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Modern France.

  • First Treaty of Paris

    First Treaty of Paris
    The First Treaty of Paris concludes with the restoration of Louis XVIII to French monarchy, ignoring the demands of the actual citizens. Although many citizens actually opposed restoration of absolutism, conservatism was re-invested, with liberalism and radical democracy rejected. The countries also agree to recognize France as one of the great powers of Europe again.
  • Congress of Vienna.

    Congress of Vienna.
    The Congress of Vienna was a gathering of European royalty; however, the only countries involved in the actual discussion were Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain & France.
  • End of French vs. British war.

    End of French vs. British war.
  • Spread of Reverberations.

    The spreading of Reverberations cross Europe lead to vast changes. Princes and monarchies met to determine the borders of nations after Napoleon`s fall. In fear of a similar situation, no single power was allowed to dominate afterwards, weakening the power of the royalty.
  • Napoleon`s Escape from Elba.

    Napoleon`s Escape from Elba.
    Napoleon escapes from Elba, only to be re-exiled to St. Helena. This episode, alongside Napoleon`s defeat at Waterloo, decreased France`s say in the Congress of Vienna.
  • Defeat at Waterloo.

    Defeat at Waterloo.
    Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic Wars. Although the Napoleonic Wars benefitted the middle classes from the reforms in conquered lands (of Rhineland, Spain, Italy, etc), it also drained mainland Europe of most of its resources and potential workers. With its end, the production of textiles and irons, as well as mining began.
  • Death of Louis XVIII.

    Death of Louis XVIII.
    With the death of Louis XVIII, Charles X becomes leader. He favoured his aristocratic friends and alienated the bourgeoisie members.
  • Election of Charles X.

    Election of Charles X.
    After his election, Charles X begins censoring the press. He also demands a new election, in hopes of limiting the electorates.
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    African Settlement.

    Dutch begin settling in Southern Cape of Good Hope, while the French settle in Algeria.
  • Accession of Louis Philippe.

    Accession of Louis Philippe.
    In July, students, workers, and liberalists join to revolt against Charles X. WIth his barricades and soldiers being ineffective, Charles X flees, leaving Louis Philippe to rule. Louis Philippe brings reforms to the election system, removal of the censorship of media, and separation between Church and state.
  • Attempted Assassination of Louis Philippe.

    Attempted Assassination of Louis Philippe.
    Someone attempts to assassinate Louis Philippe. Soon afterwards, he introduces the September Laws, which again restricts the presses and radical political organizations.
  • Publication of "What is Property?"

    Publication of "What is Property?"
    In his pamphlet, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon asks "What is Property? All property is theft." This idea was based upon his beliefs that property was the origin of inequality and oppression.
  • Law of Working Hours.

    Law of Working Hours.
    France passes a law to limit the number of work hours in factories for children.
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    France experiences a severe economic depression, caused by food scarcity.
  • End of Slavery.

    End of Slavery.
    The Second Republic ends slavery, causing drastic changes in France.
  • Louis Philippe leaves Throne.

    Louis Philippe leaves Throne.
  • Constitutional Charter.

    Constitutional Charter.
    The Constitutional Charter, which limited monarchical powers and promoted Revolutionary reforms of legal equality, state positions based on talent not background, freedom of conscience, religion and expression & security of private property, begins.
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    Presidency of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte.

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    Rise of Napoleon III: Part I.

    French army occupies Paris, with the police arresting 78 national deputies. This act was by Napoleon, in attempt to solidify his power.
  • Rise of Napoleon III: Part II.

    Rise of Napoleon III: Part II.
    The French Army kills 200 revolters to suppress the left-wing riot.
  • Rise of Napoleon III: Part III.

    Rise of Napoleon III: Part III.
    French electorates support Napoleon III and his Second Empire in a plebiscite. With living conditions good, the electorates are more concerned with appearing to have a democracy, than actually having one.
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    Emperorcy of Louis Napoelon Bonaparte.

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    Crimean War.

    Aided by Italy, Napoleon III challenges Russia`s claim as the "protector of all Christians" through the Crimean War. Napoleon III`s actual intention behind the campaign was to limit Russian expansion in Balkans and the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Congress of Paris.

    Congress of Paris.
    The Peace Congress restores Paris as the "centre of Europe". Earlier, the removal of tenements and widening of narrow streets cause Paris to transform back to its "superior" state.
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    More Reforms.

    Citizens` discontent over censorship, foreign policy, and the financial downfall re-awake political criticism. To patronize citizens, Napoleon III passes a set of reforms.
  • Creation of First International Workingmen`s Association.

    Creation of First International Workingmen`s Association.
    The First International Workingmen`s Association is created, in hopes of building a global socialist party. It is later revised in 1889, to re-ignite the goal of a global socialist party.
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    Franco-Prussian War.

    Napoleon III declares war on Prussia in the the Franco-Prussian War. It was brought on by the conflict over Spanish succession. Although Prince Leopold of the Hohenzollem House, a distant relative of Prussia`s Wilhelm I, was supposed to rule next, France feared that would result in a Spanish-Prussian alliance. As a result, they fought for the withdrawal of Leopold. However, Prussia triumphs due to its modern warfare methods and weapons.
  • Battle of Sedan.

    Battle of Sedan.
    On 1 Sep 1870, the two sides fought. Prussia`s victory over France and the capture of Napoleon III brought the end of his reign and the Second Empire, alongside the culture and prosperity coupled with them.
  • Creation of Paris Commune.

    	Creation of Paris Commune.
    The Paris Commune is created. Later, its would kill approximately 100 hostages, including Paris` Archbishop. Its reign ended on 28 May.
  • Treaty of Frankfurt

    Treaty of Frankfurt
    Under the Treaty of Frankfurt, Germany is given Alsace & Lorriane, payment of 5 billion francs, and occupation in France.
  • Failure of Royalist Cause.

    Failure of Royalist Cause.
    General Patrice MacMahon fails to protect the royalist cause after dismissing the government and influencing the election.
  • Failure of Bonapartist Empire.

    Failure of Bonapartist Empire.
    General Georges Boulanger fails to restore a Bonapartist Empire.
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    Dreyfus Affair.

    Alfred Dreyfus is caught passing secrets to Germany. He is imprisoned, causing divisions in the French government, through feelings of anti-Semitism. Later, Dreyfus is released, by the divisions in France never fully healed.
  • Changes in Marriage Laws.

    Changes in Marriage Laws.
    Children (under the age 20) no longer need parental consent to marry.
  • Battle of Omdurman.

    Battle of Omdurman.
    The French are infuriated by the British triumph at Omdurman, almost leading to a British-French war at Fashoda.
  • Changes in Gender Laws.

    Changes in Gender Laws.
    The change in laws revokes the husbands` control over spending; thus, decreasing the male dominance (as they controlled the family, children, property, money, etc.).
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand & WWI.

    Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand & WWI.
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand is shot. This event, alongside European tensions (which could not be solved by further expansion since Europe & its colonies accounted for 80% of the globe) caused the outbreak of WWI.
  • Recognition of Women.

    Recognition of Women.
    Women are recognized as "legal persons" able to possess property.
  • Right to Vote.

    Right to Vote.
    Women receive the right to vote.