The Chanak AffairEvent:
-British were in dispute with Turkey over a town, Chanack, and they wanted Canadian military help
-Brit. dispute with Turkey and Canada refused to get involved Signifigance:
-King replied that only Can. Parliament could decide whether or not to send troops which was different from 1914 when Can. automatically joined Brit. at the WWI’s outbreak ( p. 156)
-This made it clear that “ Britain’s interest and Canada’s interests in foreign policy were not always the same” ( p.156).
The Halibut TreatyEvent:
-Canada and the United States sign a fishing agreement for halibut in the north Pacific.
- a fishing agreeement between Canada & USA. Significance :
-For the first time, Canada was able to sign an international treaty ( with other countries) by itself without British signatories after PM King’s insistence.
-Can. wins right to sign treaties with a foreign country on its own.
The King-Byng CrisisEvent :
-Governor General Julian Byng refused to dissolve Parliament and call an election when King requested it. Significance :
- King felt that Byng’s refusal was a breach of responsible gov’t and was determined to clarify the Governor General’s role at the next Imperial Conference – where it was determined that GG would represent the British Crown and not the gov’t.
-PM King clarifies the role of the GG.
The Balfour ReportEvent: -in this document, Can. & other Dominions were declared self- governing & independent nations but agreed to voluntarily be part of the new Brit. Commonwealth of Nations.
Significance: supported Can.’s autonomy to make foreign policy decisions w/o British interference.
- Can. should make own decisions about foreign policy.
- Can. declared self-governing & indepedent.
- voluntary " Commonwelath of Nations".
- GG will only be a British representative ; not an agent of Brit. gov't.
New Foreign EmbassiesEvent :
-Canada opens embassy in the US and in the following years, embassies are open in France & Belgium.
-Vincent Massey is the first diplomat.
-embassies and ambassadors serve as official Canadian gov’t representatives to other nations and therefore a sign of Canada’s independence as nation.
-protecting citizens in foreign countries
-could communicate with other nations w/o going through Brit.
The Statute of WestminsterEvent:
- the British gov’t passes the Statute of Westminster which recommendaed the Balfour Report into law.
- makes Balfour Report law which said that Can. was only bound to laws of its own ( Brit. can't make laws for Can.).
-besides two details, Canada achieved complete autonomy by 1931 and Britain could no longer make any laws for Canada
- the highest Canadian court still the Privy Council in Brit. & BNA Act ammended by Brit. gov't.
Canada's Growing Autonomy