Enlightenment pic

Enlightenment Illustrated Timeline

  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton
    Newton outlined his law of gravity in the 1687 book Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy)
  • Deism

    Deism is a broad set of ideas believing that the life of religion and reason could be combined.
  • Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    Copernicus theorized that the movements of the planets were not going around Earth, but revolve around the sun.
  • Baron de Montesquieu

    Baron de Montesquieu
    Montesquieu lived comfortably in French society, but saw a need for reform. He argued for a division of powers. His thoughts were when too much power is rested in one body they always became corrupt. He suggested Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Branches of government.
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    Frederick II of Prussia

    Won the war of Austrian Succession
    Pushed religious toleration. Improved roads, built more roads and reformed public education.
  • Jean-Jaques Rousseau

    Jean-Jaques Rousseau
    Rousseau believed that in the process of civilization and the Enlightenment had corrupted human nature. He complained about individualism, he believed that people should come together equally. Also, he believed that the government should be a social contract.
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    Seven Years' War

    Also known as the French and Indian War
    Britain and Prussia vs. France, Austria, Russia, and Sweden
    Prussia had permanently taken Silesia from Austria
    The French suffered a great financial loss
  • Marquis Cesare Beccaria

    Marquis Cesare Beccaria
    An Italian Aristocrat wanted to do away with capital punishment. He believed that punishment shoud be effective and just.
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    Joseph II of Austria

    Wanted to make German the official language.
    Wanted to institute taxes on Aristocrats as well as middle class.
    He attempted to weaken the Magyars and free serfs indebted to Aristocrats.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Regarded as the founder of laissez-faire economic thought and policy, which favors a limited role for the government in economic life. Smith is the founder of Capitalism.
  • Catherine the Great, Emporess of Russia

    Catherine the Great, Emporess of Russia
    In 1785 Catherine issued the Charter of Nobility, which guarenteed nobles many right and privelages. In 1783 she was made protector of the Orthodox Christians living in the Ottoman Empire. She had her husband murdered so she could reign. Also, she outlawed torture and expanded territory.
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    The French Revolutiion

    A Revolution that marked the beginning of a new political order in France and throughout the West. Challenging the existence of Roman Catholic faith and Christianity. Resulting in millions of casualties.
  • King Louis XVI

    King Louis XVI
    Louis XVI summoned the Estates General
    The Estates General had not met since 1614
  • The Estates General

    Approved doubling the Third Estate membership
  • The Third Estate

    The Third Estate
    Declares itself the National Assembly
  • Flight of the Royal family

    Flight of the Royal family
    June 20-24 King Louis XVI and his family attempt to flee France and are stopped at Verennes.
    He is called a traitor and arrested.
    Louis XVI is tried and convicted.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    King Louis XVI is executed for treason.
  • France Declares war on Great Britain

  • The Committee of Public Safety is formed

    A 12 man executive body to make laws
  • Maximillion Robespierre

    Maximillion Robespierre
    joins the Committee of Public Safety.
    Becomes head of the group.
    Reinstates the old regime.
    Believes that terror with a cause leads to virtue.
  • The Law of 22 Prairial is adopted

    If someone accuses you of treason you are tried and convicted.
  • Execution of Robespierre

    Execution of Robespierre
    Robespierre is shot in the face, then arrested.
    He is tried, but he could not speak at trial.
    He was executed.
  • Directory Established

    5 man executive body
    Hated by Conservatives and Liberals.
  • Napoleon Boneparte's coup d'etat

    Napoleon Boneparte's coup d'etat
    Overthrows the Directory
  • Napolenonic Code Issued

    Safeguards all forms of property and to secure French society against internal challenges.
    Workers' organizations remained forbidden.
    Fathers were granted extensive control over their children and husbands over their wives.
    Married women needed their husbands' consent to dispose of their own property.
    Divorce was more difficult for women than men.
    The eldest son no longer inherited all of his parents property, it was to be divided among all children.
  • Napoleon is crowned Emporer

    Napoleon is crowned Emporer
    Napoleon invited Pope Pius VII to Notre Dame to take part in the coronation, but later convinced the pope that the Emporer should crown himself.
    Napoleon would not allow anyone to think his power and authority depended on the church.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    British admiral Lord Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar off the Spanish Coast.
    Nelson died in the battle but the British lost no ships.
    This exposed French vulnerablility.
    This was proof that the French would not be able to invade Britain.
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Battle of Austerlitz
    Napoleon defeated the combined Austrian and Russian forces at Austerlitz.
    The Treaty of Pressburg followed
    The Austrians withdrew from Italy and left Napoleon in control of everything north of Rome.
  • Treaty of Tilsit

    Treaty of Tilsit
    Tsar Alexander I of Russian and Napoleon meet on the Niemen River and sign the treaty.
    Russia secretly becomes an ally of Napoleon.
  • Battle at Bordino

    Napoleon and the French army invade Russia.
    The Russians retreated before his advance because they were outnumbered.
    Napoleon had over 600,000 Frenchmen and 400,000 other soldiers ready to fight.
    Alexander had 160,000 troops.
    Napoleon underestimated the Russian's willingness to sacrifice Moscow.
    The Russians burned Moscow to the ground.
    Without Moscow Napoleon had no shelter or rations.
    Napoleons army could not handle the cold winter of Russia
    Napoleon lost over 500,000 soldiers in Russia.
  • Napoleon Arrested

    Worn down due to weather and no rations, Napoleon returned to Paris was captured and arrested.
    Napoleon was abdicated and exiled to the island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.
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    The Congress of Vienna

    All victors agreed that no single state should be allowed to dominate Europe, and they were determined to never allow France to do so again.
  • Napoleon Returns from Elba

    Napoleon Returns from Elba
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    Arthur Wellsley, Duke of Wellington chose Waterloo in Belgium for his battle with Napoleon.
    Wellington's defense hid behind the ridgeline to surprise the French guard.
    When they rose, the guard turned and ran.
    Napoleon surrendered and once again exiled.
  • Napoleon Boneparte Dies

    Napoleon Boneparte Dies
    Napoleon dies on Saint Helena, a tiny Atlantic island off the coast of Africa.