French rev

The French Revolution (Annotated timeline style)

  • What is the Third Estate?

    What is the Third Estate?
    What is the Third Estate?: This document was written by Abbé Sieyès, a clergyman and member of the First Estate. It supports the Third Estate (the peasant and working class), and clearly states that the First and Second Estates are not necessary to the functioning of the nation of France. His opinion is that those two estates are made up of leaders and lazes, or figureheads, people who are living off of the Third Estate. In his view the Third Estate in face has the leadership within to rule them
  • Estates General

    A meeting of the three separate estates, or classes, called for by the French King. Each class (the nobility, the clergy, and the working class), was given one vote to use, and they all debated about how to vote on topics put on the agenda by the king. In 1789 the Estates General deviated from the king’s agenda, and the clergy declared themselves the National Assembly, and invited the others to join them-this was the beginning of the French Revolution.
  • National Assembly

    Those members of the Estates General that took it upon themselves to save France from the king and establish a constitution so that the people could have a government of, by, and for themselves.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    The King, Louis XVI, shut down the meeting place of the National Assembly, so they continued to meet at a near by tennis court. Here the National assembly resolved to stick together at least until a constitution for France had been drafted and agreed upon.
  • Storming the bastille

    Storming the bastille
    The French people’s riot and taking of the prison Bastille. It was located in Paris, and although only 7 prisoners were housed there at the time, it was symbolic of the king, and the French peoples will to over through him.
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    The Great Fear

    “The Great Fear” was the product of rumors and the overactive imaginations of the peasants and uneducated people. The belief spread around that the aristocrats were hiring groups of wondering vagabonds to attack the new harvest of grain, and steel it for the aristocrats. People got so worked up that when the prison of Bastille was taken, weapons were distributed and the aristocrat’s property was attacked, and their documents of feudal dues were destroyed.
  • Night Assembly

    At the “night assembly” of the national convention serfdom and feudalism were effectively and immediately abolished. This pleased the peasants and provided support to the revolution.
  • August Decrees

    August Decrees
    These Decrees were created in order to appease the peasants of France and quell the fighting within. They did such things as abolish the nobility and feudalism , set regulations for the acquisition of food (hunting), stated that ALL citizens had to pay taxes, and EVERYONE was eligible to hold a public office or military post, and the selling of these posts and offices were against the law. These provided a temporary calm socially.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

    Was based on the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America, and closely resembles it establishing the 3 inalienable rights of ALL men, and also pushing a government of popular sovereignty in contrast to the current monarchy and the divine rights of kings.
  • October Days

    This was a meeting of women demanding bread from city halls in the countryside. When their demands were not met, they marched on Versailles and the Royal Family.
  • Paris women’s march on Versailles

    The Bastille had fallen, and the constitutions were being drafted. But people were still starving. Women decided to do something about it and took up weaponry while marching towards the king and queen in Versailles. There they ransacked the palace where the king and queen slept, and tried to bully them. King Louis finally could do nothing about their hunger, but did agree to return back to Paris with his family.
  • Reflections on the Revolution in France

    Reflections on the Revolution in France: Written by Edmund Burke, of England, it criticized the French Revolution, and stated that it would end in disaster. This was because the revolutionary ideas centered on the abstract thoughts of rights, and did not take into account the practicality of things. The revolution was too simple and did not see that society was a complex, living, moving thing, and it could not be controlled with lines and strict rules, the government had to ebb and flow with the
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Man

    A Vindication of the Rights of Man: Written by Mary Wollstonecraft, was a political pamphlet directly refuting Reflections on the Revolution in France. It presented an alternative view supporting the ideas of the French Revolution, throwing the nobility and feudalism to the side in favor of Republicanism, which is what France was considering at this time.
  • Status of the nobility abolished by the National Assembly

    he status of being a noble was abolished. No one could have a coat of arms, have themselves praised by the clergy, or have any title implying that they are nobility, this included Knight, Lord, Squire, Noble, Count, Prince, Duke, Excellency, Highness, Eminence, Grace, ect…ect… This got rid of the First estate, and was the beginnings of equality for France.
  • Constitution of 1791

  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women

    A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: Also Written by Mary Wollstonecraft, it describes how women should be educated. It is a direct rebuttal to a statement by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord in a report to the French National Assembly. That report stated that women should receive an education, but strictly domestically. Wollstonecraft thought that women, like men, should be educated and trained in relation to their position in society. Unlike her previous pamphlet, this one is against th
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    Girondins Rule

    The political party held power over France during this time. They were eventually deemed not strong and strict enough, and were overthrown by a more radical group the Jacobins.
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    The country of France was de-Christianized. Everything, celebrations, dates, holidays became general or were eliminated. The “Supreme being” substituted Christ, and worship was directed towards it.
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    The Second Revolution

    Description; This is when the Revolution took a turn for the worse, so far it had been tolerable by other nations, and was organized. But now the constitution of 1791 collapsed and the nation declared war on Austria. France was invaded by Austria and Prussia. The insurrection of the 10th of August occurred during this period where the palace of Tulieres was stormed, the Swiss Guard was massacred, the King and Queen were captured and arrested, and revolutionaries found papers incriminating King L
  • Brunswick Manifesto

    The Brunswick Manifesto was a document stating that if the revolution in France were to harm any of the Royal family, there would be consequences (war), to pay to the rest of Europe. Europe did not want the king and queen killed-this was a warning to the revolutionaries.
  • September Massacres

    As Prussia and Austria advanced into France, the people of France became obsessed with rumors that political prisoners were going to join with the advancing armies and help them, possibly catching revolutionary supporters in a vice grip from behind. They decided better safe than sorry and killed all such prisoners-over 1,200.
  • Louis XVI

    Louis XVI
    10 May 1754 - 21 Jan 1793
    When he was 16 he married Marie Antionette on May 6, 1770. As a king he was rather weak monarch giving much power to the Estates General. He inherited a country that was already deep in debt and had his power taken away from him bit by bit and by August 1792 he was arrested and tried for treason. Then executed by guillotine January 21, 1793.
  • Louis XVI executed

    Louis XVI executed
    As the title suggests, the king had his head loped off. This was a symbolic gesture, the ending of the old regime, and the beginning of a new France.
  • Committee of Public Safety established

    Orignally created to protect the public; it later took over and became the de facto government after the Jacobin’s.
  • Jean-Paul Marat

    May 24 1743 - Jul 13 1793
    Jean-Paul Marat was a Jacobean journalist. He was later elected to the National Convention in 1792. He was later murdered by Charlotte Corday in 1793 and then martyred by the Jacobean population.
  • Conscription Renewed

    Conscription, the act of drafting young men into forced military service, was renewed. France gathered a large army to fight against Prussia and Austria.
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    Reign of Terror

    The Reign of Terror was a time at which everyone went crazy. Bloodlust and fear perpetuated this period. Thousands were killed by the Guillotine.
  • Marie Antionette

    Marie Antionette
    2 Nov 1755 - 16 Oct 1793
    Marie Antionette was the Daughter of Marrie Taresa of Austria. She married Louis XVI May 6, 1770. Marie was not well received by the French people and her lavish spending and incidents like the Necklace Scandal. She and her family were caught fleeing and she was guillotined 15 days after Louis.
  • Olympe de Gouges

    Olympe de Gouges
    7 May 1748 - 3 Nov 1793
    Olympe de Gouges was a French Playright and Feminist. She pbulish many political pamphlets but her most famous was "Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen" which challeged the idea of male supremecy. However, she was later exicuted for speaking out against Robespierre.
  • The Vendee Revolt

    The Vendee Revolt
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    War of the First Coalition

    • Austria, Prussia, and Britain respond to the Revolution and the National Convention’s pledge to export revolution. After initial setbacks in which her enemies supported revolts and invaded, France repelled the invaders, set up a satellite state in Belgium, and expanded its territory to the Rhine in the Treaty of Campo Formio.
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    Jacobin Rule

    The Jacobins (more radical than the Girondins), took the reigns of government, and began the crazyness. The reign of terror begins soon after they seize control.
  • Jacques René Hébert

    Jacques René Hébert
    November 15, 1757-March 24, 1794
    Jacques René Hébert was an avid supporter of the Revolution and editor of the Le Père Duchesne, a extemely radical newspaper. He however was arrested for going after Jacobeans like Danton on March 24, 1794.
  • Georges Danton

    October 26 1759-April 5 1794
    Danton was a leading Jacobin figure in the French Revolution. He started as a member of the National Assembly and grew in influence and power. He later partnered with Robespierre because they had similar goals and became President of the Committee of Public Safety. However he was arrested March 30th and guillotined on April, 5th 1794.
  • Law of 22 Prairial

    A law enacted that extended jurisdiction of the Revolutionary Tribunal, and simplified the Judicial Process-indictment and prosecution. Period.
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    Thermidorian Reaction

    The revolution eats its own members and turns its rage within. A key revolutionary, Maximilien Robespierre, is tried and executed. This allows the Directory to seize control of France.
  • Maximilian Robespierre

    Maximilian Robespierre
    May 6 1758-July 28 1794
    Maximilian Robespierre was a mainstay in the Revolution. An avid Jacobean demanded that the King be executed because he betrayed the people. After the Kings death he rose quickly to power. He created groups like the Committee of Public Safety; instituted laws like The Law of Parietal and thousands were killed during his time in power. He himself was finally sentenced to death but was severely beaten before hand.
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    The Directory

    The first bicameral legislature of France. It had a Parliament made up of two different chambers, and an executive power made up of a five man “directory”. This form of government was equally praised and hated. It catered so the NEEDS of the people, but was inconsistent and often disregarded the constitution, and was corrupt in the minds of some.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft

    April 27 1759- September 10 1797
    Mary Wollstonecraft was born April 27th 1759. She was a British philosophe and feminist writing many works for the rights of women. Though she wrote many various letters and works her most famous is The Vindication for the Rights of Women. She Later died on September 10 1797.
  • • Treaty of Campo Formio

    Ends the War of the First Coalition, Austria recognizes French satellite states in Northern Italy and Belgium while Austria is granted the Kingdom of Venice.
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    Letters de Cahet

    Private, sealed letters by the king that could do anything with no legal recourse. These letters were usually used to imprison, exile, or condemn to death a person with no cause. The consulate got rid of them, and when Napoleon grabbed the reigns he briefly reinstated them.
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    War of the Second Coalition

    • With Napoleon and 40,000 men tied up in Egypt, Britain, Russia, and Austria attempted to roll back France’s previous conquests in Italy and Germany. They were eventually repulsed and forced to sign the treaties of Lunéville and Amiens.
  • Napoleon’s coup d’etat

    Upon his return from the Egypt Adventure, Napoleon joins a conspiracy with Emanuel Sieyes to overthrow the Directory. Napoleon is made First Consulate, effectively the supreme ruler of France.
  • Concordat of 1801

    In an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII it was determined that French Catholics could practice freely again within a French Catholic Church under Napoleon’s control.
  • Napoleon Grants Amnesty to French Emigres (1801 & 1802)

    100,000 members of the old nobility pardoned on the condition that they return to France and take an oath of loyalty. The Emigres ably took many of the high posts in the expanded bureaucracy. Only 1,000 die-hard monarchists weren’t allowed back.
  • Treaty of Lunéville

    Austria to honor the Treaty of Campo Formio, German territories on the west of the Rhine were incorporated into France, and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany goes to France.
  • Treaty of Amiens

    Britain accepts the terms of the Treaty of Luneville, ending the War of the Second Coalition
  • Charles Alexandre de Calonne

    Charles Alexandre de Calonne
    20 Jan 1734 - 30 Oct 1802
    Charles Alexandre de Calonne became minister of Finance after Necker. He wanted to create a new tax based land owned not social status. He also wanted to cut goverment spending. His ideas for reform however were frown upon causing him to be dismissed and exiled.
  • Stratagy of 1803

    Napoleon tries to block all British trade to the continent, prepares to invade England
  • Civil Code of 1804

    Reasserted legal equality of all male citizens and security of wealth and property
  • Jacques Necker

    Jacques Necker
    30 Sep 1730 - 9 Apr 1804
    Jacques Necker was the minister of finance to Louis XVI. Though he argued that the economy was not in that bad a state but pointed out that a large amount of money was being spent on pensions for the aristocrats. This angered said aristocrats and Necker left office.
  • Napoleon’s coronation

    Napoleon’s coronation
    Napoleon used the wartime atmosphere to have himself proclaimed emperor
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    War of the Third Coalition

    • Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Britain fight Napoleon seeing his assumption of the Italian crown as a threat to the balance of power. Although his dreams of invading England are crushed at the Battle of Trafalgar, his dominance on land won him large blocks of territory from Austria.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    Napoleon’s Mediterranean French and Spanish fleet was virtually annihilated by Lord Nelson, making invasion of England impossible
  • Battle of Austerlitz

    Brilliant victory over Russia and Austria, ending the War of the Third Coalition and resulting in Austria ceding land to Napoleon and the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine.
  • Reorganization of the German states

    Napoleon abolishes many tiny German states as well as the remnants of the Holy Roman Empire, establishing the Confederation of the Rhine under his control.
  • Battles at Jena and Austerdadt

    The Prussians, alarmed by Napoleon’s carving up of Germany, mobilized against Napoleon. This pair of decisive victories for Napoleon marked the beginning of the War of the Fourth Coalition.
  • Battles at Jena and Aüsterdadt

    The Prussians, alarmed by Napoleon’s carving up of Germany, mobilized against Napoleon. This pair of decisive victories for Napoleon marked the beginning of the War of the Fourth Coalition.
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    War of the Fourth Coalition

    Prussia, alarmed by Napoleon’s carving up of Germany, mobilizes after more than a decade of peace with France. Russia joins them only to be defeated. Ends with the Treaty of Tilsit
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    The Peninsular War

    A coalition of Catholics, monarchists, patriots, and British forces resists attempts to make Spain a satellite state through guerrilla warfare.
  • Treaties of Tilsit

    Prussia loses densely populated territory, Russia accepts Napoleon’s reorganization of central Europe, and promises to enforce Napoleon’s blockade against Britain.
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    War of the Fifth Coalition

    With Napoleon occupied on the Iberian Peninsula, the Austrians launch a surprise attack on Bavaria. After four months of vicious fighting and heavy casualties, the French rout the Austrians at the Battle of Wagram and force them to sign the uncompromising treaty of Schönbrunn.
  • Battle of Wagram July 5-6

    Napoleon defeats the Austrian army in a bloody 2 day struggle involving 300,000 men on a packed flat battlefield. Crushes the morale of the Austrians, forcing them to sign an armistice and accept the harsh terms of the Treaty of Schönbrunn.
  • Treaty of Schönbrunn

    Austria forced to cede huge amounts of territory containing 1/5 of her subjects, ends the Fifth Coalition.
  • Alexander I rejects the continental system

    The Tsar refused to enforce Napoleon’s blockade against Britain any longer.
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    The Russian Campaign

    Napoleon assembled 600,000 draftees from across his empire and marched on Moscow. Napoleon recklessly pressed towards Moscow as the Russian winter drew on, refusing to stop campaigning for the winter. After spending five weeks in the burned out shell of Moscow, Napoleon began his disastrous retreat. The Russian winter, Russian army, and starvation kill 370,000 and take 200,000 as prisoners.
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    War of the Sixth Coalition

    With opportunity knocking (Napoleon lost 570,000 troops in the Russian Campaign), Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain finally band together to contain Napoleon. The Quadruple Alliance was willing to negotiate peace so long as Napoleon agreed to bring France back to her pre 1791 borders. But Napoleon refused and the Quadruple Alliance descended on France. After a desperate struggle around Paris, Napoleon is forced to abdicate unconditionally
  • Treaty of Chaumont

    Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain form the Quadruple Alliance and give Napoleon one last chance for a cessation of hostilities if he agrees to France going back to her pre-1791 borders. Napoleon rejects the treaty immediately.
  • Napoleon abdicates

    Defeated by the Quadruple Alliance, Napoleon is forced to abdicate unconditionally
  • Napoleon lands on Elba

    The spiteful allies grant Napoleon an escort of 600 men, allow him to rule as the Emperor of Elba, and grant him a yearly salary of 2 million francs.
  • Napoleon escapes Elba

    Napoleon and his 600 man guard slip off the Island under the nose of the British.
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    The Hundred Days (The Seventh Coalition)

    Napoleon marched through France to great popular acclaim, old soldiers and officers flocked to join his army, forcing Louis XVIII to flee. Although he managed to gather 105,000 men by the end of April, his ragtag army proved to be no match for the hundreds of thousands of well-trained regulars the reconstituted Quadruple Alliance was able to raise.
  • Battle of Ligny

    Hoping to buy time to raise more troops, Napoleon takes the offensive, forcing the Prussians to retreat.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Napoleon’s 72,000 men are routed in “The nearest run thing you ever saw in your life” (-Duke of Wellington) by a combined force of 113,000 men under Wellington.
  • Napoleon abdicates again

    All hope is lost for Napoleon after his defeat at Waterloo. This time he is imprisoned on the rocky island of St. Helena far off the west coast of Africa, never to return. He spends his remaining six years on St. Helena, writing his memoirs and nurturing his public image.
  • Marquis de Lafayette

    Septerber 6 1757- May 20 1834
    Marquis de Lafayette was a French Major General that assisted in the American Revolution. Upon his return to Franch he spoke very enthuiastially about the new liberties and freedoms of the Colonies. He later became commander of the city's armed forces of the Bastille.
  • Abbe Sieyès

    Abbe Sieyès
    3 Mar 1748 - 20 Jun 1846
    Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès was French clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. His most well known "What is the Third Estate?" supported the 3rd Estate (working class) calling it the "backbone of society" . He was also apart of the coup d’état, which helped to get rid of the Directory and introduce the Consulate and Napoleon.