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Eastdale History: 20 Defining Moments in 20th Century Canada

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    Canadian History from 1900-2000

  • The Turn of the Century - Cliffod Sifton: Part 1

    The Turn of the Century - Cliffod Sifton: Part 1
    Clifford Sifton was the Minister of Interior during the Turn of the Century. His main goal as the Minister of Interior was to have as many immigrants as possible move to Western Canada. The way Clifford Sifton successfully accomplished this goal was by offering the immigrants a starting life in Canada. He did this by offering them free land for farming, paying for all of their expenses to get to Canada and by giving them the opportunity to make money. Between the years of 1891 and 1914...
  • The Turn of the Century - Clifford Sifton: Part 2

    more than three million people immigrated to Western Canada. The majority of these people were from the continent of Europe. Clifford Sifton resigned from cabinet because a dispute he had with Laurier over religious education. The dispute between Laurier and Sifton was that Sifton believed in having one school for all students while Laurier believed that congressional schools should be made instead. Sifton strongly disagreed with Laurier and so this ended his term.
  • World War I -The Assassination of Franz Ferdinand: Part 1

    World War I -The Assassination of Franz Ferdinand: Part 1
    The Archduke Franz Ferdinand and the Archduchess Sophia were coming to visit Sarajevo, Austria-Hungary. Franz Ferdinand was an important visitor to the city because he would one day be the ruler, the emperor of all Austria -Hungary. At 10:00am the royal couple drove towards town hall. Suddenly someone threw a bomb, which exploded against the hood of the limousine, but injured no one. Then two shots from a pistol were fired at point blank range and both the Archduke and the Archduchess were…
  • World War I - The Assassination of Franz Ferdinand: Part 2

    killed. The man who shot the Archduke and Archduchess was named Gavrilo Princip. He belonged to a group from Serbia called the Black Hand. This crime was done to be an act of vengeance for what the Bosnians were suffering under Austria-Hungary.
  • World War 1 -The Schlieffen Plan: Part 1

    World War 1 -The Schlieffen Plan: Part 1
    “In December, 1905 Alfred von Schlieffen, a German Army Chief of Staff began circulating a plan what later became known as the Schlieffen Plan. The Schlieffen Plan was a plan made to avoid war on two fronts. Schliefen argued that if war took place it was vital that France was speedily defeated. If this happened Britain and Russi would be unwilling to carry on fighting. Sclieffen calculated that it would take Russia six weeks to organize a large army for an attack on Germany to there it was...
  • World War I - The Schliffen Plan: Part 2

    important to force France to surrender before Russia was ready to use all it forces. Fearing the French forts on the border with Germany, Schlieffen suggested a scythe-like attack through Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg. In 1906 Helmuth von Moltke replaced Alfred von Schlieffen. He modified the plan by proposing that Holland was not invaded. Other modifications to the plan made by Helmuth von Moltke led to the failure of the plan. The Germans ended up being held up by the Belgian Army and were..
  • World War I - The Schlieffen Plan: Part 3

    shocked by the Russian Army’s advance.”
    Quoted from the assignment “The Schlieffen Plan.”
  • World War I - Major Canadian Battles: Ypres

    World War I - Major Canadian Battles: Ypres
    The three Major Canadian Battles of WWI that I am going to talk about are Ypres, The Somme and Vimy Ridge. One of the first Canadian victories in the war was won at the battle of Ypres. In this battle the Germans attacked a Canadian force that was inexperienced in the ways of war. This battle marked the first time either side in the war used poison gas in battle…
  • World War I - Major Canadian Battles: The Somme

    Since this was the first time the gas was used the Canadians had no way of defending themselves so they tried to get by with a wet of cotton tied over their nose and mouth. Even though the Canadians did not have proper protection from the gas, they pulled through and won. Another major battle was The Somme. This was one of the biggest battle of the war and lasted for over 5 months and caused the allies over 600 000 casualties. This battle marked the first time tanks were ever used in battle…
  • World War 1 - Major Canadian Battles: Vimy Ridge

    The next battle was the battle of Vimy Ridge. This battle was the first time Canadians had attacked as a national unit. This battle was a success for Canadians as they took 4 000 German prisoners at the cost of 3 600 lives.
  • World War I -The Treaty of Versailles: Part 1

    World War I -The Treaty of Versailles: Part 1
    The Treaty of Versailles was a document of peace that ended World War I. Thirty-two countries including Canada were represented and Germany, a defeated country was not invited to participate. The Treaty of Versailles was created so that war would not occur again. The U.S was determined to make a settlement that would ensure lasting peace. France wanted to avoid another war, but was determined to make Germany pay for starting the war. The British people felt the same way as well. They were...
  • World War I - The Treaty of Versailles: Part 2

    concerned that a harsh treaty might cause bitterness and lead Germany to seek revenge in the future. The Treaty of Versailles included a lot of rules and conditions that Germany had to follow. Some of these were: - They lost all their rights and titles to its overseas possessions. - The German army must not exceed 100 000 soldiers. - The army could only be used to maintain order within Germany and to control frontiers. - Germany must not include any military air force.
  • The Roaring 20's - Canada's Resources: Part 1

    The Roaring 20's - Canada's Resources: Part 1
    Canada had 5 major resources that brought money into the country because of them either being very convenient or because they had the ability to export them to different countries. These five resources were mining, gas and oil, wheat, hydroelectric power and pulp and paper. Each of these resources was prospering during the 1920's. The reasons follow as:
  • The Roaring 20's - Canada's Resources: Part 2

    Mining: Large deposits of different mineral and metals such as copper were being discovered.
    Gas and Oil: The car had recently been invented just before WWI so when the war ended people began to buy the now affordable car which led to a demand of gas and oil.
    Wheat: Europe was hungry again for Canadian wheat and farmers were purchasing trucks and mechanical harvesters so the harvesting of wheat became vey easy for the farmers.
  • The Roaring 20's - Canada's Resources: Part 3

    Hydroelectric power: People demanded electricity for their houses and Niagara Falls could conveniently produce this.
    Pulp and Paper: Canada was able to sell it to other countries and the Americans used all of their resource so they wanted Canada's.
  • The Roaring 20's - Persons Case: Part 1

    The Roaring 20's - Persons Case: Part 1
    Emily Murphy was the first woman judge appointed to a court to hear cases involving women. A lawyer in her Alberta courtroom accused her of having no right to judge any case because she was a woman. This is where the Persons Case began. In August, 1927 Emily Murphy and four other women decided to petition the Prime Minister. This group of five women included Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney, Henrietta Edwards and Irene Parlby. They proposed the question...
  • The Roaring 20's - Persons Case: Part 2

    "Does the word "persons" in section 24 d the British North America Act include female as "persons"?" The Supreme Court of Canada decided women were not persons so from there, Emily Murphy and her supporters appealed their case to the Privy Council in Britain. 3 months later the Council decided and declared that the word "persons" referred to both men and women. Emily Murphy had won her case.
  • The Dirty 30's - The six major causes of the Great Depression: Part 1

    The Dirty 30's - The six major causes of the Great Depression: Part 1
    The six major causes of the Great Depression were over production/over expansion, too much credit buying, too much credit buying of stocks, tariffs, Canada's dependence on the U.S and lastly, Canada's dependence on primary products. Solutions were created and used to help those people hurt most by the Great Depression. These solutions were Relief Camps, Public and Private Relief, On-to- Ontario Trek, Political Partied, Immigration/Prejudice/Racism and lastly Bennett's New Deal. All of these…
  • The Dirty 30's - The six major causes of the Great Depression: Part 2

    solutions helped in the short run, but the event that got Canada out of the Great Depression was World War II. World War II meant that weapons and war materials had to be produced so this created a lot of jobs for Canadian people.
  • The Dirty 30's - The Stock Market Crash: Part 1

    The Dirty 30's - The Stock Market Crash: Part 1
    "October 29, 1929 was the day which became know as "Black Tuesday." This was the day of the great stock market crash and signaled the beginning of the Great Depression. The reason the stock market crashed on this day was because during the 1920's many people "played" the stock market. They bought stocks on margin which was for of buying on credit. Buying on margin went like this: The investor of the stock market would pay on 10% or 15% of the stock's real value..."
  • The Dirty 30's - The Stock Market Crash: Part 2

    "Later, when the price of the stock rose, the investor could see it at profit and pay back the rest of the stock cost. However, if the price of the stock fell, the investor was still responsible for repaying the full price of the stock. This caused families and people a lot of problems by putting them in debt."
    Quoted from the note "The Stock Market Crash"
  • World War II - The Holocaust: Part 1

    World War II - The Holocaust: Part 1
    The Holocaust was the genocide of European Jews. Hitler planned to eliminate over 11 million European Jews by using concentration camps that had gas chambers, which could murder a few thousand people in three to fifteen minutes. Hitler would elite his forces for carrying out his plans by increasing their pay as well as giving them a share of the loot stolen from their victims. The reason the Holocaust was never stopped was because people turned their backs to the problem because they...
  • WWII - The Holocaust: Part 2

    didn't want to be killed for being outspoken. Also, Allied nations are partly blamed for the continuation of the Holocaust because before the war anti-Semitism was common throughout the world.
  • World War II - Hitler: Part 1

    World War II - Hitler: Part 1
    Adolf Hitler argued that Germans would rise to greatness if "outsiders" were purged from the nation, and that is exactly what Hitler did. Hitler’s "Final Solution" was to exterminate as many Jewish people as he could in the Nazi Death Camps. Not only did Hitler kill as many as 6 million Jews but he also killed another 5 million people that fell under numerous categories such as homosexuals, gypsies, slaves, handicapped...etc. Hitler was a very charismatic and persuasive public....
  • World War II - Hitler: Part 2

    speaker and so he was able to persuade a lot of German people into thinking that Jewish people were evil, and that they needed to be exterminated. Hitler controlled all media-press, radios, and movie so by using these sources he had the ability to brain wash thousands of German people into thinking that the Jewish people were evil and that they were a threat to Germany.
  • World War II - Japanese Canadian Internment: Part 1

    World War II - Japanese Canadian Internment: Part 1
    The Japanese Canadian Internment was when Japanese Canadians were confined in British Columbia during World War II. The reason Japanese confinement was started was because of the attack on Pearl Harbor. After the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred Japanese nationals were required to register with the RCMP. Japanese Canadian families were sometime separated when they were forced to move inland, give up their homes and businesses, and had all of their possessions confiscated.
  • World War II - Japanese Canadian Internment: Part 2

    Life in the Internment Camps was harsh. The Japanese Canadian families were guarded and food and possessions were limited. Even after the war ended the interned Japanese Canadians were not allowed to buy back their property due to racism. By this time the government had not even apologized. It wasn't until September, 1988 when the Canadian government finally publicly apologized to the Japanese Canadians, and paid each survivor $2100.
  • World War II - Atomic Warfare: Part 1

    World War II - Atomic Warfare: Part 1
    In 1939, Albert Einstein contacted President Roosevelt detailing the idea of a new weapon and its dangers. In response to the perceived German threat, the Americans assembled a group of prominent scientists at Los Alamos, New Mexico to begin work on the new weapon. The project to build this new weapon was called 'the Manhattan Project." J, Robert Oppenheimer was the projects leader. The work was done in a three year time period and the...
  • World War II - Atomic Warfare: Part 2

    cost to build the weapons cost $2 billion. The first successful test of the atomic bomb was on July 17, 1945. Following the test the scientists who worked on the project wrote a letter to Roosevelt pleading that their invention was never to be used. This was how the first ever atomic bombs were created.
  • 1950's - UN/NATO/NORAD/ Warsaw Pact: Part 2

    NORAD, (North American Air Defence System) * A Canadian and American force to protect and patrol North American air space. Warsaw Pact * The communist response to NATO. This pact was signed by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the USSR. The pact stated that if any of these places were attacked, the other countries would come help.
  • 1950's - UN/NATO/NORAD/ Warsaw Pact: Part 1

    1950's - UN/NATO/NORAD/ Warsaw Pact: Part 1
    The United Nations * In 1945, 50 nations joined to form a strong international organization with the following goals: I) Work together to bring and end to war. II) Encourage international cooperation III) Improve the standard of living for all nations. IV) Promote basic human rights. NATO, (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) * Was the post- WWII military alliance of Western nations (USA, Canada, Britain, France) designed to fight the spread of the Soviet influence in the West.
  • 1950's - The Cold War: Part 1

    1950's - The Cold War: Part 1
    The Cold War was the standstill between the U.S and the Soviets after World War II. The Cold War started because The Soviets and the U.S were fighting over who rightfully deserved the newly liberated land. This argument had become a head to head "battle" between Britain/U.S/Canada and the USSR. The United States didn't want the USSR to take over the rest of newly liberated Europe with communism. The closest it ever got to an actual war was in 1962 when missiles had been discovered in Cuba...
  • 1950's - The Cold War: Part 2

    The Cubans had been working with the Russians. The Cold War ended in 1989 when the Berlin Wall fell, along with the communism.
  • 1960's - The Quiet Revolution: Part 1

    1960's - The Quiet Revolution: Part 1
    Jean Lesage's Liberals were elected in Quebec in 1960 on their promises of political and economic change. This period of change in Quebec was called the Quiet Revolution. During this time period the French- Canadians felt that they were not being treated fairly as the English Canadians, which was true. Some problems the French- Canadians had were: 1) The wages in Quebec were less than the national average.
  • 1960's - The Quiet Revolution: Part 2

    2) The unemployment rate in Qubec was 9.1% which was more than 2% higher than the national rate of 7%.
    3) Hospital and health care was not adequate. Solutions to these problems were: 1) New laws must be made to increase the wages paid to workers. Workers in Quebec must earn as much money as workers doing the same job elsewhere in Canada.
    2) More jobs must be provided.
    3) The old age pension must be increased.
  • 1960's - Medicare: Part 1

    1960's - Medicare: Part 1
    Medicare is a system of health care administered and subsidized by the government. Since 1968, every Canadian has had a right to health care. Tommy Douglas was the man that came up with the idea of medicare. He was known as "The Father of Medicare." Soon medicare spread to the entire country and the costs split between the Federal and Provincial governments. The four basic principles of medicare are:
    1) Plan covers all medical treatments and a wide range of services.
  • 1960's - Medicare: Part 2

    2) Every man, woman and child has equal access to medicare.
    3) Service continues from province to province.
    4) Plan administered by provincial governments.
  • 1970's - Summit Series: Part 1

    1970's - Summit Series: Part 1
    The Summit Series was a series of eight games played between Canada and Russia in September, 1972. Four games were played on Canadian ice and the other four in Russia. The Canadians ended up wining four games to three, with one tie. Not only were these just hockey games played between the two countries but they were hockey games played against the democrats and the communists. Since the Cold War was still on, many people saw this issue bigger than just hockey, it was a contest between...
  • 1970's - Summit Series: Part 2

    democracy and communism. Since the Canadians pulled through with the win, it symbolized Canada as being a strong and independent nation. Not only was Canada a strong, democratic country, but they also proved that they were the best at hockey.
  • 1980's - Terry Fox: Part 1

    1980's - Terry Fox: Part 1
    Terry Fox was a Canadian humanitarian, an athlete and a cancer research activist. In 1977 Terry found out that he had a malignant tumor in right knee. The doctors gave him a 50-70 percent survival rate if he let them amputate his right leg, so that is what they did. Terry's dream was to run across Canada. Terry’s recovery period would last for 16 months for 15 of those 16 months he ran and trained until he could 40km a day. His goal with this run was to raise 1 million dollars for cancer...
  • 1980's - Terry Fox: Part 2

    research. If he ran 5 days a week, it would take him approximately 200 day to run 8000km, which is 40km a day. On April 12, 1980 Terry started his journey in Newfoundland. He ran through all sorts of weather and persisted no matter what. 143 days into his journey in Thunder Bay, Ontario which was 5373 km in to the run, Terry asked to be brought to the hospital because of a pain in his chest. The cancer had returned. Terry passed away on June 28, 1981...
  • 1980's - Terry Fox: Part 3

    After Terry's death Terry was made a companion of the Order of Canada, he received the country's highest civilian honor and was voted the Love Marsh Award. Over 500 million dollars has been raised in Terry's name from Terry Fox run held yearly. Terry will never be forgotten.
  • 1990's - Canada's Peacekeeping Military: Part 1

    1990's - Canada's Peacekeeping Military: Part 1
    The United Nations was an international organization of countries set up in 1945, in succession to the League of Nations, to promote international peace, security, and cooperation. The three responsibilities the United Nations had for peacekeeping were: - Identify threats to peace. - Impose economic sanctions against countries that threat world peace. - mobilize its peace keeping forces.
  • 1990's - Canada's Peacekeeping Militray: Part 2

    The UN had four primary peacekeeping roles, they were: * Preventive diplomacy- The UN's diplomats attempt to meditate disagreements before they escalate into violent conflicts. * Peacekeeping- Non-partisan troops carry out and enforce the terms of agreement such activities may include the return of refugees to their homes or the removal of weapons. * Peacemaking- UN forces participate in a conflict without the consent of all the parties involved. * Peace building- The UN helps countries...
  • 1990's - Canada's Peacekeeping Military: Part 3

    rebuild after a conflict ends. In the 1990's Canada was involved in many UN missions such as: 1) The Persian Gulf 2) The Balkans 3) African nations (Somalia and Rwanda).