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Enlightenment-The French Revolution-Napoleon Era

  • Promotion of the scientific method

    Promotion of the scientific method
    Francis Bacon was an English Renaissance statesman and philosopher, best known for his promotion of the scientific method. He argued for an empirical, inductive approach, which is the foundation of modern scientific inquiry.
  • Beginning of the Enlightenment

    Beginning of the Enlightenment
    The Enlightenment era was the movement throughout Europe when people started thinking differently, and reasoning began. The tradition ways of the monarch were being questioned and challenged. It was the beginning of the scientific revolution.
  • Separation of Powers

    Separation of Powers
    Baron de Monesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat was a great political philosopher. He constructed an account of the various for ms of government, and the causes that made them what they were and what could help advance or hinder them. He then used this to explain how governments could be spared from corruption. He had strong feelings about despotism being dangerous for any government, and argued that it would benefit a system if different bodies exercised legislative.
  • American Independence from Britan

    American Independence from Britan
    In 1776 American colonists declared Independence from the British monarchy through the Declaration of Interdependence, written by Thomas Jefferson.
  • Development of liberalism

    Development of liberalism
    English philosopher and political theorist John Locke was responsible for laying much of the ground work for t the Enlightenment era, he was a major contributor tot he development of liberalism, he was trained in medicine, and a key advocate of empirical approached of scientific revolution
  • Call of the Estate General

    Call of the Estate General
    Because France had spent a lot of money under the ruling of King Louis XV and Louis XVI they were in a bind and to convene to the Estate General to order a new land tax levy, the king was hoping this would ease their money issues. The Estate General members were clergy, middle class and lower class citizens.
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    The French Revolution

    The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799. It was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire. People were aware of the ideas of equality and liberty and knew they were not being treated the same, they made an oath to fight until they got they were treated fairly and they system was fair. It began with the people storming the Bastille prison.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    On June 20, 1789 the deputies of the National Assembly discovered the chamber doors locked and guarded by soldiers. They feared the worst and thought it was an attack by King Louis XVI, they gathered at an indoor tennis court where they took a solemn collective oath "not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established."
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    During the French Revolution The Bastille was a symbol of power and the style of dictatorship ruling by the monarchs. On July 14, 1789 an angry mob stormed the prison which housed 7 prisoners, not to attack the prisoners but to get to the ammunition storage that was kept in the prison. There as a violent battle and the mob took control of the prison and the governor was killed and his head was put on a spike for everyone to see.
  • March on Versailles

    March on Versailles
    The peasants were left starving while the King and Marie Antoinette continued to live lavishly and fest at their festivities. The women of the land were tired of it and set out to march from Paris to Versailles, armed with pitchforks and pikes and muskets, in hopes to get bread for it was too expensive for them to purchase.
  • Flee Attempt-Royals

    Flee Attempt-Royals
    When King Louis XVI realized how dangerous things were becoming he decided to take his family and flee from Paris to Varennes. They were caught by the revolutionary government and in Varennes and it because a hostile situation for them.
  • Invasion of Tuileries

    Invasion of Tuileries
    The home of King Louis XVI and the Legislative Assembly, the Tuileries was taken over by the people of Paris.
  • King Louis XVI-Guilty of Treason

    King Louis XVI-Guilty of Treason
    On August 10, 1792 the French revolutionaries overthrew the monarchy when King Louis XVI was found guilty of treason.
  • Execution Day!

    Execution Day!
    King Louis XVI was executed by the guillotine and the revolutionaries forced Marie Antoinette to watch
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    Reign of Terror

    A period of about 6 months, most executions were done. It started after King Louis was executed, Marie Antoinette was then executed. Her son Louis XVII suspiciously disappeared and was never seen again.
  • Execution of Marie Antoinetted

    Execution of Marie Antoinetted
    Marie Antoinette was executed by the guillotine, the first execution after the Reign of Terror began.
  • Robespierre-Execution

    Towards the end of the French Revolution Robespierre, one of the most influential people in the French Revolutionary was beheaded. He was known for being a proponent for life and being against the death penalty, he played the biggest role in the execution of King Louis XVI. Even though he was against the death penalty and influential in the revolution he was looked at as a dictator and a tyrant. The French did not like him and he was arrested, tried and sentenced to the guillotine.
  • Coup de Brumaire

    Coup de Brumaire
    The French Directory was overtaken by Napoleon and through the support of the French people he created the French Consulate.
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    The Napoleonic Era

    This is a period in the history of France and Europe when Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the Directory, establishing the French Consulate. It ended during the Hundred Days and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.
  • Napoleon as First Consul

    Napoleon as First Consul
    He Proclaimed himself firs Consul and got rid of the elected Assembly, appointing a Senate instead.
  • Treaty of Luneville

    Treaty of Luneville
    After being defeated in the Battle of Marengo, Austria was forced to sign a treaty with the French. The terms of Campo Formio were reestablished.
  • Concordant

    A document signed by Napoleon acknowledging Catholicism as the major religion of France. This agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon was able to bring back the church's civil status into society.
  • Peace treaty of Amiens

    Peace treaty of Amiens
    When England was abandoned by other countries they were forced to sign a treaty hoping to reaffirm peace between them and France. This treaty only lasted a year.
  • Napoleonic Code

    Napoleonic Code
    These were rules ordered by Napoleon, the bases of the rules were surrounded on equality, abolishing privileges given due to birth rights and status. it gave freedom of religion and encouraged employers to give jobs to the most qualified, state-run schools were established.
  • Third Coalition

    Third Coalition
    Austria and Britain formed the Third Coalition to challenge the French dominance.
  • Battle of Trafalgar

    Battle of Trafalgar
    Napoleon was defeated by England, they destroyed the Spanish and French ships, it confirmed their dominance over the seas.
  • Treaty of Pressburg

    Treaty of Pressburg
    Austria paid indemnities to France, withdrew with the third Coalition, gave land t German allies and Venice to Italy.
  • Berlin Decrees

    Berlin Decrees
    Napoleon forbade the import/export of British goods with any of France's allies, he did this in an attempt to ruin their economy. This initiated the Continental System.
  • Treaty of Tilsit

    Treaty of Tilsit
    Russia, Prussia, and France signed a treaty, Russia agreed to join the Continental System and in return wanted help to defeat the Ottoman Empire.
  • Peninsular War

    Peninsular War
    Fought by the Spanish-British alliance against France on the Iberian Peninsula. It was caused by the French invading Portugal and later Spain to enforce the Continental System. Later on in August, England and Spain joined forced and were able to drive France out of Portugal.
  • Russian take over by France

    Russian take over by France
    When Russia withdrew from the Continental System, Napoleon planned an invasion in an effort to subdue their powers and eliminate them as a potential treat. They underestimated the Russians, the Russians used the Scorched Earth Policy and burned the land and buildings leaving very little behind for the French army to survive on.
  • Napoleon's Army in Moscow

    Napoleon's Army in Moscow
    The Russians had already fled for cover , the city was scorched and little to nothing was left for the French Army to survive on, this brought great suffering and diseases upon the French Army.
  • Sixth Coalition

    Sixth Coalition
    Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden and German states saw the weakened state of France and it's Army and formed this coalition as their chance to defeat France.
  • Battle of Leipzig

    Battle of Leipzig
    The sixth Coalition came together and defeated Napoleon and the French Army. He was quickly defeated because his army was now very limited due to the diseases and lack of supplies.
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    Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna was a conference in Austria that sought out to settle political and territorial questions that arose as a result of Napoleon's conquest and the restoration of power to Europe. It was guided by: The Balance of Power, Legitimacy, Buffer States, Conservatism.
  • Napoleon Return to France

    Napoleon Return to France
    While Napoleon was in France he convinced the guards that captured him to join him in his efforts. King Louis XVII, heard of Napoleon's return and fled and left the state for Napoleon's taking.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    When Napoleon returned to France in an effort to reestablish his dominance over Europe he invaded Belgium. At the Battle of Waterloo, the British was led by Wellington and was able to defeat Napoleon and his army and Napoleon was taken into custody again.