Canada 1945-2000 by Laurel Gu

  • Cold War begins

    Cold War begins
    The Cold War was an ideological struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union. It was fought using propaganda, espionage, and economic and political pressures. Essentially, it was a fight for power and influence on a global scale and it was characterized by the ever-present fear of a nuclear war, as both sides raced to build nuclear weapons. As a result of it, the world became divided into 2 hostile camps and Canada was on the American side.
  • Newfoundland Joins Confederation

    Newfoundland Joins Confederation
    With the collapse of responsible government in 1934, followed by War II, Newfoundland entered a new phase in its history, and in its relationship with Canada. By 1945, the Canadians were coming to the conclusion that incorporating Newfoundland into confederation made sense. The British government thought the same. And the referendums held in 1948 showed that a majority of Newfoundlanders now agreed as well. Finally, on 31 March 1949, Newfoundlanders became Canadian citizens.
  • Canada joins NATO

    Canada joins NATO
    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in 1949, and was designed almost solely for mutual defense. Each member state contributed to NATO's defense force. The members agreed that an attack on one member would be considered an attack on them all.
  • Korean War begins

    Korean War begins
    After WWll, Korea was divided as the North became communist and the South became democratic. In 1950, over 100,000 North Korean troops, supported by Soviet-built tanks and aircraft, invaded South Korea. When the North Korean troops refused to withdraw, the US demanded that the UN come to the defense of South Korea. Over 26500 Canadians served in the UN action in Korea.
  • Immigration Act of 1952

    Immigration Act of 1952
    In 1948, PM Louis St, Laurent set yo the Department of Citizenship and Immigration. The subsequent Immigration Act of 1952 gave extensive powers to the Minister of Immigration. At this time, it was decided that the practice of barring immigrants from entering Canada based on their ethnic origin would continue.
  • AVRO Arrow

    AVRO Arrow
    In 1953, the Royal Canadian Air Force requested a new aircraft to meet the growing needs of defence as they were concerned with a possible Soviet attack. The RCAF wanted a supersonic long-range jet to be developed.The Liberal government awarded the contract to a company caleed A.V. Roe Canada. Yet, due to the extremely high cost and the doubts about the success of it, the Canadian government had opted to buy missils from the US instead. It dealt the Canadian aerospace industry an enormous blow.
  • Vietnam War begins

    Vietnam War begins
    In 1954, Vietnam was divided between the North, held by the Communist government and the South which was anti-Communist and partially democratic. SV was supported by the US and soon the fighting escalated to include Communist countries that supported the North and non-Communist countries that supported the South. After the South Vietnamese leader was assassinated, a series of new leaders followed. The US supported each new leader and sent more troops every year.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    The Warsaw Pact was developed in response to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1955, as a defensive alliance of the Soviet Union and its satellite states.
  • Suez Crisis

    Suez Crisis
    Egyptian President seized the Suez Canal (a vital trade route) from Britain and France. So, in response, Britain and France joined with Israel to attack Egypt. The SU sided with Egypt and demanded that they withdraw. Canada's Minister of External Affairs went to the UN and suggested creating a United Nations Emergency Force that would keep the combatants apart while a settlement to the Suez Crisis was worked out. As a result, battle forces were withdrawn and replaced with UN peacekeeping forces.
  • Canada joins NORAD

    Canada joins NORAD
    The North American Defense System was created between Canada and the US in 1957. NORAD included radar stations that were set up to detect Soviet planes or missiles in order to give early warning of an attack.
  • Quiet Revolution

    Quiet Revolution
    During the time that Jean Lesage was premier of Quebec, Quebec went through a period of rapid reform and modernization called la revolution tranquille-the Quiet Revolution. It was characterized by secularization of the welfare state; massive investments in public education; the unionization of the civil service; measures to control the economy; and the nationalization of hydroelectric production and distribution. The most drastic change that occurred was a huge increase in Quebec nationalism.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    In 1962, the US spotted Soviet missiles in Cuba through aerial surveillance. The US set up a naval blockade around Cuba, thereby defying Soviet ships to continue bringing in missiles to Cuba. As a result, the Soviet ships turned back-but the crisis wasn't over. American President and Soviet leader wrote letters to each other in which the Soviets promised to remove the missiles if he Americans would issue a promise no to invade Cuba. Nuclear war was averted.
  • Lester Pearson PM 1963-1968

    Lester Pearson PM 1963-1968
    He had been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for his actions as Minister of External Affairs during the Suez Crisis. Pearson sought to improve French-English relations. He and his government introduced the Canada Pension Plan and Medicare for all Canadians. He also changed the old flag included the British Union Jack to the single red maple leaf designed flag.
  • National Medicare Act

    National Medicare Act
    Pearson minority government creates a national Medicare program with Ottawa paying 50% of provincial health costs. Prior to this point, doctors charged whatever they wanted and bankruptcy to pay for health care was common. Now citizens would receive portable, comprehensive and universal access to necessary physician and hospital services, regardless of ability to pay.
  • Trudeau PM 1968-1979

    Trudeau PM 1968-1979
    He became the leader of the Liberal party in 1968. He was a scholar and lawyer and he also had charisma. Trudeau travelled across Canada talking about his vision of a "just society". Although he never explained what he meant by this term, it was an idea that appealed to many people. He implemented the Official Languages Act in 1969, in order to make Canada truly bilingual and bicultural.
  • White Paper

    White Paper
    Canadian government introduced a white paper to address the issues facing aboriginal peoples in Canada. In 1969, the White Paper proposed the abolition of reserves and an end to special status had been the major cause of difficulties.
  • October Crisis

    October Crisis
    On October 17, 1970, Laporte's dead body was discovered in the trunk of a car. The Canadian government agreed to broadcast the FLQ Manifesto over the radio and to transport five FLQ terrorists to Cuba in exchange for Cross' release. Cross was released and the FLQ terrorists were allowed passage into Cuba. Over the years, most of these terrorists eventually returned to Canada and received light sentences. It was the first political kidnapping in Canadian history.
  • Vietnam War ends

    Vietnam War ends
    During the last four years of the Vietnam war, the US reduced its combat troops on the ground and turned the war into an air war. Finally, in 1973 a cease-fire was reached, and in 1975, the last of the Americans left Vietnam as the Viet Cong took over Saigon in the South. All of Vietnam quickly came under the control of the communists from the North.
  • Immigration Act of 1978

    Immigration Act of 1978
    Immigration policy saw many changes during the Trudeau years. In 1978, the federal government passed a new Immigration Act which reduced barriers to immigration and gave the provinces a new role in immigration policy. Quebec now had the ability to ensure that new immigrants would be able to adapt to its francophone culture. New immigrants were welcome regardless of colour, religion, or country of origin. It created 3 categories of immigrants: the family class, refugees, and independents.
  • Korean War ends

    Korean War ends
    In total, 1000 Canadians were wounded and 400 were killed. By the time the war was over in July 1953, although both sides agreed to an armistice, Korea remained divided between the North and South. The war in Korea was significant for Canada because it showed that Canada supported the United Nations and was willing to fight to support those goals. The Korean War was especially important because it demonstrated to the world that members of the UN, were willing to take action when required.
  • John Diefenbaker PM 1957-1963

    John Diefenbaker PM 1957-1963
    He was known as "The Chief" from the progressive conservative party because he was a powerful speaker who reflected people's concerns about the growth of American influence in Canada.He strongly believed in a united country and in protecting those less fortunate. In 1960, Deifenbaker brought in the Canadian Bill of Rights, which put into law all of the basic freedoms including freedom of speech, worship and assembly. This bill, however, was not a part of the constitution.
  • USSR invades Afghanistan

    USSR invades Afghanistan
    The Soviet Union placed 350 missiles in Eastern Europe and invaded Afghanistan. They installed a new dictator as President of Afghanistan. Early in 1980, the Soviet Union escalated this war. In spite of this, the Afghan rebels still controlled most of the country. From 1980 to 1988, a vicious war followed there, creating an enormous refugee problem for neighbouring states. Finally, by 1988, the Soviets agreed to withdraw from Afghanistan, due to the problems they were having at home.
  • Trudeau PM 1980-1983

    Trudeau PM 1980-1983
    Due in part to the implementation of the National Energy Program, Trudeau was defeated by Conservative leader in the federal election of 1979, until Clark's budget was defeated in the House of Commons through a vote of non-confidence. Trudeau was re-elected and went to work on making the constitution truly Canadian, as it still remained an act of British parliament. All of the provinces except Quebec agreed to the proposed changes and the Constitution Act was signed in 1982.
  • Constitution Act

    Constitution Act
    Canada's original constitution was an act of British Parliament. Trudeau wanted Canada's constitution to belong to Canada and so he proposed the Constitution Act of 1982. Under it, Canada's constitution was repatriated-brought home to Canada. The new constitution included an amending formula which gave Canadians the ability to make changes to the constitution and also included the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
  • Meech Lake Accord

    Meech Lake Accord
    In 1987, PM Mulroney and all ten premiers met at Meech Lake to change the constitution to include Quebec. The Meech Lake initiative was Brian Mulroney's attempt to create constitutional harmony by bringing Quebec into the fold. All ten premiers reached a tentative agreement at Meech Lake. Thus began a three-year race to get unanimous consent from Ottawa and the other nine provinces.
  • Jeanne Sauve

    Jeanne Sauve
    She took up the role as Governor General on May 14, 1984. She took office and dedicated herself to youth, national unity and world peace. This focus on world peace coincided with Trudeau's efforts to try and calm down the heightening tensions of the cold war.
  • Brian Mulroney PM 1984-1993

    Brian Mulroney PM 1984-1993
    As PM and leader of the Progressive Conservative party, Mulroney brought in the landmark Free Trade Agreement with the US, and oversaw passage of the unpopular Goods and Services Tax. His tenure was also marked by his efforts to persuade Quebec government to sign the Constitution. In foreign affairs, he took a strong stance against apartheid. He has also been recognized for his environmental record, including the Acid Rain Accord with the US and passage of the Environmental Protection Act.
  • Canadian Multicultural Act

    Canadian Multicultural Act
    The Canadian Multiculturalism Act is a law, passed in 1988, that aims to preserve and enhance multiculturalism in Canada. It affirms the policy of the government to ensure that every Canadian receives equal treatment by the government which respects and celebrates diversity.
  • Oka Standoff

    Oka Standoff
    By 1990, tensions between aboriginal peoples and non-aboriginal peoples in Canada began to flare up. In the Municipality of Oka, Quebec, officials decided to extend a nine-hole golf course originally built in 1959, onto land that the Mohawks claimed had always belonged to them. In response, the Mohawks set up blockades of major roads that lasted for 6+ months.Finally, an agreement was reached, and the federal government bought the disputed land and negotiated its transfer to the First Nation.
  • Gulf War

    Gulf War
    In August 1990, the Iraqi Army invaded Kuwait. Led by American President, the UN condemned Iraq's actions and imposed an economic boycott on Iraq, thereby cutting off its oil trade.Yet this was not successful, so a multinational force was created to drive the Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. Canada participated by sending ships and fighter planes to patrol the Persian Gulf.
  • Cold war ends

    Cold war ends
    The collapse of the Soviet Union and its ideology, communism, ended the Cold War because the Cold War was an ideological struggle and with one of the ideologies disappearing from one of the major combatants in this struggle the Cold War itself also disappeared.
  • Charlottetown Accord

    Charlottetown Accord
    By 1992, the issue of constitutional amendment again came to the forefront. The Charlottetown Accord made provisions for aboriginal self-government, Senate reform, universal health care, workers's rights and environmental protection.
  • NAFTA agreement

    NAFTA agreement
    In 1994, Mexico joined Canada and the US in signing the North American Free Trade Agreement to create free trade between all three countries. People who are in favour of NAFTA say that it has helped to improve Canada's economy by increasing trade with the US, and by leading to an increase in American investment. On the other hand, as a result of NAFTA a number of Canadian jobs were lost due to relocation and some Canadian companies moved to the US and Mexico or were sold to American companies.
  • Rwanda

    In the face of the turmoil, Canada and other UN countries moved to try to end the bloodshed and restore order. The UN undertook peace missions to Rwanda from 1993 to 1996, the largest being the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) in which Canada played a leading role. At different times during the mission, two Canadians would serve as the Commander of the UN mission. They were Major-General Roméo Dallaire and Major-General Guy Tousignant.
  • Peace Keeping in Bosnia

    Peace Keeping in Bosnia
    The peacekeeping mission in Bosnia became known as the worst battle involving Canadians since the end of the Korean War. One of the biggest lessons to be learned from the war in Bosnia is that peacekeeping is best carried out by combat-trained, well-equipped troops.
  • Kyoto Accord

    Kyoto Accord
    President Bush of the US withdrew American support for the Kyoto Accord, which calls for a 5.2% reduction by 2012 of all emissions that cause global warming.
  • Nisga Treaty

    Nisga Treaty
    In 1998, the Nisga'a people of BC signed a unique treaty with both the provincial and federal governments. The Nisga'a were given wide powers of self-government pertaining to issues of culture, language and family life. Additionally, the Nisga's ere given ownership of 1922 square kilometres of land including all resources, fishing and hunting rights, and 190 million dollars. Under the Treaty, no non-aboriginal settlers were forced from the territory that the Nisga'a control.
  • Nunavut Territory

    Nunavut Territory
    In 1999, the new Canadian territory of Nunavut was created, where aboriginal peoples were given the right to self-government over natural resources, education, and justice systems. In the political system of Nunavut there are no political parties-people run for election as individuals and then the elected members vote for the member who they want to lead the government.