Canadian nationalism

Canada: 1945-2000

  • Period: to

    Canada's HIstory

  • Cold War Begins

    Cold War Begins
    As World War II came to an end, tensions between North America and the Soviet Union grew to outright hostility. And so Canada joined the United States in its fight against the so-called "Red Menace". Canadian politicians and business leaders opposed the advance of the Canadian labour movement on the grounds that it was a Communist conspiracy.
  • Canada joins the United Nations

    Canada joins the United Nations
    After the failure of the League of Nations, countries began to seek the development of a new world organization of nations that would have more strength than the last. In October 1945, 50 countries, including Canada, met in San Francisco to create the United Nations. Canada has quite often served as a non-permanent member on the UN's Security Council.
  • Newfoundland joins Canada

    Newfoundland joins Canada
    In 1948, Prime Minister St. Laurent encouraged Joey Smallwood (a journalist from Newfoundland) to organize a petition demanding that Confederation with Canada be included in the referendum being held about the status of Newfoundland. On March 31 1949, Newfoundland and Labrador became Canada's tenth province, and Joey Smallwood became its first premier.
  • Canada Joins NATO

    Canada Joins NATO
    Canada has been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization since its inceptions in 1949. Canada's joining of the Alliance was in strong contrast its pre-war isolationism. Canada was one of the first to startion troops in Germany and Norway, and during the Korean War, Canada was one of the largest military spenders in the alliance and one of the few not receiving direct aid from the United States.
  • Korean War Begins

    Korean War Begins
    The Korean War was fought between the people of South Korea (supported by the UN) and the people of North Korea (supported by the USSR). Many consider the Korean War a subdivision of the Cold War, since conflict resulted as the North's communist government clashed with the South's right-wing ideologies. Canada participated in the Korean War alongside the United Nations. Canada sent 26,000 soldiers along with the help of their Navy and Air Force.
  • Immigration Act

    Immigration Act
    In 1952, the government passed a new Immigration Act. This Act gave extensive powers to the Minister of Immigration. At this time, it was decided that the practice of barring immigrants from entering Canada based on their ethnic origin would continue.
  • Korean War Ends

    Korean War Ends
    The Korean ended with the signing of the Korean Armistice Agreement. The purpose of the Armistice was to insure a complete cease fire until a final peace settlement could be reached. As of today, no such settlement has yet been reached. Minor skirmishes still occur around the Korean border today. 516 Canadians died in the Korean War, and Canada kept troops in Korea for three years after the Armistice as militry observers.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    When West Germany joined NATO in 1955, the USSR decided that it was time to create their own military alliance; the Warsaw Pact. This pact was a collective defense treaty among eight of the communist states of Eastern Europe, which included East Germany, Albania, and Poland.
  • Suez Crisis

    Suez Crisis
    In 1956, Egyptian Presiden Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal, a vital trading route for the British. Worried about their economy, the British, French, and Israelis attempted to invade Egypt to take back the Canal, while the Egyptians obtained military arms from the Soviets. Canadian Prime Minister Pearson and his UN colleagues took initiative to end the fighting in Egypt by initiating the UN's first large-scale peacekeeping force.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    Followig the Indochina War fought between the Vietnamese and their French Oppresors, the country was divided into two states; the Communist North (supported by the USSR, China, and other communist countries) and the Democratic South (supported by USA and their anti-communist allies). Unlike in prevoius wars, men did anything they could to avoid being drafted. Many of these DRAFT DODGERS fled to Canada to try and avoid the war, as Canada denied any military involvement.
  • John Diefenbaker becomes Prime Minister

    John Diefenbaker becomes Prime Minister
    In the 1957 election, John Diefenbaker and the Conservatives defeated the Liberal Party. Diefenbaker was a powerful speaker who reflected people's concerns about the growth of American influence in Canada. He strongly believed in a united country, and in protecting those less fortunate. He raised pensions for the elderly and disabled, and gave financial aid to farmers in the Prairies and to the Atlantic Provinces.

    The North American Defence System was created between Canada and the United States in 1957. NORAD included radar stations that were set up to detect Soviet planes or missiles in order to give early warning of an attack. As part of NORAD, three radar lines were constructed in Canada's North. Although Canada contributed $300 million, the project was mostly financed by the United States.
  • Avro Arrow Project ceased

    Avro Arrow Project ceased
    As the possibility of a Soviet attack became more concerning, the RCAF requested a new aircraft to meet its growing needs of defence. The Liberal government awarded the contract to a company called A.V. Roe Canada. Initial tests revealed it was the fastest and most sophisticated fighter plane in the world, however costs had reached almost $4 million per plane. The government became doubtful about the success of the Arrow technology. By 1959, the Canadian government decided to cease production.
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    When Jean Lesage was elected Premier of Quebec in 1960, he sought to create a new and equal partnership with English Canada. During this time, Quebec went through a period of rapid reform and modernization called the Quiet Revolution, which was characterized by the effective secularization of society, the creation of a welfare state, and massive investments in public education. Lesage also sought to protect the French language and culture of Quebec. French Canadians were now Quebecois.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    After the US failed to overthrow the Cuban regime in 1962, Soviet leader Khrushchev proposed a deal with Cuban leader Castro to build Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba. USA noticed these preperations, but instead of attacking Cuba, they constructed a military blockade around Cuba, quarantining it from the rest of the world. After weeks of tense negotiations, President Kennedy and Khrushchev reached an agreement. The US pulled back, and all Soviet nukes were dismantled and returned to the USSR.
  • Lester Pearson becomes Prime Minister

    Lester Pearson becomes Prime Minister
    Pearson was the head of two back-to-back Liberal minority governments from 1963 to 1968. The Pearson government introduced the Canada Pension Plan and Medicare for all Canadians. As Pearson strove to keep Canada out of the Vietnam War, he also sought to improve French-English Relations, and so he appointed a Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism.
  • Flag Of Canada

    Flag Of Canada
    Prime Minister Pearson thought it was important to cut Canada's symbolic tie with Britain by changing Canada's flag. After a vigorous debate, the single red maple leaf design was officially accepted as Canada's new flag in 1965.
  • National Medicare Act

    National Medicare Act
    Canada's national health insurance program is designed to ensure that every resident of Canada recieves medical care and hospital treatment, the cost of which is paid through general taxes or through compulsory health insurance premiums. The Pearson government first formally introduced Medicare for all Canadians through the National Medicare Act of 1966.
  • Capital Punishment is abolished in Canada

    Capital Punishment is abolished in Canada
    In 1967, Prime Minister Pearson and his government passed Bill C-168, which abolished capital punishment in Canada.
  • Trudeau beomes Prime Minister

    Trudeau beomes Prime Minister
    Pierre Trudeau, the leader of the Liberal Party, was elected Prime Minister in 1968, a time when the people wanted political change. Canadians like Trudeau because he was youthful, casual, and stylish. His wit and confidence distinguished him from his political rivals. Trudeau would serve as Prime Minister for more than fifteen years, until his eventual retirement in 1984
  • White Paper, 1969

    White Paper, 1969
    By 1969, unemployment, ill health, and poverty were still common on many Native reserves. To combat these problems, Prime Minister Trudeau and Indian Affairs Minister Chretien proposed a White Paper (an official statement of policy) to abolish all reserves and put an end to special status for Indians. The governent believed that assimilation was the solution, however the aboriginal community rejected this proposal, calling it "cultural genocide". The White Paper was withdrawn by 1971.
  • October Crisis

    October Crisis
    On October 5, 1970, four men of the Front de Liberation du Quebec, (a French-Canadian seperatist group) kidnapped British Trade Commissioner James Cross at gunpoint. The FLQ demanded a ransom of $500,000; transport to Cuba; the reading of their manifesto in public; and the release of any FLQ prisoners. Five days later, the FLQ kidnapped the Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour, Pierre Laporte.
  • October Crisis

    October Crisis
    On October 17, 1970, Laporte's dead body was discovered in the trunk of the car. Prime Minister Trudeau agreed to broadcast the FLQ Manifesto over the radio, and to transport five FLQ terrorists to Cuba in exchange for James Cross' release. The October Crisis was the first political kidnapping in Canadian history.
  • Jeanne Sauve

    Jeanne Sauve
    In 1970, the Trudeau government produced a report that described the problems facing women in Canada. The report made suggestions on ways to help society adjust to the changing role of women. To help, Trudeau began appointing women to key roles in the government. Jeanne Sauve was picked as the first female Speaker of the House of Commons in 1978.
  • Vietnam War Ends

    Vietnam War Ends
    Canada's objection to the war in Vietnams strained its relations with America. Finally, in the mid-seventies, due to continued opposition of the war effort and a lack of funding, American forces pulled out of Vietnam. After being abandoned by the Americans, the South Vietnamese stood little chance against the North. On April 30, the Viet Cong invaded Saigon, and Southern President Minh surrendered.
  • The Immigration Act of 1978

    The Immigration Act of 1978
    In 1978, the federal government passed a new Immigration Act, which reduced barriers to immigration and gave the provinces a new role in immigration policy. Quebec now had the ability to ensure that new immigrants would be able to adapt to its francophone culture. New immigrants were welcomed regardless of colour, religion, or country of origin. There were now three categories of immigrants: family class, refugees, and independents.
  • USSR invades Afghanistan

    USSR invades Afghanistan
    By the end of the Seventies, the Cold War was heating up again. The Soviets placed 350 missiles in Eastern Europe, and in September of 1979, they invaded Afghanistan. The rest of the world thought the Soviet Invasion was an attempt to take control of the Persian Gulf which lays beyond Afghanistan. With its massive volume of oil, the Persian Gulf is very significant in terms of international relations. The war in Afghanistan went on for over eight years until the Soviets agreed to withdraw.
  • The Constitution Act, 1982

    The Constitution Act, 1982
    The Constitution Act was introduced as part of Canada's process of patriating the constitution, introducing several amendments to the British North America Act of 1867. Queen Elizabeth II brought the act into effect with a proclamation she signed in Ottawa. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms forms the first thirty-five sections of the Constitution Act.
  • Jeanne Sauve

    Jeanne Sauve
    Jeanne Sauve, the first women to be appointed Speaker of the House of Commons in 1978, also became the first female Governor General in 1984
  • Brian Mulroney becomes Prime Minister

    Brian Mulroney becomes Prime Minister
    After Trudeau retired, Mulroney and the Conservative Party won their first election in 26 years. Mulroney was faced with dealing with the massive federal debt that was created during the 1970's. Mulroney sought to create a balanced budget by cutting government spending. He also made efforts to include Quebec in the constitution.
  • Meech Lake Accord

    Meech Lake Accord
    In 1987, Prime Minister Mulroney and all ten premiers met at Meech Lake to add Quebec to the Canadian constitution. During negotiations, the ten premiers agreed that Quebec be defined in the constitution as a "distinct society". This clause worried many English-Canadians, and many Aboriginals also felt that Quebec should not be given any special consideratiom. The Meech Lake Accord eventually failed when the people of Manitoba refused to support it.
  • Canadian Multiculturalism Act

    Canadian Multiculturalism Act
    By the 1980's, Canada had implemented human rights legislation, which allowed for individuals from visible minority groups to break through some of the barriers they faced. The Canadian Multiculturalism Act recognized all Canadians as full and equal participants in Canadian society. It ensured that immigrants would be accepted as Canadian, but still allowed to take pride in their ancestry.
  • Oka Standoff

    Oka Standoff
    In the town of Oka, Quebec, officials decided to extend a nine-hole golf course onto Mohawk territory. In portest, the Mohawks set up blockades of major roads that lasted for more than six months. The Canadian Army was called in for the tense standoff, and one police officer was killed. Finally and agreement was reached, and the federal government bought and then transfered the land to the Kanesatake Nation.
  • Canada enters Gulf War

    Canada enters Gulf War
    Throughout the Cold War, Iraq had been an ally of the Soviet Union and there was a history of friction between it and North America. After Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, the UN, led by President Bush Sr. condemned Iraq for its actions. A 34 nation coalition led by the USA was soon created to drive the Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. Canada quickly agreed to join the coalition and began sending ships and fighter planes to patrol the Persian Gulf.
  • Cold War Ends

    Cold War Ends
    By the mid-80s, Canada continued to pressure the Soviet Union, who were already in the midst of an economic stagnation. By 1989, a wave of relatively peaceful revolutions overthrew all of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe. The Communist Party lost all control, thus leading to the formal dissolution of the USSR. Throughout all of this, Canada continued to participate in Cold War institutions such as NATO and NORAD.
  • Canada in Bosnia

    Canada in Bosnia
    Bosnia's desire for independence led to a civil war in the mid-nineties between it three ethno-religious groups. In response, the UN peacekeeping mission UNPROFOR was established in Sarejevo.Croatian forces began to attack Canadian UN soldiers, who then launched a full-scale assault to reoccupy the ceasefire zone. The Croatians eventually left teh region, but not before committing murder, rape, and acts of destruction.This became known as the worst Canadian battle since the Korean War.
  • Charlottetown Accord

    Charlottetown Accord
    By 1992, Quebec was still not included in Canada's constitution. All leaders met again in Charlottetown to try and reach an agreement. The Charlottetown Accord made provisions for aboriginal self-government, Senate reform, universal health care, workers' rights, and environmental protection. This time, only four of the ten provinces agreed, as they felt that the provisions were too large and daunting.
  • Canada in Cyprus

    Canada in Cyprus
    In 1964, a civil war broke out on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, between the Greek majority and the Turkish minority. The last of the Canadian troops were withdrawn in 1993, and since then the Cypriots have lived in relative harmony. For Canada the operation was expensive- Canada spent almost $600 million to maintain its forces in Cyprus, and 30 Canadian soldiers shot

    Prime Minister Mulroney's most significant contribution to the Canadian economy was the Free Trade Agreement he made with the United States in 1989. In 1994, under the new leadership of Jean Chretien, Canada joined the USA and Mexico in signing the North American Trade Agreement to create free trade between all three countries. NAFTA helped to improve Canada's economy by increading trade with the US and leading to an increase in American investment.
  • Canada in Rwanda

    Canada in Rwanda
    While under colonial rule, about 15% of Rwanda's population was known as the "Tutsis". The Tutsi elite treated the majority lower class "Hutus" very harshly. After Rwanda gained independence, the Hutu party won in a general election. During this period, over 20,000 Tutsis were killed. The Tutsi formed a rebel army called the Rwandan Patriotic Front, and a civil war ensued.
  • Canada in Rwanda

    Canada in Rwanda
    Thousands of casualities later and the Hutu government decided that in order to retain power, they would need to eliminate the Tutsi population. So, a small group of Hutu elite decided to launch a full-scale genocide against the Tutsi minority. Over a period of about three months, approximately 1 million Tutsi were killed in systematic attacks. Canada was one of many countries in the UN that failed to prevent this atrocity, and stood by when thousands were dying.
  • Kyoto Accord

    Kyoto Accord
    The Kyoto Accord is a document that was signed by 180 countries at Japan in 1997. Canada was one of these countries that agreed to cut their emissions of greenhouse gases by 2012, to levels 5.2% below 1990 levels. The US withdrew from the Accord in 2001, saying that it would combat global warming in other ways.
  • Nisga'a Treaty

    Nisga'a Treaty
    In 1998, the Nisga'a people of BC signed a treaty with the provincial government giving them powers of self-government pertaining to issues of culture, language, and family life. The Nisga'a were given, in addition, ownership of 1922 square kilometres of land, including all resources, fishing and hunting rights, and $190 million dollars.
  • Territory of Nunavut

    Territory of Nunavut
    In 1999, the territory of Nunavut was created where aboriginal peoples were given the right to self-government over natural resources, education, and justice systems. In the political system of Nunavut there are no political parties-people run for election as individuals, and then the elected members vote for the member who they want to lead the governent.