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CANADA IN THE 20'S

  • Canada Joins League Of Nations

    Canada Joins League Of Nations
    League of Nations, international organization established at the Paris Peace Conference (1919) at the end of WWI. It was founded on the principles of collective security and preservation of peace through arbitration of international disputes. American President Woodrow Wilson had taken an important part in founding the league, but the US never joined. Sixty-three states were eventually members. With headquarters in Geneva, Switz, it lasted until the founding of its successor, the UNITED NATIONS,
  • Treaty Of Versailles in Effect

    Treaty Of Versailles in Effect
    Versailles, Treaty of, 28 June 1919, the peace settlement imposed on Germany after WORLD WAR I, drawn up at the Paris Peace Conference and signed near the French capital at Versailles. The treaty broke up and redistributed the German Empire and required substantial reparation payments from it. Canada had little impact on the final shape of the treaty, but PM Sir Robert BORDEN led a successful fight for separate Dominion representation at the conference and separate signatures on the treaty.
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    Group of Seven Exhibit

    The Group of Seven was founded in 1920 as an organization of self-proclaimed modern artists. The original members - Franklin CARMICHAEL, Lawren HARRIS, A.Y. JACKSON, Franz JOHNSTON, Arthur LISMER, J.E.H. MACDONALD and F.H. VARLEY - befriended each other in Toronto between 1911 and 1913. All except Harris, who was independently wealthy, made their living as commercial artists, and several of them even worked together in the same shop.
  • Canadian Forum Founded

    Canadian Forum Founded
    Canadian Forum, founded in 1920, is Canada's oldest continually published political periodical. It originated at University of Toronto as the offshoot of a tiny magazine, The Rebel, and its first editorial board intended the new publication to be what its name suggested - a forum of political and cultural ideas. From the start, the Forum was avowedly nationalist and progressive, and usually on the left of the spectrum on political and cultural questions. In the 1990s it is avowedly nationalist,
  • First Women Cabinet Minister

    First Women Cabinet Minister
    is appointed to the provincial legislative Cabinet in British Columbia. She the first woman Cabinet minister in the British Empire.
  • Bluenose Launched

    Bluenose Launched
    Bluenose was a Canadian fishing and racing schooner from Nova Scotia built in 1921. She was later commemorated by a replica Bluenose II built in 1963. A celebrated racing ship and hard-working fishing vessel, Bluenose became a provincial icon for Nova Scotia as well as important Canadian symbol in the 1930s. The name "bluenose" originated as a nickname for Nova Scotians from as early as the late 18th century
  • United Farmers of Alberta Win

    United Farmers of Alberta Win
    United Farmers of Alberta, a farmers' organization established Jan 1909 in Edmonton as an amalgamation of the Canadian Society of Equity and the Alberta Farmers' Association. The UFA was interested in rural economic, social and political issues. In 1913 it prompted the provincial Liberal government to organize the Alberta Farmers' Co-operative Elevator Co, which in 1917 joined with the Grain Growers' Grain Co to form United Grain Growers
  • Parlby Elected Cabinet Minister

    Parlby Elected Cabinet Minister
    Parlby was one of the Famous Five or Valiant Five, who by means of a court battle known as the Persons Case established that women were "qualified Persons" in the meaning of the Constitution of Canada and therefore entitled to sit in the Senate of Canada.
    A lifelong advocate for rural Canadian women and children, Parlby was president of the United Farm Women of Alberta from 1916 to 1919. On behalf of the UFWA, she pushed to improve public health care services and establish municipal hospitals.
  • Banting and Best Isolate Insulin

    Banting and Best Isolate Insulin
    The most dramatic story in Canadian medicine had an inauspicious beginning. A shy part-time instructor at the University of Western’s medical school, Frederick Banting, came to visit the august professor of physiology J.J.R. Macleod in his office at the University of Toronto. A skeptical Macleod listened to the shy and hesitant Banting describe how an idea had come to him, one sleepless night, of how isolating a secretion in the pancreas might hold the key to curing diabetes.
  • First Women Elected

    First Women Elected
    Agnes Campbell Macphail, politician, reformer (b at Proton Twp, Grey County, Ont 24 Mar 1890; d at Toronto 13 Feb 1954). Macphail was the only woman elected to Canada's Parliament in 1921, the first federal election in which women had the vote. She served until defeated in 1940. In 1943 she was elected to the Ontario legislature, one of the first 2 women there. She lost her seat in 1945 but was again in the legislature 1948-51.
  • Liberals Win Minority

    Of the LIBERAL governments, one (1925-26), under Mackenzie King, left office following the refusal of the governor general to grant a dissolution of Parliament and call an election (see KING-BYNG AFFAIR)
  • King Becomes prime Minster

    King Becomes prime Minster
    At the 1919 Liberal convention King was appointed Laurier's successor. Two years later the Liberals won a bare majority in the federal election and King became prime minister. He set out to regain the confidence of the farmers in Ontario and western Canada who had supported the new PROGRESSIVE PARTY, but his reductions in tariffs and freight rates were not enough, and after the 1925 election the Liberals could stay in office only with Progressive support.
  • United Farmers of Manitiba Win

    United Farmers of Manitiba Win
    United Farmers of Manitoba, fd 1920, an inclusive farmers' organization which replaced the Manitoba Grain Growers' Assn. It supported farmer candidates in the 1920 provincial election, and in 1922 its efforts helped elect John BRACKEN's UFM government (1922-42). In 1921 the UFM supported 12 successful candidates of the federal PROGRESSIVE PARTY but withdrew direct backing in 1924. It was financed by members and by occasional grants from farmers' companies.
  • Chanak Affair

    Chanak Affair
    Chanak Affair, 1922, Prime Minister Mackenzie KING's first major foreign policy test. Britain and Canada signed the Treaty of Sèvres with defeated Turkey after WWI, but the treaty was soon in shreds; by September 1922 nationalist forces controlled most of Turkey. British occupation troops were pinned down at Chanak (now Canakkale), a small seaport on the Dardanelles. On September 15 Britain sent a telegram calling upon the Dominions to contribute soldiers in a demonstration of the Empire's solid
  • Halibut Treaty

    Halibut Treaty
    Halibut Treaty, 2 Mar 1923, a Canadian-American agreement concerning fishing rights in the N Pacific Ocean; the first treaty independently negotiated and signed by the Canadian government. Although Canada's right to negotiate commercial treaties was well established, the British wished to sign the convention along with Canada, as they always had. PM Mackenzie KING argued that the matter was solely the concern of Canada and the US.
  • Chinese Immigration Act

    Chinese Immigration Act
    The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923, known in the Chinese Canadian community as the Chinese Exclusion Act, was an act passed by the Parliament of Canada, banning most forms of Chinese immigration to Canada. Immigration from most countries was controlled or restricted in some way, but only the Chinese were so completely prohibited from immigrating.
    Prior to 1923, Chinese immigration was already heavily controlled by the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885
  • Bank Fails

  • United Farmers of Canada

    United Farmers of Canada
    The United Farmers of Canada was a militant farmers' organization established 1926 as the United Farmers of Canada (Saskatchewan Section). It combined the radical Farmers' Union of Canada and the more conservative Saskatchewan GRAIN GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. During the late 1920s it led the unsuccessful but intense campaign for "the 100% pool," a system in which governments would market all grain. The UFC maintained strong educational programs for rural people, championed the cause of orderly market
  • King-Byng Affair

    King-Byng Affair
    The new Parliament supported the minority Liberal government until 25 June 1926, when it defeated a motion to remove censure from a motion of no confidence. Prime Minister Mackenzie KING asked Governor General VISCOUNT BYNG to dissolve Parliament, the motion of censure being still under debate. Byng refused. A request for dissolution while a motion of censure was under debate was unprecedented.
  • Meighen Nonconfidence

  • King Forms Minority

  • King Prime Minister Again

  • Balfour Report

    Balfour Report
    Balfour Report, 1926, the conclusions of an Imperial Conference committee under the chairmanship of Lord Balfour, a British Cabinet minister and former prime minister, on relations between the self-governing parts of the empire- COMMONWEALTH, a pivotal document in Canada's evolution to fully self-governing nationhood. The report declared that Britain and the Dominions of Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the Irish Free State were "autonomous Communities within the British Empire,
  • Old-age Pension Introduced

    The first old-age pension in 1927, an act of the federal parliament, was jointly financed by federal and provincial governments but administered by the latter, as pensions were considered a constitutional responsibility of the provinces at that time. It paid up to $20 per month, depending on other income and assets, and was available to British subjects 70 years of age and older with 20 years of residence in Canada. A strict means test was applied and was widely regarded as humiliating.
  • Persons Case

    Persons Case
    In 1928, the SUPREME COURT OF CANADA unanimously decided women were not "persons" who could hold public office as Canadian senators. The terms of the CONSTITUTION ACT, 1867, and the historical incapacity of women to hold office under common law barred the suit of Henrietta Muir EDWARDS and her companion Alberta suffragettes. In 1929 the British Privy Council reversed the decision and called the exclusion of women from public office "a relic of days more barbarous than ours."
  • Williams Wins Olympic Gold

    Williams Wins Olympic Gold
    Percy Alfred Williams, runner (b at Vancouver 19 May 1908; d there 29 Nov 1982). As a child Williams suffered from rheumatic fever, which left him with a damaged heart. But just a year out of high school, the 59 kg runner became the sensation of the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics, winning gold medals in the 100 and 200 m sprints against the fastest field ever assembled. He had previously tied the world mark of 9.6 seconds over 100 yards and, following the Olympics, clinched his domination of the world.
  • Women Legally Persons

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    Market Crash Ignities Depression

  • Second Stock Market Crash