates-General

    Louis put off dealing with the emergency until he practically had no money left. His only solution was to impose taxes on the nobility. However, the SECOND ESTATE forced him to call a meeting of the Estates-General to approve this new tax.this meeting was held at Versalles.
  • National Assembly

    The THIRD ESTATE agreed and voted to establish the National Assembly, in effect proclaming the end of absolutemonarhy and the biginning of representativegoverment.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Three days later, the THIRD ESTATE delegates found themselves locked out of their room. they broke down a dor to an indoor tennid court, pledging to stay until they had drawn up a new constitution.
  • Storming the Bastille

    a mob serching for gunpower and arms stormed the Bastille,a Paris prison. The mob overwhelmed the guard and seized control of the building.
  • The Assembly Reforms France

    Throughout th night noblemen made speeches, declaring their love of liberty and equality.
  • The Rights of Man

    Three weeks later, the National Assembly adopteda statement of revolutionary ideals, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the citizen. These rights included "liberty, property, security, and resistance to opprension".In keeping with thrse principles, revolutionary leaders adopted the expression "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" as their slogan.
  • A Great Fear Sweeps France

    thousand of Parisians women voted rioted over the rising price of bread. Brandishing knives, axes, and other weapons, the women marched on Versailles. First, they demanded that the nacional Assembly take action to provide bread. Afew hours later the king, his family, and servants left Versailles, never again to see the magnificent palace. heir exit signaled the change of power and radical reforms about to overtake France.
  • Loss of American Territories

    When the ideas of the Revolution reached the planters in Saint Domingue, they demanded that the National Assembly give them the same priviliges as the people of France. Ensaleves Africans in the colony demanded their rights too. A civil war erupted, and slaved Africans under the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture seized control of the colony.
  • Louis Tries to Escape

    As thr National Assembly restructed the relationship between church and state, Louis XVI pondered his fate as a manarch. The
    royal family tried to escape from France to the Austrian Netherlands.
  • A Limited Monarchy

    The National Assembly completed the new constitution, wich Louis reluctantly approved. It also created a new legislative body- the Legislative Assembly.This body had the power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations of war.the Legislative Assembly split into three general groups: Radicals, who sat on the left side of the hall, Moderates sat in the center of the hall, and Conservatives sat on the right side of the hall.
  • Under Pressure

    Under pressure from radicals in the streets and among its members, the Legislative Assembly set aside the Constitution 1791. It declared the king deposed, dissolved the assembly, and called for the election of a new legislature. This new governing body, the National Conventin, took office on September 21.
  • The Guillotine

    Was introduce the guillotin By Dr. Joseph Ignace Guillotin. this was were many french criminals had suffered through horrible punishments in public places, Although public punishments continued to attrct large crowds, not all spectors were pleased with the new machine.
  • War and Execution

    The war began badly for the French. Prussians forces were advancing on Paris.
  • France at War

    About 20,000 men and women invaded the Tuileres, the palace where the royal family was staying. The mob massacred the royal guards and imprisioned Louis,Marie Antoniette, and their children.
  • Jacobins The Control

    Most of the people involved in the governmental changes were members of a radical political organization, the Jacobin Club. As club members were called, was Jean-Paul Marat. During the Revolution, edited a newspaper called L'Ami du Peuple . In his fiery editorials, Marat called for the death of those who continued to support the King.
  • The Rights of Women

    When writer Olympe de Gouges published a declaration of the rights of women, her ideas were rejected and was declared an enemy of the Revolution and executed.
  • The War Continues

    Great Britain, Hollland, and Spain joined Prussia and Austria againts France. Forced to contend with so many enemies, the French suffered a string of defeats. To reinforce the French army, Jacobins leaders in the Convention took an extreme step.
  • Louis XVI & his family died on the guillotine

    The former king walked with calm dignity up the steps of the scaffold to be beheadedby the guillotine.
  • French Army

    The Convention ordered a draft of 300.000 French citizens between the ages of 18 and 40.
  • The Terror Grips France

    One Jacobine leader, Maximilien Robespierre, slowly gain power. Robespierre and his supporters set outto build a "republic of vitue" by wiping out every trace of France's past. Firm believers in reason, the change the calendar, dividing the year into 12 months of 30 days and reanming each month. This calendar had no Sundays because the radicals considered religion old-fashioned and dangerous.
  • Reing of Terror

    Robespierre became leader of the Commitee of Public Safty. For the next year, Robespierre governed France vietually as a dictator, and the period of his rule became known as the Reing of Terror. The Committee of Public Safety's chief task was to protect the Revolution from its enemies.
  • The Army Was Form

    The had grown to 800.000 and included women.
  • End of Terror

    Some members of the National Convention turned on Robespierre. They demanded his arrest and execution. The Reing of Terror, ended on July 28,1794, whe Robespierre went to the guillotine.
  • New Goverment

    Moderate leaders in the National Convention drafted a new plan of goverment. It placed power firmily in the hands of the upper middle class and called for a twohouse legislature and an executive body of five men, known as the Directory.
  • Hero of the Hour

    Fate handed the young officer a chance for glory. When royalist rebels marched on the National Convetion, a goverment official told Napoleon to defend the delegates. Napoleon and his gunners greeted the thousand of royalists with a cannoned. Within minutes, the attackers fled in panic and confusion. Napoleon Bonaparte became the hero of the hour and was hailed throughout Paris as the savior of French republic.
  • The Directory Choose Napoleon

    The Directory appointed Napoleon to lead a French army against
    the Forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia. His army was pinned down in Egypt, and the British admiral Horatio Nelson defeated his naval forces.
  • Coup d'Etat

    The Directory Had lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people. When Napoleon returned form Egypt, his friends urged him to seize political power.
  • Napoleon Took Action

    Napoleon took action, troops under his command srrunded the national legesture and drove out most of the members.They esblished a group of three consuls, one of whom was Napoleon. Napoleon quikly took the tittle of first consul and assumed the powers of dictator.
  • Britain, Austria, and Russia

    Britain, Austria, and Russia joined forces with one goal in mind, to drive Napoleon from power. Once again Napoleon rode from Paris at the head of his troops. As a result of war and diplomacy, all three nations signed peace agreements with France.
  • Napoleon Rules France

    A plebiscite was held to approve a new constitution. Desperated for strong leadership, the people voted overwhelmingly in favor of the constitution. This gave all real power to Napoleon as first consul.
  • Napoleon Restore the Colony

    Napoleon decided to take back the colony and restore its productive sugar industry. However, the French forceswere devastated by disease. After failureof the expedition to Saint Domingue , Napoleon decided to cut his losses in the Americas. He offered to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States.
  • Peace in Europe

    Europe was at peace for the first time in ten years.Napoleon was free to focus his energies on restoring order on France.
  • President Jefferson's buys Luisiana

    President Jefferson's administration afrred to purchase the land for $15 million.
  • Napoleon Crowned as Eperor

    Napoleon decided to make himself emperor, and the French voters supported him.
  • Napoleon Crowned Himself

    Dressed in a splendid robe of purple velvet, Napoleon walked down the long aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. As thousands watched, the new emperor took the crown from the pope and placed it on his own head. With this gesture, Napoleon signaled that he was more powerful than the Church, which had traditionally crowned the rulers of France.
  • The Battle of Trafalgar

    In his drive for a European empire, Napoleon lost only one major battle, the Battle of Trafalgar. The battle took place i the southwest coats of Spain.
  • The Continental System

    Napoleon set up a blockade to prevent all trade and communication between Great Britian and other European nations. Napoleon calledthis policy the Continental System becauseit was supposed to make Continental Europe more self-sufficient.
  • After Battle of Austerlitz

    Napoleon met his challenge with hi usual boldness.The commanders of the enemy armies could never predict his next move and often took heavy losses. After th Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon issued a procamation expressing his pride in his troops.
  • Napolen Started as Emperor

  • The Penisular War

    Napoleon made a second costly mistake .In a efford to get Portugal to accept the ContinetalSystem, he sent an invasion force through Spain. The Spanish people protested his action. In response, Napoleon removed theSpanish king and put his own Brother, Joseph, on the Throne. In these war Napoleon lost about 300.000.
  • After Napoleon Divorced His Wife Josephine

    His wife, Josefhine, had failed to bear him a child. He divorced her and formed a alliance with the Austrian royal family by marrying Marie Louise, the grandniece of Marie Antoniette. Marie Louise gave birth to a son, Napoleon II, whom Napoleon named king of Rome.
  • The French Empire

    The only areas of Europe free from Napoleon's control were Britian, Potugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire. In addition to the lands of the French Empire, Napoleon also controled numerous supposedly independent countries.
  • The U.S Congress declared war to Britain

    This war lasted two years, it was only a minor inconvenience to Britain in its struggle with Napoleon.
  • Scorched-Earth Policy

    Napoleon and his Grand Army of more than 420.000 soldiers marched into Russia. As Napoleon advanced, Alexander pulled back his troops, refusing to be lured into an unequal battle. On this retreat, th russians practiced a scorched-earth policy. this involved nothing for the enemy to eat.
  • Battle of Borodino

    The two armies finallyclashed. After several hous of indecesive fighting, the Russians fell back, allowing Napoleonto move to Moscow. When Napoleon enterd Moscow seven days later, the city was in flames. napoleon stayedin the ruined city until the middle of Octover, when he dicided to come back to France with the10.000 men that were still alive
  • Napoleon Ended as Emperor

  • Napoleon's Downfall

    He faced the allied armies of the European powers outside the German city of Leipzig. The allied forces easily defeated his inexperienced army and French resistance quikly.
  • Napoleon Suffers Defeat

    The allied armies were pushing steadly toward Paris. Some two months later, King Frederick William III of Prussia and Czar Alexander I of Russia led their troops in a triumphant parade through the French capital.
  • Napoleon Surrender and Gave Up His Throne.

  • Congress of Vienna

    A series of meetings in Vienna, known as the Congress of Vienna, were called to set up policies to achieved this goal. Originally, the Congress of Vienna was schedulled to last four weeks. Instead, it went on for eight months.
  • The Hundred Days

    The news of Louis's troubleswas all the incentive Napoleon needed to try to regain power. He escaped from Elba and,landed in France. In response, the European allies quikly marsheld thier amies. The British army, led by the Duke of Wellington, prepared for the battle near the village of Waterloo in Belgium.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Napoleon attacked. The British army defended its ground all day. Late in the afternoon, the Prussian army arrived. Together, the British and the Prussian forces attacked the French.
  • The Hundred Days Ended

    Takin no chances this time, the British shipped Napoleon to St.Helena, a remote island in the South Atlantic. There he lived lonly exile for six years, writing his memoris. he died in 1812 at the age of 52 of a stomach ailment, perhaps cancer.
  • Conservative Europe

    Czar Alexander I, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Frederick William III of Prussia signed an agreement called the Holly Alliance. In it, they pledged to basetheir relations with other nations on Christian Principles in order to combat the forces of revolution.