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    Cold War

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    Canada's role in the United Nations

  • Canada's role in the United Nations

    Canada's role in the United Nations
    Canada has been a member of the United Nations since it was established, and has served six separate terms on the UN Security Council. Canada has served in the UNSC for 12 years, thus ranking in the top ten of non-permanent members.In 2010, it lost its bid for a seat in the 2010 Security Council elections to Germany and Portugal, marking the country's first failure to win a seat in the UNSC.
  • Cold War Begins

    Cold War Begins
    The Cold War was the geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle between two world superpowers, the USA and the USSR, that started in 1947 at the end of the Second World War.The Cold War was marked by continuous rivalry between the two former World War II allies. Conflict spanned from subtle espionage in the biggest cities of the world to violent combat in the tropical jungles of Vietnam.
  • Newfoundland Joins Confederation

    Newfoundland Joins Confederation
    When the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa were reconstructed after a fire during the First World War, stone plaques were erected over the entrance to the Peace Tower. There were ten of them, nine bearing the coats of arms of the provinces and one left bare, to await the day when Newfoundland joined Canada.On April 1, 1949, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent cut the first ceremonial chisel strokes onto the blank stone. At 11:59 the previous night, Newfoundland had become a Canadian province.
  • Canada Joins NATO

    Canada Joins NATO
    The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington on April 4, 1949 establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This political and military alliance is designed to promote the stability of the North Atlantic area and to safeguard the freedom of its peoples, based on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.
  • Korean War Begins

    Korean War Begins
    Armed forces from communist North Korea smash into South Korea, setting off the Korean War. The United States, acting under the auspices of the United Nations, quickly sprang to the defense of South Korea and fought a bloody and frustrating war for the next three years.
  • Canadas role in the Korean War

     Canadas role in the Korean War
    The Canadian Forces were involved in the 1950–1953 Korean War conflict and its aftermath. Canada participated on the side of the United Nations in the Korean War, with 26,000 Canadians participating in the Korean War, and Canada sending eight destroyers. Canadian aircraft provided transport, supply and logistics. 516 Canadians died in the conflict, 312 of the deaths were from combat.
  • Immigration Act of 1952

    Immigration Act of 1952
    The Immigration Act of 1952 was not a significant departure from prior legislation as it largely codified existing practices and established a legislative framework from which the government could enact additional orders and regulations.
  • Korean War Ends

    Korean War Ends
    After three years of a bloody and frustrating war, the United States, the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and South Korea agree to an armistice, bringing the Korean War to an end. The armistice ended America’s first experiment with the Cold War concept of “limited war.”
  • Warsaw pact

    Warsaw pact
    The Soviet Union and seven of its European satellites sign a treaty establishing the Warsaw Pact, a mutual defense organization that put the Soviets in command of the armed forces of the member states.
  • Vietnam War Begins

    Vietnam War Begins
    The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the communist regime of North Vietnam and its southern allies, known as the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The war began in 1954 after the rise to power of Ho Chi Minh and his communist Viet Minh party in North Vietnam, and continued against the backdrop of an intense Cold War between two global superpowers: the United Statesand the soviet union.
  • suez crisis

    suez crisis
    The 1956 Suez Crisis was a military and political confrontation in Egypt that threatened to divide the United States and Great Britain, potentially harming the Western military alliance that had won the Second World War. Lester B. Pearson, who later became prime minister of Canada, won a Nobel Peace Prize for using the world’s first, large-scale United Nations peacekeeping force to de-escalate the situation.
  • John Diefenbaker PM

    John Diefenbaker PM
    John George Diefenbaker was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada, serving from June 21, 1957, to April 22, 1963. Diefenbaker appointed the first female minister in Canadian history to his Cabinet, as well as the first aboriginal member of the Senate.
  • Canada Joins NORAD

    Canada Joins NORAD
    A soviet attack would in all likelihood come over the arctic, across Canada and into the U.S.. On August 1st, 1957 an agreement was announced that a new organization was to be formed between Canada and the United States to be known as NORAD or the North American Air Defence Agreement. This was intended to be an integrated system of defensive measures, installations and systems that would provide early warning and protection to North America in case of an attack by the Soviet Union.
  • AVRO Arrow

    AVRO Arrow
    The Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow was a delta-winged interceptor aircraft, armed with AIM-4 Falcon and AIM-7 Sparrow missiles, designed and built by Avro Canada as the culmination of a design study that began in 1953. The Arrow is considered to have been an advanced technical and aerodynamic achievement for the Canadian aviation industry.
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    The Quiet Revolution was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Quebec, characterized by the effective secularization of society, the creation of a welfare state and realignment of politics into federalist and sovereignist factions.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    The Cuban Missile Crisis was a 13-day confrontation in October 1962 between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba. It played out on television worldwide and was the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.
  • Lester Pearson

    Lester Pearson
    Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson was a Canadian scholar, statesman, soldier and diplomat, who won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1957 for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis. During Pearson's time as Prime Minister, his Liberal minority governments introduced universal health care, student loans, the Canada Pension Plan, the Order of Canada, and the new Flag of Canada.
  • National Medicare Act 1966

    National Medicare Act 1966
    Dubbed "the father of Medicare," Saskatchewan premier Tommy Douglas was a key figure in the creation of Canada's current universal health care system. Saskatchewan was the first province to adopt government-funded health care in 1962. In 1966, the federal government introduced the "Medical Care Act," which was implemented in 1968, making universal health care a reality for all Canadians.
  • Trudeau PM 1968-1979 1980-1983

    Trudeau PM 1968-1979 1980-1983
    Trudeau became a media sensation, inspiring "Trudeaumania," and took charge of the Liberals in 1968. From the late 1960s until the mid-1980s, his personality dominated the political scene to an extent never before seen in Canadian political life, arousing passionate and polarizing reactions throughout Canada. "Reason before passion" was his personal motto.
  • White Paper 1969

    White Paper 1969
    The 1969 White Paper (officially entitled Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian policy) was a Canadian policy paper proposal made by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and his Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chrétien in 1969. This paper would abolish the Indian Act and dismantle the established legal relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the state of Canada in favour of equality.
  • October 1970 Crisis

    October 1970 Crisis
    The October Crisis was a series of events triggered by two kidnappings of government officials by members of the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) during October 1970 in the province of Quebec, mainly in the Montreal metropolitan area.The circumstances ultimately culminated in the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act in Canada's history.
  • Vietnam War Ends

    Vietnam War Ends
    In 1975, communist forces seized control of Saigon, ending the Vietnam War, and the country was unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam the following year.
  • Vietnam War Ends

    Vietnam War Ends
    In 1975, communist forces seized control of Saigon, ending the Vietnam War, and the country was unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam the following year.
  • Immigration Act of 1978

    Immigration Act of 1978
    It focused on who should be allowed into Canada, not on who should be kept out. The act came into force in 1978, along with new immigration regulations. This act gave more power to the provinces to set their own immigration laws and defined "prohibited classes" in much broader terms. Individuals who could become a burden on social welfare or health services would now be refused entry, rather than specific categories of people those who identified themselves as homosexual,the disabled, and so on.
  • USSR Invades Afghanistan

    USSR Invades Afghanistan
    The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years from December 1979 to February 1989. Part of the Cold War, it was fought between Soviet-led Afghan forces against multi-national insurgent groups called the Mujahideen, mostly composed of two alliances – the Peshawar Seven and the Tehran Eight. The Peshawar Seven insurgents received military training in neighboring Pakistan and China, as well as weapons and billions of dollars from the United States, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and other countries.
  • Constitution Act 1982

    Constitution Act 1982
    The Constitution Act, 1982 is a part of the Constitution of Canada. The act was introduced as part of Canada's process of patriating the constitution, introducing several amendments to the British North America Act, 1867, and changing the latter's name in Canada to the Constitution Act, 1867. Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada, brought the act into effect with a proclamation she signed in Ottawa on April 17, 1982.
  • Jean Sauve

    Jean Sauve
    Jeanne Mathilde Sauvéas was in 1984 appointed as governor general by Queen Elizabeth II, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Trudeau, to replace Edward Richard Schreyer as vicereine, and she occupied the post until succeeded by Ray Hnatyshyn in 1990.
  • Brian Mulroney PM 1984-1993

    Brian Mulroney PM 1984-1993
    His tenure as Prime Minister was marked by the introduction of major economic reforms, such as the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and the Goods and Services Tax, and the rejection of constitutional reforms such as the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord. Prior to his political career, he was a prominent lawyer and businessman in Montreal.
  • Meech Lake Accord 1987

    Meech Lake Accord 1987
    The Meech Lake Accord was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the 10 provincial premiers. It was intended to persuade the government of Quebec to endorse the 1982 constitutional amendment and increase support in Quebec for remaining within Canada. Its rejection had the effect of energizing support for Quebec sovereignty.
  • Canadian Multicultural act 1987

    Canadian Multicultural act 1987
    The federal government, under Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, declared in 1971 that Canada would adopt multicultural policy. Canada would recognize and respect its society included diversity in languages, customs, religions, and so on. In 1982 multiculturalism was recognized by section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Canadian Multiculturalism Act was then enacted by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
  • Oka Standoff

    Oka Standoff
    The Oka Standoff was a land dispute between a group of Mohawk people and the town of Oka, Quebec, Canada which began on July 11, 1990 and lasted until September 26, 1990. Surete du Quebec Corporal Marcel Lemay was killed by a bullet whose source has never been officially determined.
  • Gulf War

    Gulf War
    The Gulf War was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
  • Cold War Ends

    Cold War Ends
    By mid-1990, many of the Soviet republics had declared their independence. Turmoil in the Soviet Union continued, as there were several attempts at overthrowing Gorbachev. On December 8, 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Boris Yeltsin, president of the Russian Republic, formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.). After 45 years, the Cold War was over.
  • Charlottetown Accord

    Charlottetown Accord
    The Charlottetown Accord was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada, proposed by the Canadian federal and provincial governments in 1992. It was submitted to a public referendum on October 26 of that year, and was defeated.
  • NAFTA agreement

    NAFTA agreement
    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), came into effect on January 1, 1994, creating the largest free trade region in the world, generating economic growth and helping to raise the standard of living for the people of all three member countries (Canada, Mexico and the United States).
  • Rwanda Genocide

    Rwanda Genocide
    The Rwandan Genocide was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi and moderate Hutu in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority. During the approximate 100-day period from April 7, 1994, to mid-July, an estimated 500,000–1,000,000 Rwandans were killed, constituting as much as 20% of the country's total population and 70% of the Tutsi then living in Rwanda.
  • Peace Keeping in Bosnia

    Peace Keeping in Bosnia
    Operation Deliberate Force was a sustained air campaign conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), in concert with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) ground operations, to undermine the military capability of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS), which had threatened and attacked UN-designated "safe areas" in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War with the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, precipitating the intervention.
  • Kyoto Accord

    Kyoto Accord
    The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.
  • Nunavut Territory

    Nunavut Territory
    Nunavut is the largest, northernmost, and newest territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act, though the boundaries had been contemplatively drawn in 1993. The creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada's political map since the incorporation of the new province of Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949.
  • Nisga'a Treaty

    Nisga'a Treaty
    The Nisga'a Final Agreement, also known as the Nisga'a Treaty, is a treaty settled between the Nisg̱a'a, the government of British Columbia, and the Government of Canada. As part of the settlement in the Nass River valley nearly 2,000 square kilometres of land was officially recognized as Nisg̱a'a, and a 300,000 cubic decameter water reservation was also created.