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Hi 30 Timeline Challenge AmyJohn

  • First Canadian Newspaper - CS

    First Canadian Newspaper - CS
    On March 23rd 1752 the first newspaper, known as the Halifax Gazette, was published in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The paper was government funded and only one known copy remains today. This event marks the beginnings of social media development.
  • Anthony Henday Explores the West - DE

    Anthony Henday Explores the West - DE
    Anthony Henday was a European man who worked for the Hudson’s Bay Company. The company funded Henday’s exploration as the purpose was to establish trade connections with the First Nations who resided on Rupert’s Land. European exploration of the west was a major part of establishing Canada as one colony or nation.
  • Expulsion of the Acadians - NE

    Expulsion of the Acadians - NE
    The Acadians were a population of French and Metis peoples who resided in the maritimes region of Canada. The acadian population was forced out of this region and initially deported to the thirteen colonies, but later brought over to Britain and France. This was one of the extremes that illustrates the tension in Canada between the English and French speaking population that still exists today.
  • Beginning of the Seven Years' War - WB

    Beginning of the Seven Years' War - WB
    The Seven Years War spanned from 1756 - 1763. This war was another example of tensions between the French and the British. In the early year of the war, the French were gaining territory and strength that the British could not keep up with, however, the British launched attack on Louisbourg, Montreal and Quebec City.
  • BIG SIX - (Cause and Consequence)

    The cause of the Seven Years was that Britain wanted to own the new land on what is now North America, however France was gaining territory, so Britain attacked. As consequence of the war, both Britain and France’s costs of the war eventually contributed to the American Revolution and the French Revolution.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham - WB

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham - WB
    British forces, led by General Wolfe, defeated the French who were led by General Montcalm. This was a turning point in the war because the French were forced to surrender their territory in Canada to the British, building up to when Canada eventually becomes a British colony.
  • France Surrender Montreal - NE

    France Surrender Montreal - NE
    Throughout the Seven Years War, there were many early victories for the French, but the defeat of the French in Montreal was one of three events which resulted in an overall victory for the British.
  • New France Becomes a British Colony - CS

    New France Becomes a British Colony - CS
    The Treaty of Paris most importantly marked the end of the Seven Years War. France, Britain and Spain all signed the treaty which stated that Britain owned Cape Breton Island, Quebec, and the Great Lakes. However, France still held fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland.
  • Royal Proclamation - DAT

    Royal Proclamation - DAT
    The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was a document issued by King George that was to help Britain establish government in their newly gained territory. This document played a huge role in the tension leading up to the American Revolution because it claimed large areas of land that were valuable to the Thirteen Colonies for expansions.
  • BIG SIX - (Cause and Consequence)

    American settlers were trying to expand westwards, and in the process harassing the Indians and threatening their land. King George didn’t want an Indian war, so he established the Royal Proclamation which granted the Natives rights to land. The Proclamation also contributed to the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775.
  • PEI Becomes a Seperate British Colony - PN

    PEI Becomes a Seperate British Colony - PN
    The island currently known as Prince Edward Island was named St. John’s Island while it was occupied by the British from 1758 to 1763. In 1763, Nova Scotia annexed the island from the British, but shortly after in 1769 PEI made itself a separate colony with mainly Scottish immigrants.
  • Samuel Hearne Reaches the Arctic Ocean - DE

    Samuel Hearne Reaches the Arctic Ocean - DE
    Samuel Hearne took part in three expeditions to the Canadian Arctic trying to discover the Northwest Passage. This greatly increased European knowledge of the climate, Inuit, and Dene. Hearne was a notable explorer because he went further north than any European had previously.
  • The Cumberland House is Constructed - NE

    The Cumberland House is Constructed  - NE
    As one of the most important fur trade depots in Canada, the Cumberland House was constructed and opened in 1774. The construction of the house marked a huge change in trading techniques and caused a buildup of tensions between the Hudson’s Bay Company and the North West Company.
  • Quebec Act is Passed - DAT

    Quebec Act is Passed - DAT
    As the last of the five intolerable acts which led to the American Revolution, the Quebec Act made substantial changes to the borders of Quebec. The borders were stretched to include Labrador, as well as South pat the Great Lakes to include aboriginal territory which interfered with the Thirteen Colonies.
  • BIG SIX - (Ethical Dimensions)

    This act was an initial document in Canada’s multiculturalism and acceptance of cultures. Modern Canada is still known for it’s acceptance of immigrants.
  • American Revolution Begins - WB

    American Revolution Begins - WB
    Forces invaded Quebec and Montreal near the beginning of the revolution. Forces were eventually defeated in Canada, but this marked a significant change in the Thirteen Colonies, separating them from British rule. This change of rule caused many Loyalists from the colonies, who supported British rule, to head north and settle in British North America. Population, politics and culture were all affected.
  • U.S. / Canadian Border is Decided - CS

    U.S. / Canadian Border is Decided - CS
    After the Treaty of Paris, Great Britain agreed to a US/Canada border that spanned from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. Above Minnesota, there was a geographic impossibility agreed upon by the American and British diplomats. The US obtained an unspecified area west of Mississippi from France. Britain proposed that the water line would only be drawn from the point where it touches the 49th parallel, and continue westward.
  • American Revolutionary War Ends - WB

    American Revolutionary War Ends - WB
    The war drew to a close with the signing of the 1783 Treaty of Paris. This document was the first sign of american independence as they didn't side with the French or British, in fact the British actually recognized american independence by granting them fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland.
  • Province of New Brunswick Forms - PN

    Province of New Brunswick Forms - PN
    At the time Britain administrators felt that Halifax was too distant from other developing territories, and so they thought that the colony of Nova Scotia should be split. As a result New Brunswick was formed with Sir Thomas Carleton being the first governor.
  • BIG SIX - (Continuity and Change)

    With 35,000 settlers arriving in New Brunswick, they needed more local government. The Canadian laws regarding people coming to Canada have changed, but our ideologies have not: 35,000 refugees came in 1783, now in 2015 our Prime Minister is considering 25,000 Syrian refugees.
  • Alexander Mackenzie Explores the Pacific Ocean - DE

    Alexander Mackenzie Explores the Pacific Ocean  - DE
    In an expedition sponsored by the North West Company, Mackenzie set out with his crew in an attempt to reach the Pacific Ocean and discover new trade routes along the way. He never reached his destination, or discovered many trade routes, but instead explored what is now known as the Mackenzie River. Mackenzie reached the Pacific Ocean on his second expedition in 1793.
  • Ontario and Quebec are Formed- PN

    Ontario and Quebec are Formed- PN
    This was the first step towards the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade’s goal of abolishing slavery entirely. They believed that they could more easily persuade British Parliament to only prohibit the trade.
  • BC is Explored by George Vancouver - DE

    BC is Explored by George Vancouver - DE
    After negotiations with the Spanish who currently occupying territory on the BC coastline, George Vancouver set out the explore the entirety of the coast from California to Alaska. He spent three summers exploring the cast before he went back to England to publish his journal.
  • York (Toronto) is Founded - CS

    York (Toronto) is Founded - CS
    Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the existing settlement that was originally settled by the Iroquois in the 1660s. The town replaced Newark as the capital of Upper Canada. York would later become the city of Toronto, Capital of Ontario, and the largest city in Canada.
  • BIG SIX - (Historical Significance)

    The town of York turns into Canada’s most populous city by far. It's now Canada's business capital, one of the top financial cities in the world and home of one of the world's largest stock markets.
  • XY Company is Formed - NE

    XY Company is Formed - NE
    Formed by a group of men who were unhappy with Simon McTavish’s leadership of the NorthWest Company, the XY Company was a competitor with the NWC, HBC, and AFC in the trade industry. Alexander Mackenzie, one of Canada’s most famous explorers, was one of the founders of the XYC.
  • Alexander Mackenzie is Kighted - GPM

    Alexander Mackenzie is Kighted - GPM
    Mackenzie was knighted for his efforts in exploration of the Pacific and Arctic ocean. His journals of his journeys were published in 1801 and he served in the Legislature of Lower Canada from 1804 to 1808.
  • BIG SIX - (Historical Perspectives)

    The arctic was a dangerous place to explore with the technology they had in the 1800s. Not many people are knighted in the 21st century, so it may be harder to comprehend what knighting means: it’s basically getting a military medal that’s recognised by an entire nation.
  • La Canadien is Founded - NE

    La Canadien is Founded - NE
    Founded in Quebec City by members of the Parliament of Lower Canada, the newspaper was the voice of the Parti canadien as they battled the English party. In 1810, the paper’s printer, Charles Lefrançois, was imprisoned and a patrol searched the city for conspirators because their rival paper (The Quebec Mercury) has suggested that the French Canadians and Americans were plotting against England.
  • Slave Trade is Abolished in British Colonies - CS

    Slave Trade is Abolished in British Colonies - CS
    In 1793, legislation passed which provided gradual freedom to African Canadians after the age of 25. This was the first law of its kind, and led to the abolition of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in 1807. After picking away at the issue for decades, slavery abolitionist groups would later be successful in completely abolishing slavery in Canada.
  • Robert Fulton sails the Hudson River - DE

    Robert Fulton sails the Hudson River - DE
    While he didn’t invent the steamboat, but he was the one who produced the first commercially successful steamboat. He believed that America’s economic future rested on transforming the numerous waterways in Canada into shipping highways.
  • United States Declares War on Britain - WB

    United States Declares War on Britain - WB
    The americans declared war on Britain because the British forces would seize American ships and forcing them to serve for the British Navy. Americans began by attacking Canadian provinces, which British forces (half made up of Canadians) held. The Americans would never want to admit it, but this is the only war the United States was involved in where they lost.
  • BIG SIX - (Historical Significance)

    This war is significant in all of history because it was the only International war that the United States has ever lost (and they better not forget it even though they deny it). In all reality the end of the war was a result of Canada being able to hold its ground better than the Americans could attack.
  • Laura Secord Walks to Warn the British - NE

    Laura Secord Walks to Warn the British - NE
    After purportedly overhearing American soldiers mention the attack on James Fitzgibbon’s British outpost at ‘Beaver Dams’. Upon hearing this, she made a 32km trek to warn him of the impending attack, while avoiding the American sentries. Her walk resulted in The British and Mohawk warriors ambushing the Americans and winning the Battle of Beaver Dams on June 24th. There was no mention of her on the reports concerning the battle.
  • Treaty of Ghent - DAT

    Treaty of Ghent - DAT
    With peace negotiations beginning the prior year, the Treaty of Ghent was signed by the British and Americans in Belgium on Christmas Eve of 1814. In North America, both sides were too balanced for either to achieve their war aims.
  • Edward Perry Stays a Winter in the Arftic - DE

    Edward Perry Stays a Winter in the Arftic - DE
    The expedition halfway across the arctic was sailed on the HMS Hecla and HMS Griper. The crew of explorers made it past 110 degrees west, which entitled them to a 5000 pound award from the government ($135,000 with inflation). Their path was blocked by ice, causing them to turn back. They reached Melville Island and were frozen in for 10 months, enduring over 3 months of continuous night. No ship would sail that again far west until the 1850s. In 1821, Perry would be elected into the Royal Socie
  • John A Macdonald Emigrates to Canada - GPM

    John A Macdonald Emigrates to Canada - GPM
    After Hugh MacDonald’s family business left him in debt, the family moved to Kingston. Once again, his father’s business failed. John finished schooling at age 15, and went on to become a lawyer as his parents decided. There were no law schools in British North America, so he became an apprentice of George Mackenzie.
  • HBC and NWC Join - NE

    HBC and NWC Join - NE
    Being the largest two competitors in Canada's largest industry, the HBC and NWC merged as ordered by the British government. Although the NWC owned 55 shares and was larger than the HBC, the name HBC would remain. The resulting company was the most powerful fur trading entity in the world; unfortunately it was towards the end of the fur trade.
  • Louis-Joseph Papineau Opposes the Act of Union - DAT

    Louis-Joseph Papineau Opposes the Act of Union - DAT
    An Act of Union to unite Upper and Lower Canada was proposed in England. Louis-Joseph Papineau, a French-Canadian lawyer travelled to England to oppose this act. He claimed a union of the two Canadas would demolish the French culture in Lower Canada. Papineau was victorious as the Act was postponed at that time.
  • BIG SIX - (Historical Significance)

    If the Act of Union were to have been successful, the French would not have had the rights to their culture that they do now. As consequence, the French culture would have most likely been assimilated into the British/Canadian culture Canada has today.
  • Fort Gratiot Lighthouse - CS

    Fort Gratiot Lighthouse - CS
    The purpose of this lighthouse was to protect commerce on Lake Huron. The first lighthouse was small, not built according to spec, and was in a poor location. These factors led to its collapse during a storm. A replacement made out of brick was built, and it stood 86 feet tall.
  • Opening of the Rideau Canal - CS

    Opening of the Rideau Canal - CS
    After the War of 1812, the government wanted a waterway between Lake Ontario and the Ottawa River. The 202km path it created from Montreal to Kingston was superior to the St. Lawrence River route because it was more secure and safer to travel on.
  • BIG SIX - ( Historical Significance)

    The canal was the first major trade route that could quickly transport a high quantity of resources/products; but its use declined in 1850s when the railway was built and that was the superior transportation method.
  • First Railway in Canada Opens - NE

    First Railway in Canada Opens - NE
    The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railway was 12 kilometers long and ran from La Prairie to Quebec. Although the construction of the rails was very dangerous for transportation, only one minor accident was reported before the tracks were replaced with iron rails.
  • Mackenzie and Papineau Lead Rebellions - WB

    Mackenzie and Papineau Lead Rebellions - WB
    William Lyon Mackenzie led a rebellion in Upper Canada calling for a republic government, while Louis-Joseph Papineau and the Patriots led a rebellion in Lower Canada demanding self government and refusing to appeal to the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and the British Governors.
  • Lord Durham Comes to Canada - GPM

    Lord Durham Comes to Canada - GPM
    John Durham was a British North American Governor General and High Commissioner, who travelled to Lower Canada in attempt to repair the Canada’s after the rebellions. Britain had lost the the american colonies and was desperate to keep British North America. He made three suggestions; the Canada’s should unite to assimilate the French culture, allow Canadians to run local affairs and leave Britain to oversee things, and to allow more Canadian self-government.
  • Act of Union - DAT

    Act of Union - DAT
    As a result of a strong suggestion from Lord Durham in his report, British Parliament passed the Act of Union which united Upper and Lower Canada to create the Province of Canada. The Act was viewed as being unfair to Lower Canada which had less debt and a larger population. The union also tried to assimilate the french culture which created tensions within the new province.
  • BIG SIX - (Continuity and Change)

    Over time, the Canadian/BNA policy has changed from assimilation to accommodation, and now in modern Canada back to assimilation (though citizens still have cultural freedoms). The current policy continues to be unpopular with many French Canadians which has led to more tension.
  • Charles Fenerety's Discovery - NE

    Charles Fenerety's Discovery - NE
    Charles Fenerty was an inventor from Upper Sackville. His local pulp mill was having difficulty acquiring a sufficient supply of rags to produce quality paper. This inspired him to invent a new way to create paper from wood pulp.
  • John A Macdonald is Chosen to Represent the Legislative Assembly - GPM

    John A Macdonald is Chosen to Represent the Legislative Assembly - GPM
    At the young age of 29, John A. Macdonald was elected by the legislative assembly to represent Kingston. This marked the beginning of his career in Conservative Politics. At this time, Macdonald supported cultural education, and disapproved of the movement to abolish primogeniture.
  • John Franklin and Crew Disappear - DE

    John Franklin and Crew Disappear - DE
    Two ships, the Erebus and the Terror, which carried Franklin and his 134 crew members, as well as food rations for three years, went missing on an expedition to sail the Northwest Passage. They were last heard from in Baffin Bay only 2 months after they had set sail. This remains the worst disaster in the history of Arctic exploration.
  • Search Efforts for John Franklin’s Lost Expedition was Launched

    In response to Franklin’s crew going missing in 1945 during their expedition to the Arctic, a massive search was launched. As the search went on, they discovered and mapped a number of new locations in the Arctic, including all of the Northwest Passage.
  • BIG SIX - (Historical Significance)

    The search went on for a few years, with no luck of finding the ship until 2014 where a breakthrough was made. This is important because the discovery may help settling the international territorial issues regarding who owns parts of the north.
  • British North America's First Postage Stamp - NE

    British North America's First Postage Stamp - NE
    Stanford Fleming designed Canada's first postage stamp, known as the Three-Penny Beaver. It was the world's first stamp to have a picture on it, as well as the first stamp to have a depiction that wasn't a head or ruler of government.
  • Universite Laval Royal Charter is Signed - PN

    Universite Laval Royal Charter is Signed - PN
    Universite Laval was established in 1852, and opened in 1854. The University was a work of the catholic church, and is the oldest French University today.
  • Ottawa becomes Capital - CS

    Ottawa becomes Capital - CS
    At the time, holding the largest lumber mills in the country, and being connected to the Grand Trunk Railway as well as the American Rail System Ottawa was the best settlement to become the Capital of Canada. The decision was Queen Victoria's and she announced the news in 1857, causing several years for rapid population growth in Ottawa where the population more than tripled over the course of 20 years.
  • Gold is Discovered on the Fraser River - DE

    Gold is Discovered on the Fraser River - DE
    Following the gold rush in California, was the Fraser River Gold Rush. Over 30,000 people moved to the river banks of the Fraser River desperate for jobs. At the time, this land was controlled by Americans although there were many aboriginals in the area. The tensions between these two groups escalated during the gold rush, leading to many wars along the river.
  • Charlottetown Conference - CS

    Charlottetown Conference - CS
    Representatives from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island who originally met to discuss the union of their three colonies was persuaded by a representative from the Province of Canada to unite all British Colonies in North America. This conference stirred opinions on the subject of confederation.
  • Parliament Buildings Open - NE

    Parliament Buildings Open - NE
    Home to the House of Commons and the Senate, the Parliament buildings began construction in 1860, and opened six years later, in time for the new Confederation in 1867. These buildings have grown to become a national symbol for Canada which makes the preservation of these buildings very important to the Government.
  • BNA Act - DAT

    BNA Act - DAT
    On this date, three British colonies became a country, known as the Dominion of Canada. The Province of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia united and formed a system of parliament that followed very closely to Britain. Sections 91 and 92 of the Act outline the responsibilities of the federal and provincial governments.
  • BIX SIX - (Continuity and Change)

    At the time of confederation, there were four provinces, but over time Canada has become a country composed of ten provinces and three territories.
  • Thomas D'Arcy McGee is Assassinated - GPM

    Thomas D'Arcy McGee is Assassinated - GPM
    Thomas D’Arcy McGee was born in Ireland and moved to Canada in the 1840’s. He joined politics when he was elected to the Legislative Assembly. McGee disapproved of the Fenian movements and suggested a more ‘Canadian’ approach when dealing with Britain. Patrick Whelan, a suspected Fenian, was hanged for the assassination of Thomas McGee. This is the first and only recorded assassination in Canadian government.
  • Parliament Buys Rupert's Land - DAT

    Parliament Buys Rupert's Land - DAT
    Stretching from British Columbia through to Upper and Lower Canada, Rupert’s land had been previously owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company. The Government of Canada purchased the land for a total of 1.5 million dollars.
  • Manitoba Joins Confederation - PN

    Manitoba Joins Confederation - PN
    The Manitoba Act added Manitoba to the Confederation as the fifth province, despite Prime Minister Macdonald's wishes to join it as a territory. This was the beginning of a long journey of western development and control for Canada.
  • BIG SIX - (Cause and Consequence)

    The Manitoba Act was once the fourth version of the Bill of Rights written by Riel’s Provisional Government. It was written in response due to the Red River Rebellion. As consequence, negotiations were sparked to ensure that the French and Metis would have cultural freedom within Canada.
  • John A. Macdonald Resigns - GPM

    John A. Macdonald Resigns - GPM
    The scandal was known as the ‘Pacific Scandal’ where it was alleged that MacDonald was accepting funds in exchange for the contract to build the CPR. Coming off the majority he won in 1867, after receiving over $350,000 in campaign funds, MacDonald won again, but not by the landslide he previously had.
  • First Organized Hockey Games - NE

    First Organized Hockey Games - NE
    The McGill University Hockey Club played the first organized Ice Hockey game. The game quickly spread across the country and the first Championships were held in 1883. Ice hockey has grown to become Canada’s official winter sport.
  • National Policy is Introduced - DAT

    National Policy is Introduced - DAT
    Introduced by Prime Minister Macdonald, the National Policy proposed a large increase in tariffs on imported goods as well as the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Macdonald also thought it was important for our population to grow so he started to encourage programs that would bring people to western Canada. This policy was not very popular in the west and it led to the creation of many opposition parties.
  • Time Zones are Introduced - DE

    Time Zones are Introduced - DE
    Prior to the introduction of time zones, the time would differ by one minute for every 18km of distance. At the time, a travel of over 18km was very rare and unheard of so time changes were never much of an issue. With the introduction of railways, confusion caused missed trains and many nights spent sleeping at the station. Fleming, a victim of this himself decided that the world should be divided into 24 time zones, 15 degrees of longitude wide.
  • Northwest Rebillion - WB

    Northwest Rebillion - WB
    Lasting five months, a sense of fear among Metis and Aboriginal people in the west caused a series of riots and uprisings. Riel urged all dissatisfied westerners to stand up against Macdonald, and Riel was seen as the leader of the rebellion.
  • Last Spike of the CPR - NE

    Last Spike of the CPR - NE
    The final spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway was placed by Donald Smith, who was knighted for his contribution to the construction of the railway. The ceremony was held in Craigellachie, British Columbia which has now been named a historical site.
  • BIG SIX - (Ethical Dimensions)

    Many Chinese were used for cheap labour, completing dangerous tasks. They were treated differently because of their ethnicity and culture.
  • Louis Riel is Hanged for Treason - GPM

    Louis Riel is Hanged for Treason - GPM
    Louis Riel was charged and tried for treason. Although Riel did not agree, his defense team tried to claim insanity, as Riel had spent some time in asylums. At the end of the trial, Riel made a speech which disproved his lawyers own case. The jury did not see Riel as being insane, therefore he lost the trial and was hanged.
  • John A. Macdonald Dies - GPM

    John A. Macdonald Dies - GPM
    After the election of 1892, MacDonald suffered a stroke which resulted in him being partially paralyzed, and unable to speak. MacDonald died in 1891. His body was transported by funeral train to his hometown in Kingston, with crowds greeting the train at every stop.
  • People Rush to Yukon for Gold - PN

    People Rush to Yukon for Gold - PN
    Gold was discovered by an American prospector at Rabbit Creek, near Klondike River. There was over $29 million worth of gold recovered, but if it were distributed evenly among those who ventured for it, nobody would have made a profit. However, with the country in a depression, the economy benefitted from the spending because of the gold rush. The population of Klondike went from 25,000 to a few hundred within a decade of the end of the gold rush.
  • BIG SIX - (Cause and Consequence)

    In the tough economic times of through this depression, striking gold was a dream worth pursuing for the chance that you could make money. While on average people lost money, a consequence of the gold rush was that people were spending to get there and set up, which benefitted the economy and helped lead the country out of the depression.
  • Doukhobors Settle in Saskatchewan - CS

    Doukhobors Settle in Saskatchewan - CS
    Doukhobors are dissenters from Russian, who migrated to western Canada. They are known for their radical pacifism. Approximately 20,000 of their descendants live in Canada, with one third of those still practicing.
  • Canadian Troops Sent Overseas to the Boer War - WB

    Canadian Troops Sent Overseas to the Boer War - WB
    When the war began in South Africa in 1899, Britain asked its colonies to help out and under pressure, Laurier agreed to send over a group of volunteer soldiers from Canada. This was the first group of Canadian troops to fight overseas.
  • Canada Competes in the Olympics for the First Time - NE

    Canada Competes in the Olympics for the First Time - NE
    Although Canadian athletes had competed in 1900 at the olympics, 1904 was the first year Canada took a national team that competed under the flag. Canada ranked 4th overall bringing home 4 gold, 1 silver and 1 bronze. A large factor of the Canadian success was that the Olympics were held in the United States and many European countries decided not to make the long trip.
  • Saskatchewan Becomes a Province - PN

    Saskatchewan Becomes a Province - PN
    With the recent addition of the CPR in 1885, the government gave people free land to those who were willing to settle in the west. This brought over more than one hundred thousand European immigrants. Saskatchewan and Alberta joined confederation at the same time, almost becoming one large province called “Buffalo”. With the world’s high wheat prices it appeared that Saskatchewan would be very prosperous in the long term.
  • BIG SIX - (Cause and Consequence)

    A huge factor in the creation of Saskatchewan was that land was being given away or sold for very cheap to farmers who would work it. As consequence, thousands of farmers migrated to these farms, causing a population large enough to warrant a province settled.
  • Roald Amundsen Sails the Northwest Passage - DE

    Roald Amundsen Sails the Northwest Passage - DE
    The three main expeditions that Amundsen partook in were in the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, the South Pole Expedition, and the Northwest Passage. Leading five other men in the Northwest Passage expedition, they spent two winters at King William Island and learned survival skills from the local Netsilik Inuit.
  • Robert Stanley Weir Writes O’ Canada - DAT

    Robert Stanley Weir Writes O’ Canada  - DAT
    The first lyrics to “O Canada” were written in 1880 by the Frenchman Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier, while the composition was by Calixa Lavallee. At the time the Francophone anthem was “Chant National”, while “God Save the Queen” and “The Maple Leaf Forever” were the unofficial English Canadian anthems. The modern anthem is a slightly modified version of “O Canada” written by Robert Stanley in 1908.
  • Canada's First Powered Air Flight - NE

    Canada's First Powered Air Flight - NE
    The first Canadian powered air flight was a plane built under the guidance of Sir Alexander Graham Bell called the Silver Dart. The first flight took place on Baddeck Bay, Nova Scotia with men on skates steadying the wings for the take off of its 800m flight. The plane had a 8v 35HP engine, and like most early planes, poor controls, and no breaks. It won the Scientific American Trophy for being the first plane to fly one mile in North America.
  • Robert Borden Becomes Prime Minister - GPM

    Robert Borden Becomes Prime Minister - GPM
    Prime Minister Robert Borden was the leader of the Liberal-Conservative party from 1901 through 1920. He was the leading figure that made Canada transition from being part of the British Empire to the British Commonwealth of Nations, and is known mostly for his introduction of conscription in the first World War.
  • Britain Declares War on Germany - WB

    Britain Declares War on Germany  - WB
    Because Canada was not yet an independent nation, Canada was at war once Britain declared war on Germany. The government immediately offered troops to go overseas, with thousands without military experience volunteering. The first contingent to sail to Britain was 32,000 men strong.
  • Parliament Buildings in Ottawa Catch Fire - NE

    Parliament Buildings in Ottawa Catch Fire - NE
    In the Centre Block, fire broke out on the night of February 3, 1916. All that was left of the building the next morning was the Parliamentary Library. Although there were suspicions that the fire was planned and set by enemies from the war, the fire was accidental. Over the course of seven years, the Centre Block was rebuilt.
  • Women in Canada Gain the Right to Vote - DAT

    Women in Canada Gain the Right to Vote - DAT
    Just two years after women in Manitoba gained the right to vote provincially, the Federal Government granted all women in Canada the right to vote federally. However in Quebec, male leaders and the Catholic Church worked together to keep the women from voting until 1940.
  • BIG SIX - (Change and Continuity)

    With many men leaving for the war, women were left to support families at home. This was the start of women receiving more responsibility, which called for more rights; one of which was gaining the right to vote.
  • Treaty of Versailles is Signed - WB

    Treaty of Versailles is Signed - WB
    Ending the first world war, the peace terms were written up in a treaty and signed in Versailles. Canada had its own seat at the Paris Peace Conference and was able to sign it independently of Britain. This was a huge step towards Canadian independence from British rule.
  • The Bluenose is Launched - NE

    The Bluenose is Launched - NE
    Canada’s most famous ship, the Bluenose, was launched for the first time at Lunenburg, Nova Scotia. This ship held the record for the largest catch of fish in Lunenburg. The Bluenose was sold in 1942 to a West Indies company. To this day, a photo of the Bluenose remains on the Canadian dime.
  • Nobel Prize for Discovery of Insulin - DE

    Nobel Prize for Discovery of Insulin - DE
    During the summer of 1921, a team at the University of Toronto was experimenting with insulin in an attempt to prevent diabetes. Two members from the team, Banting and Macleod, received the nobel prize and they were know for making one of the most important medical breakthroughs.
  • Labrador goes to Newfoundland instead of Quebec - PN

     Labrador goes to Newfoundland instead of Quebec  - PN
    At 3500 kilometers long, the border between Labrador and Quebec is the longest interprovincial border in Canada. To this day, it had not yet been surveyed or marked. In 1927, the border was settled and it determined that the area we now call Labrador would belong to Newfoundland rather than Quebec.
  • The Persons Case - DAT

    The Persons Case - DAT
    The Governor General received a petition that had been signed by the “Famous 5” that demanded the BNA act be revisited. They wanted conversation to determine whether “persons” included women. Initially, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that female persons were not included and therefore could not run for senator, however later the Famous 5 took the case to the British Privy Council who agreed that women could be Senator.
  • Great Depression Begins - NE

    Great Depression Begins - NE
    After WWI, the 1920s, and the introduction of credit, the economy began crashing after debts weren’t paid. Millions of Canadians were left unemployed, hungry, and some homeless. Canada’s prairie provinces were perhaps hit the hardest with their dependence on crops and the drought that prevented them from growing well.
  • BIG SIX - (Historical Significance)

    The Great Depression highlights Canada’s culture very well. During the depression, millions were unemployed, without food, or shelter. When the farmers of Saskatchewan were devastated by the Dust Bowl, girl guides, and other similar organizations raised funds, and sent food/clothing to support them. After the Great Depression, the Equalization Policy was passed to prevent similar events from occurring at provincial levels.
  • Cairine Wilson is the Frist Female Senator - GPM

    Cairine Wilson is the Frist Female Senator - GPM
    Before the 1930s, women were not considered full ‘persons’ under the law. Appointed by Mackenzie King, Cairine Wilson became the first woman senator. She would then go on to become Canada’s first female delegate for the UN’s General Assembly. Again, Wilson became another first for Canada - being the first Woman Deputy Speaker of the Canadian Senate.
  • BIG SIX - (Ethical Dimensions)

    It might be surprising to modern ideologies, but this event was significant because Canada was allowing for a woman to be in a position of high political power. Up until this time, women were not considered full people, like a man would be.
  • Government Established Relief Camps - CS

    Government Established Relief Camps - CS
    The Great Depression caused many job losses and as a result, many men went without work. The federal government opened Relief Camps which were to help unemployed, single men make money in return for housing, food and small wages. Men would volunteer to join the camp and could leave at any time. They worked 44 hours a week. These camps were controversial as many said that the wages were unfair for the amount of work that was asked.
  • Bank of Canada is Fomed - NE

    Bank of Canada is Fomed - NE
    In 1914 under the Finance Act, banks would no longer be able to borrow from the Canadian government. In place of this, The Bank of Canada would be formed to hold the main accounts of the Dominion and manage the national monetary system.
  • CBC is Established - NE

    CBC is Established - NE
    During the 1920s, the CNR developed a radio network for it’s stations across the nation. It scheduled dramas, operas, and educational broadcasts, but only for three hours a week. People began to be convinced that public ownership of radio was necessary to protect against American culture taking over. by 1937, 76% of the 11 million residents of Canada had network coverage from the CBC.
  • Canada Declares War on Germany - WB

    Canada Declares War on Germany - WB
    On September 10th, only a week after the British, Canadian Parliament declares war on Germany. Within the first month of war, over 70000 men had signed up. A total of one million men would serve in the war before it was over.
  • BIG SIX - (Historical Significance)

    This event should stand out in Canada’s international affairs history because the notion that Canada will go to war upon the attack of an allied country before the country attacked even declares war shows that Canada was a military power, and a loyal nation.
  • Canada Declares War on Japan

    Canada Declares War on Japan
    After Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbour, Mackenzie King and the Canadian Cabinet decided to go to war with Japan. Later that day on December 7th, the United States and Britain would also declare war on Japan.
  • Canada’s First Nuclear Reactor goes into Operation - NE

    Canada’s First Nuclear Reactor goes into Operation - NE
    The first nuclear reactor to be built outside of the United States was built at the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario. The reactor was designed by Canadian, British, and French scientists in an effort to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons in WWII.
  • Oil is Found in Leduc, Alberta - DE

    Oil is Found in Leduc, Alberta - DE
    Beginning in 1946, Imperial Oil Ltd. spent $23 million on oil exploration in Western Canada by drilling over a hundred dry holes with very little luck. One of the last six holes drilled was at Leduc which triggered an oil boom whose effects are still able to be seen today.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador Join Confederation - PN

    Newfoundland and Labrador Join Confederation - PN
    Although representatives for Newfoundland did not attend the Charlottetown and Quebec conferences, they visited Quebec regularly to observe the way of the Confederation. They brought back mostly positive impressions, and with many struggles, including the debt from the great depression, Confederation was looking like a better option. In 1948, a referendum was held and 52.3% supported confederation.
  • Vincent Massey - GPM

    Vincent Massey - GPM
    Vincent Massey held many titles in Canadian Government throughout his career. Most importantly, he is remembered as being the first Canadian-born Governor General. This was a huge step in continuing the Canadian want for self-government.
  • Canadian Army helps United Nations fight in the Korean Conflict - WB

     Canadian Army helps United Nations fight in the Korean Conflict  - WB
    By spring 1951, 8,500 Canadian soldiers were sent to support the UN alongside 12,500 British, 5,000 Filipino, nad 5,000 Turkish troops. “Operation Killer” was the first major operation by the UN forces to push back Communist Chinese and North Korean Armies and recover the South Korean capital.
  • BIG SIX - (Cause and Consequence)

    The war was caused when North Korea, who was supported by the Soviet Union and China, invaded South Korea, who was supported by the United States. The lasting result of the war is continued Cold War tension between The United States and Russia.
  • Amendment is Passed to have Pensions for Canadians over 70 - DAT

    Amendment is Passed to have Pensions for Canadians over 70 - DAT
    The old-age pension is a government initiative to help Canadian elders avoid poverty after retirement. In 1951, the rate doubled from $20/month to $40/month from the federal government. All Canadians aged 70 or older who were residents were eligible for the plan regardless their income or assets.
  • Canada's First Television Broadcast - NE

    Canada's First Television Broadcast - NE
    The CBFT became the first permanent television station in Canada, beating CBLT by only two days. The station first aired “Aladdin and His Lamp”, followed by a cartoon, a French film, and a news segment. The programming was a 60/40 split between French/English language. The CBFT moved on to become Télévision de Radio-Canada (solely French), and the CBMT became a solely English channel.
  • New Canadian Maple Leaf Flag - NE

    New Canadian Maple Leaf Flag - NE
    The great flag debate started in 1964 when Lester B. Pearson proposed his plans for a new flag to the house of commons. The Maple Leaf flag that replaced the Red Ensign is the current day flag.
  • Medical Care Insurance Act - DAT

    Medical Care Insurance Act - DAT
    Saskatchewan, at the hand of Tommy Douglas (the Father of Medicare), birthed the first government-controlled, universal, single-payer medical insurance plan in North America. This scared medical establishments and insurance agencies because they believed that the system would catch on - which it did. Within 10 years, all of Canada’s provinces had the same system.
  • Expo '67 Opened in Montreal - PN

    Expo '67 Opened in Montreal - PN
    The 1967 International and Universal Exposition was a World’s Fair held in Montreal 1967. It is considered one of the most successful World’s fairs of the 1900s with 62 countries participating and it holds the record for most single-day attendance, with nearly 570,000 people on it’s third day.
  • Canadian Armed Forces is Established - WB

    Canadian Armed Forces is Established - WB
    1964 Minister of Defence submitted a document to the Parliament of Canada that outlined the restructuring of the three separate armed services. Unification would achieve cost savings and provide improved command, control, and integration of the military forces.
  • Official Languages Act - DAT

    Official Languages Act - DAT
    Following the Bi and Bi Commission, the Official Languages Act made both English and French languages of Canada. The act is agreed to politically by all provinces and territories, however, the public opinions tend to be very mixed.
  • BIG SIX - (Cause and Consequence)

    The rising French and English tension caused Trudeau to make both French and English national languages of Canada. This helped lower tension, and the policy shifted from assimilation to accommodation.
  • October Crisis - DAT

    October Crisis - DAT
    The October Crisis was the first act of terrorism in Canada, with bombs being detonated, banks were robbed, and political kidnappings occurred. The FLQ was a French extremist group was fighting for the separatism of Quebec. Members of the FLQ kidnapped British diplomat James Cross and Quebec provincial cabinet minister Pierre Laporte, who was later murdered. In response, Prime Minister Trudeau enacted the War Measures Act which was essentially martial law in Canada.
  • BIG SIX - (Historical Significance)

    The October Crisis highlighted the rising tension between French and English Canadians. The FLQ took extreme measures to make their voices heard and be taken seriously.
  • Summit Series Between the Soviet Union and Canada - NE

    Summit Series Between the Soviet Union and Canada - NE
    The Canada-USSR Summit Series was an eight game series of hockey held between Canada and the USSR. The series was created as a competition of which country was better at hockey. Cold War emotions mixed with nationalism in both the Soviet Union and Canada. The Series ended in a 4-3 win comeback on Soviet ice for Canada after being down 3 games to one.
  • Rene Levesque and the Parti Quebecios Win the Quebec Election - GPM

    Rene Levesque and the Parti Quebecios Win the Quebec Election - GPM
    Upon the election victory, the Parti Quebecois first introduced a number of bills. The first being one that confirmed French as the only official language of Quebec. The bill was withdrawn and altered to become Bill 101. Having power of Quebec, the separatist party began their path to becoming a sovereign nation; however it has not been a success yet.
  • Quebec Passes Bill 101 - PN

    Quebec Passes Bill 101 - PN
    The purpose of this bill was to make French the official language in Quebec. It assured that Francophones would maintain their language and culture. This allowed Education systems and workplaces to use French as the primary language which prevents Francophones’ professional success being inhibited by a language barrier.
  • Acid Rain Crisis - DE

    Acid Rain Crisis - DE
    Acid Rain became the largest environmental problem in North America. Liming was a technique used in the Great Lakes to neutralize the acidity. Lime juice would be mixed into the soil and water. This technique also improved fertility and oxygen levels. 19,000 lake throughout Ontario were found to be damaged. Canada decided to reduce its sulphur emissions by 50% and wanted the States to do the same.
  • Quebec Referendum is 60% No - DAT

    Quebec Referendum is 60% No - DAT
    The referendum of 1980 was Quebec’s first step by the Parti Quebecois towards sovereignty. The referendum was rejected by 60% of the voters. The Meech Lake, Charlottetown Accords are two of the resulting events of the failure of the 1980 referendum.
  • BIG SIX - (Ethical Dimensions)

    The French felt that their culture was not being effectively preserved and many didn’t want to assimilate into Canadian culture, so the party in power, Parti Quebecois, issued an referendum to begin the transition into sovereignty.
  • New Constitution with Charter of Rights and Freedoms - DAT

    New Constitution with Charter of Rights and Freedoms - DAT
    Prior to 1982, whenever Canada wanted to amend the constitution, it would need to apply to the British Parliament. With the 1982 version of the constitution Canada no longer needs permission from England to alter the constitution. As part of this constitution, a Charter of Rights and Freedom was included which was the first time that a set of rights were included at a constitutional level.
  • Marc Garneau is the Frist Canadian in Space - NE

    Marc Garneau is the Frist Canadian in Space - NE
    Garneau was one of six astronauts selected for a space mission. His role was to be a payload specialist on the mission. While on the mission, he tested the space vision system designed for the Canadarm for the first time.
  • Jeanne Suave is the Canada's First Female Governor General - GPM

    Jeanne Suave is the Canada's First Female Governor General - GPM
    Through her career, Sauve achieved a number of “firsts” for Canada. She was the first female Cabinet member from Quebec, the first female Speaker of the House of Commons, and she was also the first female Governor General of Canada in 1984.
  • Meech Lake Accord - NE

    Meech Lake Accord - NE
    The purpose of the Meech Lake Accord was to have Brian Mulroney persuade Quebec’s government to endorse the 1982 constitutional amendments. The Accord resulted in Quebec not endorsing the constitution, and being declared a “distinct society”.
  • Kim Campbell is the First Female Prime Minister - GPM

    Kim Campbell is the First Female Prime Minister - GPM
    Brian Mulroney announced his retirement from politics, Campbell took office for the Conservative party in 1993 from June through November. The two main changes she made while in office were cutting the cabinet down from 35 to 23 ministers, and consolidating the ministries into Health, Canadian Heritage, and Public Security. Campbell is the only Canadian Prime Minister who did not live at 24 Sussex Drive while in office.
  • Quebec Referendum Defeated 50.6% No - DAT

    Quebec Referendum Defeated 50.6% No - DAT
    The 1995 Quebec referendum was the second referendum asking the voters of Quebec whether Quebec should claim national sovereignty and become an independent state, or not. The referendum had the highest voter turnout with 93.5% of the 5 million potential voters. The Bloc Québécois is the federal party who is still working towards Quebec’s sovereignty.
  • BIG SIX - (Cause and Consequence)

    There has been tension between the French and English for all of Canadian history, which caused some of Quebec to want to separate from Canada. This event was nearly a turning point where Quebec would become sovereign. While being independent would benefit the French culture, the consequences would be devastating for both economies, and split Canada’s central and eastern regions.
  • Nunavut Becomes a Territory - PN

    Nunavut Becomes a Territory - PN
    With the discovery of oil in Canada’s northern regions through the 1960s and 1970s, aboriginal groups began to send land claims to the government of Canada. 13 years of intense negotiation led to the 1992 Land Claims Agreement, which resulted in the Inuit gaining 352,000 square kilometers of land.
  • Y2K Disaster - NE

    Y2K Disaster - NE
    Towards the turn of the millennium, people began to fear that the computers everybody depended on would all malfunction because dates were saved as two digits rather than four, and so therefore we would revert to living like we were long ago without electricity, heat, or running water. People believed that the year 2000 brought the apocalypse.