History of canada

Hi30 Timeline Challenge HarryJustin

  • First Emgration Wave

    First Emgration Wave
    Colonies & Settlements
    German immigrants begin to arrive in numbers at Halifax in 1750, they brought a lot of useful tools from Germeny.
  • Canada's first newspaper, the weekly Halifax Gazette

    Canada's first newspaper, the weekly Halifax Gazette
    Notable events
    The Halifax Gazette was Canada's first newspaper, established on March 23, 1752, in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It was published weekly by John Bushell, who had been carrying out a project that had been initiated by his partner Bartholomew Green, Jr. The newspaper had been entirely dependent on the government for funding.
  • Seven Years' War Started

    Seven Years' War Started
    When did the Seven Years War begin?
    Wars & Battle
    The Seven Years' War (1756–63) was the first global war, fought in Europe, India, and America, and at sea. In North America, imperial rivals Britain and France struggled for supremacy. Early in the war, the French defeated several British attacks and captured a number of British forts.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    Wars & Battles
    The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (13 September 1759) was a pivotal moment in the Seven Years’ War and in the history of Canada. A British invasion force led by General James Wolfe defeated French troops under the Marquis de Montcalm, leading to the surrender of Québec to the British. Cause and Consequence: This battle was basicly the cause of the death of general wolfe.
  • The Death of General Wolfe

    The Death of General Wolfe
    Governors & Prime Ministers
    The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West depicting the death of British General James Wolfe during the 1759 Battle of Quebec of the Seven Years' War.This was a pivotal event in the Seven Years' War and decided the fate of New France, present day Quebec, Canada. Cause and Consequence: General Wolfe died even though he won the battle, his death was a consequence of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
  • The Surrender of New France

    The Surrender of New France
    The End of New FranceNotable event
    That summer, three British armies converged on Montreal. One came from Quebec, another sailed up Lake Champlain, a third came down the Upper St. Lawrence. With no hope of reinforcements from Europe, the French surrendered on 8 September. The Ethical Dimension: This is why it is not called New France but Quebec instead
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Documnets Acts & Treaties
    The Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years’ War between France, Britain and Spain. It marked the end of that phase of European conflict in North America, and created the basis for the modern country of Canada. Cause and Consequence: France did not want to sign this treaty, but they lost the war. This is also the final consequence of The Seven Years War.
  • Pontiac’s War

    Pontiac’s War
    Wars & Battles
    An ally of the French, Ottawa chief Obwandiyag, whom the English called Pontiac, began a series of raids against English forts. Their attempt to drive the English away from the area killed both soldiers and settlers.
  • James Murray

    James Murray
    Governors & Prime Ministers
    James Murray becomes civil governor of Quebec, but his attempts to appease French Canadians are disliked by British merchants.
  • Prince Edward Island

    Prince Edward Island
    Colonies & Settlements
    The colonial history of Nova Scotia includes the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces and northern Maine, all of which were at one time part of Nova Scotia. In 1763 Cape Breton Island and St. John's Island (what is now Prince Edward Island) became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province was established in 1784.
  • Samuel Hearne

    Samuel Hearne
    Governors & Prime Ministers
    Samuel Hearne, guided by Chipewyan leader Matonabbee, explores in a two-years voyage the Coppermine and Slave rivers and Great Slave Lake. He is the first white man to reach the Artic Ocean overland.
  • The Hudson's Bay Company

    The Hudson's Bay Company
    The history of Hudson's Bay Company Provincial Notes
    The Hudson's Bay Company opens Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan. 1774 Carleton's recommendations are instituted in the Québec Act, which introduces B British criminal law but retains French civil law and guarantees religious freedom for Roman Catholics. The Act's geographical claims were so great that it helped precipitate the American Revolution.
  • Quebec Act Passed

    Quebec Act Passed
    Provincial Notes
    The Quebec Act was passed (effective May 1, 1775); it established French civil law, British criminal law, freedom of worship for Roman Catholics and government by appointed council. It extended the boundaries of the province to the Ohio Valley.
  • American Invasion Fails

    American Invasion Fails
    Wars & Battles
    American forces laying siege to Québec launched a desperate night attack. American general Richard Montgomery was killed as the attack was repulsed with heavy casualties. The French habitants had failed to support the Americans and Canada remained British. Cause and Consequence: This event happened partly because of the American Revolution.
  • First Loyalists Arrive

    First Loyalists Arrive
    Colonies & Settlements
    The first United Empire Loyalists - 1124 refugees from New England - arrived in Halifax, NS. Another 40 000 or so followed them to NS and to Quebec. The immigration resulted in the formation of New Brunswick and Upper Canada.
  • First Loyalists land at Saint John, N.B.

    First Loyalists land at Saint John, N.B.
    Colonies & Settlements
    Around 40 000 United Empire Loyalist from the Thirteen Colonies start immigrating to Canada. Most settle in Nova Scotia, Quebec, and New Brunswick (established as a colony separate from Nova Scotia in 1784). Three thousand Black Loyalists settle near Shelburne, Nova Scotia. The Ethical Dimension: It is why most people in Canada have an ancestor which is from Europe
  • The American revolutionary war

    The American revolutionary war
    The American Revolution
    Wars & Battles
    On 3 September 1783, the Peace of Paris was signed and the American War for Independence officially ended. The following excerpt from John Ferling’s Almost a Miracle: The American Victory in the War of Independence recounts the war’s final moments, when Washington bid farewell to his troops.
  • Province of New Brunswick formed.

    Province of New Brunswick formed.
    History of Province of New Brunswick
    Provincialn Notes
    Province of New Brunswick formed in 1784. In 1784, in addition to being separated from their lands and brothers and sisters by artificial borders set up by the white man in areas of their territory that are known today as Quebec, Maine, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island,
  • Alexander Mackenzie

    Alexander Mackenzie
    Exploration Discovery
    At the behest of the North West Company, Alexander Mackenzie journeys to the Beaufort Sea, following what would later be named the Mackenzie River.
  • Meeting at Nootka Sound

    Meeting at Nootka Sound
    Captain Vancouver
    Governors & Prime Ministers
    Captains Vancouver and Quadra meet at Nootka Sound to settle British and Spanish claims to the Pacific coast.
  • Alexander Mackenzie went to Pacific Ocean coast

    Alexander Mackenzie went to Pacific Ocean coast
    Exploration Discovery
    Alexander Mackenzie party reached the Pacific via the Bella Coola River, the first explorer to complete the journey overland. Though a physical triumph, Mackenzie's achievement failed to provide the fur traders with a viable route.
  • York (Toronto) founded.

    York (Toronto) founded.
    Notable event
    On Saturday, August 7th, 1993 John Graves Simcoe and his wife, Elizabeth Posthuma Simcoe, landed amid pomp and pageantry at Harbour front in Toronto. As the performers playing these parts stepped ashore, they were greeted by Timothy Simcoe Vowler and Laurie Simcoe Vowler, sixth generation descendants of the province's first lieutenant-
    governor and his stalwart wife.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    Documents Acts & Treaties
    An American diplomat, John Jay, oversees the signing of Jay's Treaty (Nov. 19) between the U.S. and Britain. It promises British evacuation of the Ohio Valley forts and marks the beginning of international arbitration to settle boundary disputes. Cause and Consequence: American won the war therefore they earned their freedom.
  • Alexander Mackenzie became a member

    Alexander Mackenzie became a member
    Governors & Prime Ministers
    Mackenzie is knighted and becomes a member of the XY Company in 1803, then, The XY Company is absorbed by the North West Company. The earliest Fraktur paintings appear in Lincoln county, Ontario in 1804.
  • Slavery is abolished in British colonies.

    Slavery is abolished in British colonies.
    The 1807 Act
    Documents Acts & Treaties
  • First Steamboat.

    First Steamboat.
    Notable event
    On the afternoon of Monday August 17,Fulton cast off and began his journey into history. Trouble reared its head almost immediately as the ship's engine stopped shortly after leaving the dock. Fulton soon fixed the problem and the voyage resumed. The boat headed up river at a speed of about 5 miles per hour. Historical Perspectives: It was really impressive at that time and it progressed the society.
  • Simon Fraser

     Simon Fraser
    Frazer Simon
    Exploration Discovery
    Nor' Western Simon Fraser reaches the mouth of the Fraser River.
  • Selkirk's Red River Grant

    Selkirk's Red River Grant
    Colonies & Settlements
    The HBC granted an area of about 185 000 km² to Lord Selkirk for formation of a colony at Red River. His first settlers arrived in the summer of 1812. Despite tribulations the settlement grew into the first European colony in the North-West.
  • Battle of Queenston Heights

    Battle of Queenston Heights
    Wars & Battles
    Americans crossed the Niagara River and attacked the high ground of Queenston Heights. His sword drawn, Major-General Brock led troops into battle and was fatally wounded by an American sniper. The battle essentially lost, Grand River Mohawk warriors led by John Norton (Teyoninhokarawen) prevented American forces from retreating for several hours until reinforcements led by Major- General Roger Sheaffe arrived and forced over 1,000 American soldiers to surrender.
  • The Treaty of Ghent

    The Treaty of Ghent
    Documents Acts & Treaties
    The Treaty of Ghent was signed in Ghent, Belgium, on Christmas Eve 1814 by Great Britain and the US to end the War of 1812. Negotiations for peace had begun the previous year, with both parties agreeing to meet in Europe to work out the details. The military situation in North America was so balanced that neither side had achieved its war aims. Cause and Consequence: Americans lost the war of 1812 is the cause for this treaty.
  • Edward Parry

    Edward Parry
    Notable events
    Edward Parry anchors for a 10 month stay off Melville Island, (He is the first searcher for the Northwest Passage to winter the artic by Choice.)
  • Act of Union was not passed

    Act of Union was not passed
    Documents Acts & Treaties
    Louis-Joseph Papineau, a member of the legislative assembly since 1814, travels from Montréal to England to oppose an Act of Union identifying the French Canadians as a minority without language rights. The act is not passed in the British Parliament.
  • Colonial Advocate

    Colonial Advocate
    Governors & Prime Ministers
    The Colonial Advocate was a weekly political journal published in Upper Canada during the 1820s and 1830s. First published by William Lyon Mackenzie on May 18, and it was wrecked by Family Compact members . Cause and Consequence: They beat Family Compact on selling so FC took the revenge.
  • Miramichi Fire

    Miramichi Fire
    Notable events
    Miramichi Fire kills more than 160 persons and consumes 6,000 square miles of forest in New Brunswick.
  • Welland Canal Opened

    Welland Canal Opened
    Provincial Notes
    Two schooners passed from Port Dalhousie to Port Robinson, Upper Canada, symbolically opening the Welland Canal and linking Lakes Erie and Ontario for the first time. The canal opened the way to the west and countered the threat of the US Erie Canal.
  • Howe Acquitted of Libe

    Howe Acquitted of Libe
    Governor & Prime Ministers
    Joseph Howe was acquitted of libel for publishing an article in his newspaper, The Novascotian, critical of the magistrates of Halifax. The trial marked a turning point in the history of reform politics in Nova Scotia.
  • Insurrection in Lower Canada

    Insurrection in Lower Canada
    Notable events
    Governor Gosford issued warrants for the arrest of 26 Patriote leaders on charges of high treason, initiating the events of the Lower Canada Rebellion. Troops and Patriotes were in battle a few days later.
  • Rebellion in Upper Canada

    Rebellion in Upper Canada
    Notable events
    William Lyon Mackenzie led a rag-tag contingent of 800 men down Yonge Street toward Toronto. Government loyalists dispersed the rebels with a few shots, ending Mackenzie's erratic attempt to overthrow the colonial government.
  • Durham Report Submitted

    Durham Report Submitted
    Documents Acts & Treaties
    Lord Durham submitted his Report on the Affairs of British North America following his trip to Canada after the Rebellions. He recommended a legislative union of the two Canadas and responsible government, as well as assimilation of the French Canadians. Continuity and Change: This report have progressed the education system for French Canadians.
  • Oregon Boundary Treaty

    Oregon Boundary Treaty
    Document Acts & Treaties
    The Oregon Boundary Treaty was signed, establishing the boundary between British North America and the US at 49° north latitude, leaving Vancouver Island in British hands, and creating a settlement with which Canada and the US could live in harmony. The Ethical Dimension: The treaty was not really clear, and it caused serevral wars after this because of the dominion.
  • First Telegraph in Canada

    First Telegraph in Canada
    Notable events
    The Toronto, Hamilton, Niagara and St Catharines Telegraph Company was established, the first telegraph company in Canada. The first section was opened for use 19 Dec 1846 from Toronto to Hamilton. The telegraph profoundly altered 19th century life.
  • Ryerson Publishes Report on Education

    Ryerson Publishes Report on Education
    Documents Acts % Treaties
    Egerton Ryerson published his Report on a system of public elementary instruction for Upper Canada describing an education system based on Christian faith, universal access and government support that would be a model for English-speaking Canada.
  • Responsible Government in Nova Scotia

    Responsible Government in Nova Scotia
    Governors & Prime Ministers
    James Boyle Uniake became leader of a new Reform government. Nova Scotia was thus the first colony in the British Empire in which responsible government was in effect. Responsible government meant that a colony enjoyed complete self-government in domestic affairs and that a government ruled only with the support of the majority of the elected Assembly (the origins of today's cabinet government).
  • MacNab-Morin Coalition

    MacNab-Morin Coalition
    Notable events
    Augustin Morin and Sir Allan MacNab formed a political coalition accomplished the secularization of the Clergy Reserves and the end to seigneurial tenure and provided the foundation for the future Conservative Party. The Ethical Dimension: This is why we still have a Conservative Party in canadian goverment.
  • Grand Trunk Completed

    Grand Trunk Completed
    Notable events
    The Grand Trunk Railway was completed from Guelph to Stratford, Ont; the last stretch from St Marys to Sarnia was finished on November 21. The GTR was a significant factor in the economic development of Canada.
  • Fraser River Gold Rush

    Fraser River Gold Rush
    Colonies & Settlements
    The first wave of miners from California arrived at Victoria, en route to the Fraser River Gold Rush. The Gold Rush caused a precipitous decline in the Native population and politically unified British Columbia.
  • Great Reform Convention

    Great Reform Convention
    A convention of scattered reform elements of Upper Canada met in Toronto. Under George Brown's leadership the convention voted to support a legislative union of the Canadas and set the stage for closer collaboration between English and French.
  • Charlottetown Conference

    Charlottetown Conference
    Provincial Notes
    The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, PEI. At the conference Maritime union was virtually dropped, and the delegates agreed to meet a new conference in Québec to discuss a Canadian scheme for a union of all the colonies.
  • British North America Act

    British North America Act
    British North America Act, 1867
    Documents Acts % Treaties
  • Sir John A. McDonald, first prime minister

    Sir John A. McDonald, first prime minister
    Governors and prime minister
    The first Prime Minister of Canada was truly a founding father. Instrumental in the politics of Upper and Lower Canada he helped bring the provinces of Upper and lower Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick together in 1867 to form Canada.
  • Red River Resistance

    Red River Resistance
    Notable events
    With 120 men, Louis Riel occupied Fort Garry in the Red River Colony to block the transfer of the Northwest from the HBC to Canada. The resistance resulted in the formation of the new province of Manitoba but Riel was exiled.
  • Manitoba becomes Canada's fifth province

    Manitoba becomes Canada's fifth province
    Provincial notes
    Led by a passionate and articulate leader, Louis Riel, they seized Fort Garry, set up a provisional government and managed to persuade Sir John A. Macdonald to agree to a List of Rights which they hoped would protect their lands and traditions just as the Quebec Act had created constitutional protections for the French-Canadian culture. The result was the Manitoba Act of 1870 which added a fifth province to the Canadian federation.
  • British-Columbia joins condeferation

    British-Columbia joins condeferation
    Documents, acts and treaties
    British Columbia joined Confederation on 20 July 1871, becoming Canada's sixth province in the wake of a gold rush and on the promise of a transcontinental railway link.
  • Alexander Mackenzie, becomes prime minister

    Alexander Mackenzie, becomes prime minister
    Category: Governors and prime ministers
    In 1873, he became leader of the Liberals or Grits, one month before the Pacific Scandal thrust him into a successful election and the prime ministership.
  • Supreme Court of Canada established

    Supreme Court of Canada established
    Notable events
    The Supreme Court of Canada came into existence more than a century after the first courts appeared in what is now Canada. Its role has evolved considerably since its creation in 1875, as it stands today as the final court of appeal in the Canadian judicial system, a status that it did not originally have.
  • North-west rebellion begins

    North-west rebellion begins
    Wars and battles
    The North-West Rebellion (or North-West Resistance) was a violent, five-month insurgency against the Canadian government, fought mainly by Métis militants and their Aboriginal allies in what is now Saskatchewan and Alberta. It was caused by rising fear and insecurity among the Métis and Aboriginal peoples as well as the white settlers of the rapidly changing West.
  • Canadian Pacific railway finalized

    Canadian Pacific railway finalized
    Notable events
    On Nov. 7, 1885, the eastern and western portions of the Canadian Pacific Railway met at Craigellachie, B.C., where Donald A. Smith drove the last spike. The cost of construction almost broke the syndicate, but within three years of the first transcontinental train leaving Montreal and Toronto for Port Moody on June 28, 1886, the railway's financial house was once again in order and CPR began paying dividends again.
  • Louis Riel hanged

    Louis Riel hanged
    Notable events
    Riel was executed on a public gallows in Regina on 16 November 1885. His body was transported to Saint-Boniface, where his remains were taken to the cathedral’s cemetery at the head of a massive procession made up of the leaders of French Manitoba.
    Historical perspectives: While the french maitee saw his excecution as an injustice, the Canadian government saw him a traitor to the nation.
  • Henry Petty governor general

    Henry Petty governor general
    Governors and prime ministers
    Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald* found him the most perspicacious of the governors he had served before and after confederation. Lansdowne was sensitive to the questions that arose in the Saskatchewan River valley in 1884–85.
  • John A. McDonald dies

    John A. McDonald dies
    Notable events
    By 1891 Macdonald conducted his last campaign and won a majority for the Conservatives. The election had however, taken to much out of him and on June 6th, 1891 he passed away in Ottawa and the Father of Canada was universally mourned by Canada and the British Empire.
  • Sir John Abbott elected prime minister

    Sir John Abbott elected prime minister
    Governors and prime ministers
    Abbot was a in the Senate and 70 years old when he became Prime Minister. He was from Quebec and had opposed Confederation and had in fact supported joining the United States. Abbot was unique in that he was the first Canadian Prime Minister who ruled from the Senate.
  • Gold rush in the Yukon

    Gold rush in the Yukon
    Exploration and discovery
    The discovery of gold in the Yukon in 1896 led to a rush to the Klondike region until 1899. This led to the establishment of Dawson City (1896) and subsequently, the Yukon Territory (1898). The Klondike gold rush solidified the public’s image of the North as more than a barren wasteland.
    Cause and consequence: This gold rush in what would later beome the Yukon was caused by the discovery of gold in the region and led to literature that popularized the territory.
  • Canadian troops sent to the Boer war

    Canadian troops sent to the Boer war
    Wars and battles
    The South African War (1899-1902) or, as it is also known, the Boer War, marked Canada's first official dispatch of troops to an overseas war.
  • Earl Grey becomes governor general

    Earl Grey becomes governor general
    Governors and prime ministers
    Earl Grey was a very active Governor General. He was in constant contact with the Prime Minister, offering ideas for social reform. He sought greater political inclusion for all, and worked to reach as many ordinary Canadians as possible.
  • Alberta and Saskatchewan become newest provinces

    Alberta and Saskatchewan become newest provinces
    Provincial notes
    The Autonomy Bills created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta, but precipitated bitter debates over party politics, the division of federal-provincial powers, and French-English rights in Canada.
    Historical significance: These documents lead to the establishment of Alberta and Saskatchewan as there own seperate provinces.
  • The dominion's first domestically produced coin

    The dominion's first domestically produced coin
    Notable events
    On January 2, 1908, Governor General Earl Grey activated the press to strike the Dominion's first domestically produced coin, a fifty-cent piece.
  • Canada's first airplane, the AEA Silver Dart, flew 1 km

    Canada's first airplane, the AEA Silver Dart, flew 1 km
    Exploration and discovery
    The spectators gawked as the Silver Dart rose gracefully into the air. Only five years after the secretive Wright brothers had first taken flight at Kitty Hawk, it was the first time anyone had seen such a sight, not only in Canada, but anywhere in the British Empire.
  • Sir Robert Laird Borden elected prime minister

    Sir Robert Laird Borden elected prime minister
    Governors and prime ministers
    Borden led Canada through one of the most difficult periods in its history. He orchestrated its enormous contribution to the war effort while managing growing social tensions and political problems at home.
  • Canada follows Britain in war against Germany

    Canada follows Britain in war against Germany
    Documents, acts and treaties
    The Canadian Parliament didn't choose to go to war in 1914. The country's foreign affairs were guided in London. So when Britain's ultimatum to Germany to withdraw its army from Belgium expired on 4 August 1914, the British Empire, including Canada, was at war, allied with Serbia, Russia, and France against the German and Austro-Hungarian empires.
  • Parliament building caught on fire

    Parliament building caught on fire
    Notable events
    The alarm was raised that there was a fire in the Centre Block. By the next morning the building was a smoking ruin, encrusted with ice. Only the Library survived because of the foresight of librarian Alpheus Todd in insisting on iron fire doors and clerk "Connie" MacCormac's quick thinking in ordering them to be slammed shut before evacuating the building.
  • Battle of Vimy ridge

    Battle of Vimy ridge
    Wars and battles
    The capture of Vimy was a crucial battlefield victory. Men from all regions of Canada were present at the battle. Brigadier-General A.E. Ross declared after the war, "in those few minutes I witnessed the birth of a nation."
    Historical significance: This event is extremely significant for Canada as it established it a nation that can contribute to the world, but also caused great division within Canada between the French against conscription and the English in favor of it.
  • Agnes Macphail, the first woman elected into parliement

    Agnes Macphail, the first woman elected into parliement
    Notable events
    Agnes Macphail was the first woman in Canada to break into the House of Commons, and she was far more than a token female politician during her long career serving her constituents.
  • Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod receive Nobel Prize

    Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod receive Nobel Prize
    Exploration and discovery
    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923 was awarded jointly to Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod "for the discovery of insulin".
    Cause and consequence: Being the first to use insulin on human beings led to its wide spread use throughout medicine even to this day to combat diseases such as diabetes.
  • Arthur Meighen, prime minister

    Arthur Meighen, prime minister
    Governors and prime ministers
    In 1925, the Conservatives made a strong come-back but Mackenzie King was able to carry on with the Progressive Party support till 1926 when faced by a censure vote, he asked for dissolution of Parliament. The Governor General, Lord Byng refused and called on Meighen who had no majority, but had courage and ingenuity.
  • Labrador boundary dispute

    Labrador boundary dispute
    Provincial notes
    The judicial committee refused to accept Canada's contention that "coast" meant a strip of land one mile (1.6 km) wide along the seashore. It found that the evidence supported Newfoundland's inland claim as far as the watershed line or height of land. The court's decision in March 1927 settled the boundary in its present location.
  • Canada's first female senator, Cairine Wilson

    Canada's first female senator, Cairine Wilson
    Notable events
    More than 80 years have passed since that first appointment, and women now account for more than one-third of the Senate’s membership, one of the highest proportions of women in any legislative assembly in North America.
  • R. B. Bennett elected prime minister

    R. B. Bennett elected prime minister
    Governors and prime ministers
    Richard (R.B.) Bennett was a tough-talking millionaire whom Canadians turned to as a beacon of hope during the first years of the Great Depression. He soon became the focus of a nation's anger as hard times intensified.
  • Bank of Canada Act passed, creating a central bank

    Bank of Canada Act passed, creating a central bank
    Documents, acts and treaties
    The Bank of Canada was at first privately owned, but was nationalized by 1938. The Act and associated revisions to the Bank Act also changed the legal framework for Canada's chartered banks, which were now obliged to maintain a specified ratio between liabilities to the public (current and savings accounts) and their claims on the national monetary authorities.
  • Canada declares war on Nazi Germany

    Canada declares war on Nazi Germany
    Wars and battles
    Britain’s declaration of war did not automatically commit Canada, as had been the case in 1914. The government and people were united in support of Britain and France. After Parliament debated the matter, Canada declared war on Germany on 10 September
    Continuity and change: Canada's declarartion of war against Nazi Germany was not, as it was during the first world war, Canada simply following Britain into battle. Parliament voted to have a declaration of war approved by the king
  • Canadian storm Juno beach

    Canadian storm Juno beach
    Wars and battle
    The 3rd Canadian Infantry Division and the 2nd Armoured Brigade were tasked with establishing a bridgehead on the beach codenamed “Juno”. This was an eight-kilometre long stretch of beach bordering Saint-Aubin, Bernières, Courseulles-sur-Mer and Graye-sur-Mer.
    Cause and consequence: The invasion of Normandy was the result of a need to fight back against Nazi Germany, and resulted in the allies taking back what Hitler had conquered.
  • Oil is struck in Leduc, Alberta

    Oil is struck in Leduc, Alberta
    Provincial notes
    In February, 1947, oil was struck in Leduc AB which would soon become known as the largest discovery in Canada in 33 years. A year prior to the discovery, Imperial Oil Limited had spent $23 million on oil exploration in Western Canada and had drilled 133 consecutive dry holes producing few tangible results.
  • Mackenzie King leaves office

    Mackenzie King leaves office
    Governors and prime ministers
    "It is what we prevent, rather than what we do that counts most in Government." -- Mackenzie King, August 26, 1936
  • Newfoundland officially enters confederation

    Newfoundland officially enters confederation
    Documents, acts and treaties
    On April 1, 1949, Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent cut the first ceremonial chisel strokes onto the blank stone. At 11:59 the previous night, Newfoundland had become a Canadian province.
  • The Korean war

    The Korean war
    Wars and battles
    American, UN, and domestic pressure then led to Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent’s announcement on 7 August 1950 of a Canadian Army Special Force (CASF) — later named the 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group — to expand the country’s UN contributions to Korea.
  • The beginning of Canadian television

    The beginning of Canadian television
    Provincial notes
    September 8, saw the first TV broadcast was made from the public broadcaster’s English service, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation station CBLT.
  • Pipeline Debate

    Pipeline Debate
    Documents, acts and treaties
    At issue was how natural gas from the recently developed Alberta oilfields should be marketed. South into the United States? Or east across Canada to Ontario and Quebec?
    Ethical dimension: Should the oil being extracted in Canada be used to benefit Canada more directly or do the oil companies have the right to profit as much as they want?
  • John Diefenbaker becomes prime minister

    John Diefenbaker becomes prime minister
    Governors and prime ministers
    In 1956, Diefenbaker was chosen to succeed George Drew, who had resigned as leader of the Progressive Conservative Party. The following year, Diefenbaker led his party to an upset victory over the Liberals led by Louis Saint-Laurent, and formed a minority government, the first Conservative government since that of R.B. Bennett.
  • Saskatchewan medicare act

    Saskatchewan medicare act
    Documents, acts and treaties
    Medicare, as the national single-payer HEALTH CARE system is called, began in Saskatchewan on July 1, 1962, but operated without federal funding until July 1, 1968. Other provinces and territories joined over the following four years.
  • Lester B. Pearson elected prime minister

    Lester B. Pearson elected prime minister
    Governors and prime ministers
    Pearson succeeded Saint Laurent as leader of the Liberal Party in 1958 and became prime minister in 1963. His government introduced a national pension plan and a family assistance program, broadened old-age security benefits, and laid the groundwork for the National Free Medical Service.
  • New official Canadian flag

    New official Canadian flag
    Notable events
    The official ceremony inaugurating the new Canadian flag was held on Parliament Hill in Ottawa on February 15, 1965, with Governor General Georges Vanier, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, the members of the Cabinet and thousands of Canadians in attendance.
  • French and English are made official languages of Canada

    French and English are made official languages of Canada
    Documents, acts adn treaties
    Official Languages Act (1969), federal statute that declares French and English to be the official languages of Canada, and under which all federal institutions must provide their services in English or French at the customer's choice.
    Historical significance: French is recognized as a language of Canadian society.
  • Start of the October Crisis

    Start of the October Crisis
    Wars and battles
    In the fall of 1970, Canada was plunged into its worst crisis since the Second World War when a radical Quebec group raised the stakes on separatism.
  • Henderson's Goal in Moscow

    Henderson's Goal in Moscow
    Notable events
    With a shot heard round the world, or at least round Canada, Paul Henderson scored the dramatic winning goal with 34 seconds left as Team Canada defeated the Soviet National Team 6-5 in the final game of the Canada-Soviet hockey series.
  • Death penalty abolished in Canada

    Death penalty abolished in Canada
    Acts, documents and treaties
    Everyone's right to life is enshrined in Section 7 of our Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. This fundamental right is also enunciated in Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
    Ethical dimensions: Many disagreed with the abolishment of the death penalty because of some of the monstrous acts some people have committed.
  • Joe Clark sworn into office as Prime Minister

    Joe Clark sworn into office as Prime Minister
    Governors and prime ministers
    In 1976, he was elected national leader of the Progressive Conservative party and served as Prime Minister of Canada from May 1979 to February 1980. At the age of 37, Mr. Clark was the youngest leader ever elected to head the national party, and at 40 he became the youngest Prime Minister of Canada in history.
  • Quebec referendum 1980

    Quebec referendum 1980
    Provincial notes
    When Trudeau was defeated at the polls by Joe Clark in 1979, the time looked very opportune for the PQ to call and win their referendum. Levesque set May 20th , 1980 as the date for the vote and laid out their argument and their plan for taking Quebec out of Confederation.
  • Terry Fox succumbs to his cancer

    Terry Fox succumbs to his cancer
    Notable events
    Not long after losing his right leg to cancer, Fox decided to run across Canada to raise awareness and money for cancer research.
  • Constitution Act of 1982 signing

    Constitution Act of 1982 signing
    Documents, acts and treaties
    In 1982, the Queen and the Right Honourable Pierre Trudeau, Prime Minister, signed the Constitution Act, 1982, which includes the British North America Act and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
    Primary source evidence: The constitution act of 1982 is a a series of documents that outline all of Canada's constitutional laws and brought them home to Canada.
  • John Turner elected prime minister

    John Turner elected prime minister
    Governors and prime ministers
    Although he was viewed by many within the party and across the country as the natural successor to Trudeau, the Chretien forces put up a strong fight and the battle between the two split the party just enough to make Turners win bitter sweet.
  • Beginning of the Oka crisis

    Beginning of the Oka crisis
    Wars and battles
    The Oka Crisis was a 78-day standoff (11 July–26 September 1990) between Mohawk protesters, police, and army. At the heart of the crisis was the proposed expansion of a golf course and development of condominiums on disputed land that included a Mohawk burial ground.
  • Kim Campbell elected

    Kim Campbell elected
    Governors and prime ministers
    She defeated Jean Charest, a long-time Conservative stalwart and highly respected member of the cabinet, in the leadership race and on June 25, 1993, she became Canada's first female Prime Minister.
  • Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act passed

     Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act passed
    Document acts and treaties
    On July 9, 1993, the Parliament of Canada passed the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act and the Nunavut Act.
    Six years later, on April 1st, 1999 the map of Canada was redrawn for the first time since 1949 when the new Territory of Nunavut was born. Cause and consequence: This document led to the establishment of Nunavut as its own territory.
  • Quebec referendum of 1995

    Quebec referendum of 1995
    Provincial notes
    The question posed in the referendum read as follows: "Do you agree that Québec should become sovereign, after having made a formal offer to Canada for a new economic and political partnership, within the scope of the Bill respecting the future of Québec and of the agreement signed on 12 June 1995?"