Canadian and the World (1914-1945)

  • Period: to

    Canada 1914-1945

  • Early 1914 Canada

    In early 1914 Canada went into a recession after almost two decades of rapid growth. Industries cut back on production and many workers became unemployed. On the Prairies most farmers couldn't sell their wheat because the boom was over and demand for wheat went down.
  • Causes of WWl

    What caused First World War? There is no simple answer, A lot of factors triggered the start of the war. Imperialism, Assasination, Nationalism, Alliances, and Militarism. There was extreme rivals bewtween The Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and The Triple Entente (Britain, Italy, France, and Russia).
  • A National Identity Emerges

    Since Britain declared war on Germany, Canada was automatically at war along with the rest of the British Empire. Canada was excited about the war and the chance to protect their mother country. Canada had to prepare for war with an army of 30,000. The huge task of supplying munition, training, and clothing etc.. went to Sam Hughes, the Minister of Militia. Four monthes later, Ill-prepared but enthiusiastic soldiers set sail to England.
  • Sam Hughes & The War Measures Act

    Sam Hughes was also in charge of Canada's armament industry. He provided troops with poor quality supplies, soldiers would often have boots fall apart, and rifles would jam all the time. Hughes was dismissed from his post in 1916. Prime Minister Bordon introduced the War Measures Act. This lead to lots of havov in Canada.
  • Battles: Second Battle of Ypres

    Some of the bloodiest battles were fought in WWl. On April 22, 1915, French and Canadian troops were blinded, burned, or killed when the Germans used chlroine gas. Despite the Germans use of poison gas the battle continued for a month but neither side gained an advantage. The man who wrote "In Flanders Fields" served in the army in that battle.
  • Battle of Somme & Vimy Ridge

    In July 1916, The Allies launched a massive attack against a line of German trenches near Somme River in France. This attack Failed. They didn't destroy German defences, 58,000 British troops died the first day, and they were so used to trench warefare. On April 9, 1916 Canadian troops moved into Vimy Ridge, after Canadian troops win this battle they now had the most ground taken, most prisoners, and captured more artillary then any previous British offensive in the entire war.
  • Passchendale & Woman on the Western Front

    Arthur Currie was appointed General after vimy. Currie had a very independent Canadian point of view. Canada wanted to capture Passchendale in Belgium, but Currie warned that with the bad conditions the casaulties would be high, and he was right. After allies captured 8 km, the Germans recaptured it. During the war woman served as the RCAMC and worked on hospital ships, and field ambulances.
  • Halifax Explosion & Conscription

    Halifax Explosion & Conscription
    In Halifax plenty of ships came through the harbour, and there was little trafic control 2 vessels collided and a hughe explosion occured, since the SS Mont Blanc was carrying 2500 tonnes of explosives, 2000 people we're killed and 9000 were injured. Prime Minister Bordon in 1917 did something he promised he never would, introduced conscription. It was a really big issue in Canada that divided the country. Quebec opposed to Conscription because they weren't tied to Britain.
  • Khaki Election

    Prime Minister Bordon soon realized that many parts of Canada were against conscription.He held a vote called the "Khaki Election" he allowed men overseas to vote and woman with men in service to vote, with these conscription won the vote. Quebec was against conscription because they were French and not as tied with Britain.
  • Supporting War Effort & Right to Vote

    The war was expensive for Canada so the government launched a bunch of new ways to cover it. Canadians were urged to buy Victory Bonds, use less food, and gas, pay a new income tax also a corporate tax for businesses. This was not enough Canada had to borrow money from the U.S to pay it's debts. Most Woman in Canada were granted suffrage, in 1918. Canada was giving more rights to woman.
  • Paris Peace Conference & Treaty of Versailles

    Paris Peace Conference & Treaty of Versailles
    At the conference in Paris Canada's autonomy was emerging, since soldiers fought so well in battle they gave Canada it's own seat at the conference. This was the first time Canada gained international recognition. In the Treaty of Versialles German was given harsh terms for starting the war and had a huge debt to pay off, but Germany's economy was in the ruins.
  • League of Nations & Canada After War

    The League of Nations were formed, and Canada became a part of the league as a nation, and independent place. After four long years of fighting Canadian troops came home in early 1919, to find Canada's economy was awful from the war. After war inflation made it difficult for many people because everything was so expensive.
  • Struggle for Identity

    Aboriginals in the early 20's struggled for an identity. They wanted to assimilate Aboriginal children and used residential schools, this often divided families and communities. Their best known celebreation "The Potlatch" ceremony was banned and aboriginals could barely do anything of their culture anymore. They struggled for land and wanted more freedom, but self-determination for Aboriginals in Canada is still an issure today.
  • The Role of Women & Persons Case

    In the 1920's women were starting to take more control of their lives and were taking on roles helf by men. Despite this they still faced social and political restrictions. Most women had the right to vote, and only 4 woman ran for office during 1921.In 1929 the issues of woman being considered a "person" the case was brought up by the famous five to define a "persons" exactly, in October soon after women were considered a "persons"
  • Chanak Crisis & Halibut Treaty

    When Britain called on Canada's support from the Turkish, Mackenzie brought this to parliament instead of sending over troops. By the time the case was over so was the Chanak Crisis, it marked the first time Canada did not automatically join Britain. Canada negotiated a treaty with the U.S to protect halibut. Canada signed as an independent Nation and without a British representative there, first time Canada has done that without Britain.
  • King-Byng Crisis & Balfour Report

    In 1926 Mackenzie King publically challenged Britain over the role of Govenor General, he refused the advice of a prime minister and since the king-byng crisis happened no goveneral general has dont that since. At the Imperial conference of 1926 Canada had made the greatest progress toward changing it's legal dependance on Britain. Now Canada was an autonomous community within the British Empire.
  • Causes of Depression

    The Stock Market crash in 1929 marked the beginning of the recession. In a mixed economy production and price are determined by "supply and demand".Companies begin to over-produce and couldn't sell their products, Canada depended on these exports. Tarrifs were blasted (Protectionism)., debts from First World War, stock market crash, The prairies were in a drought so they couldn't produce any wheat and Alberta and Saskatchewan suffered greatly.
  • The Statue of Westminister

    The Statue of Westminister
    The Statute of Westminister was passed by the British Government that turned the British Empire into the British Commonwealth, Canada etc.. was no a country in equal status with Britain and could make it's own laws.
  • Responding to the Depression

    Prime Minister Mackenzie King was un-prepared and not ready to take on the depression. He ignored it, and pretended it wasn't a problem ruining his country, With rude comments King lost the election to Prime Minister Bennet, his government introduced several measures: UEI, raised tarrifs, and the Prairie rehab act. None of these got Canada out of the depression, the tariffs did more harm then good.
  • Making Ends Meet

    Since there was a drought on the prairies farmers were out of work, and so were many other young men in Canada. The un-employment rate sky rocketed. Men looking for jobs would "Ride the rails" to try and find work.
  • On-to-Ottawa trek

    On-to-Ottawa trek
    In Vancouver over a thousand men left the relief camps they were put into due to high rates of unemployment, the men complained that the beds were bug infested, bad meals, bad pay, and long hours of work, they all took a train to Ottawa but were stopped in Regina by Bennet and a riot broke out resulting in 1 death and many arrests. Relief camps were closed in 1936.
  • New Deals

    When U.S president Roosevelts introduced the new deal with many relief programs, Bennet felt that if he were to come up with his own acts he could get Canada out of the depression he introduced: fairer taxes, more insurance, regulated work, old age pension, and agricultural support. Many saw this as just a simple way to get votes and King was voted Prime Minister again.
  • Causes of WWll

    Totalitarianism was a cause of WWll, so was Hitlers intentions to make Germany a "master race" He wanted to take back land he believed belonged to Germany, in the years leading up to WWll Hitler put his plan into action. Russia and the Nazi's make a non-aggression pact. While on the other side of the continent Japan was invading Machuria and Italy was invading Abyssinia.
  • Canada's repsonse to another war

    Canada practised isolationism, keeping out of affairs outside it's border. Prime Minister King did not want Canada to become involved in another world conflict, the first war divided Canada as a nation. The economy was slowly improving and King did not want the country to go back in debt. Canadians attitude with Jewish refugees during this time was discriminating, while knowing what was going on in Germany we refused many Jewish immigrants and deported more then we got back
  • New Parties & Rowell-Siriois Report.

    Lots of new parties including the CCF, Socials Credit Party, and Union Nationale were being formed. Different parties were being voted all around Canada. The Rowell-Sirios Report was a report to give poorer provinces grants and/or equalization payments. By now, more people were finding jobs and Canada and things weren't all so bad,
  • Canada Declares War

    Canada Declares War
    On Sept 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany. This time since Canada was not directly tied to Britain, they had a choice as wether to go to war or not. On September 10, 1939, Canada delcared war on Germany after a vote in Canada.Since Canada was not prepared for war they had no problem finding volunteers. Many people volunteered as sense of duty and still felt tied to Britain. The first Canadian troops sailed from Halifax December, 10, 1939.
  • Total War

    Total war meant that the government became more involved in planning and controlling the economy. C.D Howe was put in charge of munitions etc.. the economy was getting running again. After Hitler invaded and took over Denmark, Norway, and the Netherlands, he set his sights on France. Through Belgium Hitler launched his attack and Dunkirk was evacuated. France surrendered to Germany. It was just Britian and the commonwealth now.
  • Battle of Britain

    In July 1940, the Germans Luftwaffe started massive bombing campaigns on Britain.The air raids killed many civillians and lots of Britain air force but Britain had supplies from Canada and the RAF which was used, and shot down German planes so Hitler gave up on invading Britain. German's were also in a cold war trying to invade North Africa for resources and strategic spots for war.
  • Opertation Barbarossa

    Hitler launched "Operation Barbarossa" on June 1941. This masssive attack on the Soviets broke the Non-agression pact Hitler had with Russia. Hitler saw Russia as a source of raw materials, labour, and agricultural land. Russians were un-prepared for the attack but due to severe winters the Germans were no match for the Russians. After the Germans surrendered in early 1943 this made sure that the Russians joined the allies side,
  • The War in the Pacific

    Japan began a campaign to expand its territories in the 1930's. It was prepared to invade America and European colonies, to get raw useful materials. On December 7, 1941 Japanese planes bombed the US naval base Pearl Harbour on the island of Hawaii, a lot of American fleet was destroyed and many deaths, American declared war on Japan, German and Italy then declared war on the US.
  • Battle of Hong Kong

    Only hours after bombing Pearl Harbour, Japan attacked Hong Kong, a British Colony. Weeks earlier Canada had sent in battalions from Winnipeg, to reinforce the commonwealth forces in Hong Kong. This was considered "Black Friday" because every Canadian was either killed or taken prisoner, lots of POWS faced horrible conditions and many never came home.
  • Battle of Atlantic

    Battle of Atlantic
    When war broke out the RCN was low on ships and sailors, but by the end of the war it had 100 00 sailors and 400 vessles. By 1941 the Battle of the Atlantic was in fulll swing, Britain being an island needed resources from Canada, but Germany was trying to starve them by cutting off vital shipping routes. For the first while it seemed that as allies might lose this battle but better technology made for a comeback and Canada developed a ship called the "Corvette" and later Canada had won.
  • War in the Air

    The RCAF grew quickly once the war began. Canadian crews participated in bombing raids in North Africa, Italy, Northwest Europe, and South Asia. Night bombings over Germany occurred night after night over 40 000 casualties. Aircrew death rates were high and nearly 10 000 bombing crew Canadians died in battle.
  • Dieppe Raid

    The 2nd Canadian division was chosen to be main attack on invasion of Dieppe Beach. On the way their a Canadian ship met a small German vessel and from there on the raid was a disaster. The Canadians were not ready for the Germans machine gunning them down as they arrived on the beach. The communication was poor and the Canadian ship sent more troops over just to get slaughtered. It was one of the worst Canadian battles, more then half the troops lost their life.
  • Italian Campaign

    After the failure of Dieppe, allies needed to recapture Europe some how and invading Sicily and Italy seemed like a good way to do it. The invasion lasted almost two years but Canadians proved themselves to be fierce opponents, the allies capturing the island in 38 days. Canadians were also given the task of capturing the midevil town Ortona they had to caputre a lot of smaller villages to make its way to Ortona. Battle was slow, but Canadians advanced through Italy until ordered otherwise.
  • D-Day Invasion

    The Allies launched a full-scale invasion of Europe, they planned and organized this down to the last detail. They launched their troops on 5 beaches. The allies brought in more then a million troops. It was such a success because they kept this a secret from the Germans. Canadians also launched an invasion on Juno Beach and won this battle to, which showed Canadians troops were great on the battle field.
  • Battle of the Scheldt & Rhineland

    In the Battle of Schledt, Canadians were given the task of clearing enemy troops from the Scheldt River so they could get supplies for their final advance into Germany. Feb.8, 1945 Canadians began their attack on driving the Germans back over the Rhineland, the German army withdrew to the east bank of the Rhine River allowing continues north to liberate Holland,
  • Victory in Europe

    It took another month to drive Germans out of the Netherlands. On April 28, the allies negotiated a truce with Germany, allowing them to bring much needed supplies to dutch people. Germany surrendered to the allies on May,7 1945 Hitler commited suicide in a bunker before he could be captured. The allies declared May 8 as Victory in Europe.
  • Japan Surrenders

    For some time now, American and British scientists have been developing an atomic bomb. Needing uranium they asked Canada to contribute uranium so we did. On August 6, ``The Enola Gay`` dropped the first ever atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima. 3 days later another one was dropped on Nagasaki. About 100 000 people were killed and another 100 000 were injured, mostly civilians. Japan surrenders on August 14, 1945.
  • The Holocaust

    By 1941 the Nazis developed a plan `Final Solution` to wipe out an entire race. He sent Jews to concentration camps in remote areas to live in horrible conditions and die a painful death. The Germans had killed about 6 million Jews, and another 5 million other races. Lots of war crimes were committed during the wars lots of POWS were tortured, killed etc. Lots of other places were accused of commiting war crimes aswell.
  • War at Home

    Canadians at home made enormous contributions to the war. Under the policy of total war, many Canadians were dedicated to producing supplies and war material. Woman put lots of effort into the war too, building munitions, and planes etc.
  • What the War meant to Canada

    The Second World War had many long lasting economical, societal, and political effects on Canada. The economy grew tremendously in Canada also, societal changes like woman were employed during the war and after, and immigrants were allowed over more now.
  • Canada`s Identity

    Canada throughout the early 1900`s grew to be an independent nation. Through WWl & WWll Canada was put through events that changed their status, society, and identity. This helped Canada grow to be the independent nation now that it wasn`t at the start of the 1914`s.