SS11 Invergarry - Canada's Autonomy

  • POSITIVE | British North America Act

    POSITIVE | British North America Act
    This legislation, passed by the British Parliament, created Canada as a new, domestically self-governing federation, consisting of the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec, on July 1, 1867.
  • POSITIVE | Canadian Confederation

    Canadian Confederation (French: Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were federally united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
  • NEGATIVE | Indian Act

    NEGATIVE | Indian Act
    Since Canada was created in 1867, the federal government has been in charge of aboriginal affairs. The Indian Act, which was enacted in 1876 and has since been amended, allows the government to control most aspects of aboriginal life: Indian status, land, resources, wills, education, band administration and so on.
  • NEGATIVE | Chinese Immigration Act of 1885

    NEGATIVE | Chinese Immigration Act of 1885
    Every Chinese immigrant to Canada had to pay a head tax of $50 upon arrival. The act was meant to discourage Chinese people from entering Canada after the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The tax was increased from $50 to $100 in 1900, and to $500 in 1903
  • POSITIVE | First Canadian-born Prime Minister Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott

    POSITIVE | First Canadian-born Prime Minister Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott
    He was the first Prime Minister to be born in Canada. 
    He was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1857 re-elected in 1861 and 1863. 
    He was elected to the House of Commons in 1867, 1872 and 1874. 
    On 1891, Abbot inherited the conservative leadership.
    Abbot became Prime Minister on June 16, 1891 and resigned on Nov. 24, 1892. He later died in Montreal on Oct. 30, 1893.
  • NEGATIVE | Alaskan Panhandle Dispute

    NEGATIVE | Alaskan Panhandle Dispute
    The dispute was over the exact border of the Alaskan "panhandle," a strip of land running down the Pacific Coast between British Columbia and Alaska. The concern was particularly about who owned the fjord called the Lynn Canal. In 1903, the matter was finally settled. The British deteremined that the Lynn Canal was part of Alaska, not B.C. The decision angered many Canadians.
  • NEGATIVE | Naval Service Act

    NEGATIVE | Naval Service Act
    The Naval Service Act established the Royal Canadian Navy. The Act proposed a small navy under the control of the Canadian government, with emergency provision for transfer to the British Admiralty. Many French Canadians felt that Canada should not automatically support Britain in war. This created tension with English Canadians, most of whom felt they owed Britain their allegiance.
  • NEUTRAL | Canada and the First World War

    Although Canada had become a political union in 1867, Britain still controlled the foreign policy of all its dominions. This meant that when Britain declard war on Germany, Canada was automatically at war, along with the rest of the British Empire. But it was due to the war that Canada's autonomy began to reveal itself.
  • NEGATIVE | War Measures Act

    NEGATIVE | War Measures Act
    The Act gave the government the authority to control and intervene with the Canadian economy and the people's life. People could be detained and imprisoned if they are suspected to be an enemy alien, and freedom was lost.
  • POSITIVE | Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)

    POSITIVE | Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
    When Canadian troops arrived in England, the British assumed that, as a colonial army, they would be integrated into the larger British units, however, the CEF maintained its independence and fought as a separate unit, which contributed greatly to a growing sense of national identity and autonomy.
  • POSITIVE | The Battle of Ypres

    POSITIVE | The Battle of Ypres
    Many of Canadian troops died from the use of chlorine gas by the Germans. One of the doctors serving with the Canada Corps was Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae, who wrote the famous poem "In Flanders Fields" to commemorate Canadians serving at the Second battle of Ypres.
  • POSITIVE | The Battle of the Somme

    POSITIVE | The Battle of the Somme
    Despite failure and heavy losses against the Germany in this battle, Canadian troops distinguished themselves during the Battle of the Somme and were brought in to lead assults in several major battles overr the course of the war.
  • POSITIVE | The Battle of Vimy Ridge

    POSITIVE | The Battle of Vimy Ridge
    The Battle of Vimy Ridge would be the first time all four divisions of the Canadian Corps worked together as one formation. The planning and preparations for the battle were extensive. The Canadians were trained rigorously. While the battle itself did little to change the course of the war, it cemented the Canadians’ reputation as fierce attacking soldiers.
  • NEGATIVE | The Conscription Crisis

    In 1914, Canada did not need conscription, as enough men volunteered for service overseas. But, by 1917, the war’s unexpected length, the high number of casualties and labour shortages, especially on the farms, had contributed to Canada’s inability to maintain a volunteer army. On May 18, 1917, Prime Minister Borden retreated from his earlier promise to no conscription and introduced a conscription bill, the Military Services Act.
  • POSITIVE | The Battle of Passchendaele

    POSITIVE | The Battle of Passchendaele
    General Arthur Currie brought an increasingly independent Canadian point of view to the British war effort. Although the battle was a "victory" it was just as Currie predicted, the battle resulted in a large lost of casualties including more than 15000 Canadians.
  • POSITIVE | The Hundred Days Campaign

    POSITIVE | The Hundred Days Campaign
    With the arrivial of the Americans, the Allies raillied and were able to stop the German advance. In Aug 1918, they launched a series of attacks that became known as the "Hundred Days Campaign." Canada's offensives were among the most successful of all the Allied forces during this campaign.
  • POSITIVE | Paris Peace Conference

    POSITIVE | Paris Peace Conference
    Because Canada had contributed so much to the war and its soldiers had fought under Canadian leaders in the battlefield, PM Borden demanded Canada have its own seat at the conference. US President Woodrow Wilson opposed, but British PM Lloyd Geroge reminded Wilson that Canada had fought longer and supplied more troops than other countries.
  • POSITIVE | The Treaty of Versaille

    Canada won a seat at the Paris Peace Conference and signed the Treaty of Versaille. For the first time, Canada gained international recognition as an independent nation.
  • NEGATIVE | Winnipeg General Strike

    NEGATIVE | Winnipeg General Strike
    The Winnipeg general strike of 1919, although it failed, was one of the most famous and influential strikes in Canadian history.
  • POSITIVE | The League of Nations

    POSITIVE | The League of Nations
    The League was the idea of international cooperation for lasting peace. It was based on the principle of collective security. if one member came under attack all members united against the aggressor. As part of his struggle to be included in the Paris Peace Conference, PM Borden also won the right for Canada to become a member of the newly formed League.
  • POSITIVE | A Medical Breakthrough

    POSITIVE | A Medical Breakthrough
    Canadian physician Frederick Banting and medical student Charles H. Best, discovered insulin. This discovry continues to help milions of poeple sufering from diabetes. In 1923, Banting won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
  • POSITIVE | The Chanak Crisis

    The 1922 Chanak Affair was Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King's first major foreign policy test. Turkish forces were threatening British troops stationed in Turkey after the First World War. King declined to automatically provide Canada's military support to Britain – another step on the path to an independent Canadian voice in world affairs.
  • POSITIVE | The Halibut Treaty

    The Treaty is a Canadian-American agreement concerning fishing rights in the North Pacific Ocean, and the first treaty independently negotiated and signed by the Canadian government. Although Canada's right to negotiate commercial treaties was well established, the British wished to sign the convention along with Canada, as they always had. Prime Minister Mackenzie King argued that the matter was solely the concern of Canada and the US and did not agree to let the British sign.
  • NEGATIVE | Chinese Exclusion Act aka the Chinese Immigration Act

    NEGATIVE | Chinese Exclusion Act aka the Chinese Immigration Act
    The Act was meant to try and halt the Chinese immigration altogether. The act banned most forms of Chinese immigration to Canada except those under the following titles: Diplomat, Foreign student, "Special circumstance" granted by the Minister of Immigration. Chinese Canadians refer to this day as Humiliation Day.
  • POSITIVE | The King-Byng Crisis

    The King-Byng Affair was a 1926 Canadian constitutional crisis pitting the powers of a prime minister against the powers of a governor general. It began when Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King asked Governor General Lord Julian Byng of Vimy to dissolve Parliament and call fresh elections. Byng refused. It ended with King winning an eventual election, and no governor general ever again publicly refusing the advice of a prime minister.
  • POSITIVE | The Balfour Report

    The Balfour Report of 1926 declared that Britain and its Dominions were constitutionally equal to each other. It was a landmark document confirming Canada as a fully independent country, united with Britain and the other Dominions through the Commonwealth.
  • NEUTRAL | The Persons Case

    NEUTRAL | The Persons Case
    The Famous Five challenged PM King to appoint a woman senator and to clarify the definition of "persons." In 1928, the Supreme Court of Canada decided that women were not "persons" under the Canadian Constitution. Murphy and her associates appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Britain where they declared their support for women.
  • POSITIVE | Canada's Policy of Isolationism

    The First World War had nearly torn Canada in half on the issue of conscription, and Canadians had made many sacrifices in that overseas conflict. Throughout the events of the 1930s, Canada practiced isolationism, keeping out of affairs outside its borders. PM King did not want Canada to become involved in a another world conflict that had nothing to do with Canada, and the country was just slowly recovering from the Great Depressions. King did not want the country to plunge back into debt.
  • POSITIVE | Statute of Westminster

    The Statute of Westminster, of 11 December 1931, was a British law clarifying the powers of Canada's Parliament and those of the other Commonwealth Dominions. It granted these former colonies full legal freedom except in those areas where they chose to remain subordinate to Britain.
  • NEGATIVE | New Canadians during the Great Depression

    Canada previously supported immigration because it served the economic interest of Canada. During the Depression, however, immigrants were viewed with hostility when they competed for scarce jobs. Many immigrants who were already employed lost their jobs because they had been the last to be hired. By 1935, more than 28,000 immigrants were deported from Canada
  • NEGATIVE | Regina Riot

    NEGATIVE | Regina Riot
    A Riot that occurred when police attempted to clear On-to-Ottawa trekkers -by PM Bennett's orders- from a stadium in Regina. The result was one officer killed, many injured, and 130 men arrested.
  • NEGATIVE | On to Ottawa Trek

    NEGATIVE | On to Ottawa Trek
    A 1935 rail trip from Vancouver to Ottawa by unemployed men to protest conditions at employment relief camps
  • POSITIVE | CBC Radio

    POSITIVE | CBC Radio
    During the 1920s the Canadian National Railways (CNR) developed a radio network with stations in Ottawa, Montréal, Toronto, Moncton and Vancouver. Its schedule included concerts, comic opera, school broadcasts and historical drama, though by the end of 1929 it was still providing only three hours of programming a week nationally.
  • NEGATIVE | The SS St. Louis

    NEGATIVE | The SS St. Louis
    The SS St. Louis was a refugee ship carrying 907 Jewish passengers that had flee Germany. They tried to seek entry to United States and Canada, but they were rejected and not allowed to dock. The S.S. St. Louis sailed back to Europe and the Jewish passengers were all sent to concentration camps under Nazi Germany and were eventually killed.
  • POSITIVE | Canada Declares War on Germany

    POSITIVE | Canada Declares War on Germany
    On Sept 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Two days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany. Canada did not automatically go to war with Britain this time for Canada was an autonomous country with no such obligation. The decision to join the war was decided by Canada's Parliament.
  • POSITIVE | British Commonwealth Air Training Program (BCATP)

    POSITIVE | British Commonwealth Air Training Program (BCATP)
    PM King hoped that Canada's contributions to the war effort would be mostly supplies and training, rather than troops, to avoid conscription. Canada agreed to host and run the BCATP which trained more than 130,000 people.
  • NEGATIVE | The Battle of Hong Kong

    NEGATIVE | The Battle of Hong Kong
    After 18 days of bitter fighting, Hong Kong fell to the Japanese on what would be known as "Black Christmas." Every Canadian was either killed or taken prisoner. The Japanese treatment of Allied troops may have encouraged the anti-Japanese sentiment that culminated in the internment of Japanese Canadians.
  • NEGATIVE | The Dieppe Raid

    NEGATIVE | The Dieppe Raid
    The 1942 trial raid by Canadian troops against Germany's occupation of Dieppe; Canada suffered heavy losses.
  • POSITIVE | The Battle of Sicily

    Allied forces invaded Sicily. Once again, Canadians proved themselves to be fierce opponents. They fought Italian and German soldiers through 240 kilometers of mountainous terrain, losing 572 soldiers in the battle. The Allies captured the island after 38 days
  • POSITIVE | D-Day

    POSITIVE | D-Day
    The Allies launched a full-scale invasion of Europe called "Operation Overlord." Canada was one of the three forces, the others being the American forces and British forces.
  • POSITIVE | Battle of the Scheldt

    POSITIVE | Battle of the Scheldt
    Canadians were given a task of clearing enemy troops from the Scheldt River in Belgium. The river was important because it connected Antwerp to the North Sea. The Canadians achieved their goal after a month of bitter fighting, allowing the Allies to bring in supplies for their final advance into Germany.
  • NEUTRAL | The Cold War

    NEUTRAL | The Cold War
    The Cold War was tension and hostility between the communist Soviet Union and its allies and the capitalist United States and its allies. Canada aligned itself closely with US interest while trying to remain true to the goals and values of Canadians.
  • POSITIVE | Canada and the United Nations (UN)

    POSITIVE | Canada and the United Nations (UN)
    Canada played an important role in drafting the UN's Charter and has been a strong supporter of the UN since its creation. Canada has aided refugees from war or natural disasters in various countries. Canadian peacekeepers have been involved in almost every UN operations since the start of these missions in 1956.
  • POSITIVE | The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

    POSITIVE | The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
    Canada has been a consistently strong voice for the protection of human rights and the advancement of democratic values, from our central role in the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with Canadian John Humphrey as the leading author, to our work at the United Nations today.
  • POSITIVE | North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

    POSITIVE | North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    This political and military alliance is designed to promote the stability of the North Atlantic area and to safeguard the freedom of its peoples, based on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. Canada has been a member of North Atlantic Treaty Organization since its inception.
  • POSITIVE | The Massey Commission

    In response to the overwhelming influence of American tv programs over the Canadian population, the Massey Commission was established to investigate the state of Canadian culture.
  • POSITIVE | The Colombo Plan

    Colombo Plan for Co-operative Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia was established following a Jan 1950 meeting of COMMONWEALTH foreign ministers in Colombo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), to attack the poverty upon which communist political movements in Asia were thought to feed. Canada contributed in a number of ways like inviting overseas students to study in Canada and sent Canadian experts overseas to give technical assistance.
  • NEGATIVE | Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line

    NEGATIVE | Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line
    The DEW Line, and other radio stations, compromised Canadian sovereignty. For the first time, the US stationed military personnel in Canada, alarming many Canadians.
  • POSITIVE | North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD)

    POSITIVE | North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD)
    During the Cold War, a soviet attack would in all likelihood come over the arctic, across Canada and into the U.S. therefore, a new organization was to be formed between Canada and the United States to be known as NORAD. This was intended to be an integrated system of defensive measures, installations and systems that would provide early warning and protection to North America in case of an attack by the Soviet Union.
  • POSITIVE | The Canadian Bill of Rights

    POSITIVE | The Canadian Bill of Rights
    The Canadian Bill of Rights was introduced to protect a person\s fundamental human rights. Although Diefenbaker did not feel he had enough provincial support to make the Bill part of the Constitution. the fact that it had been passed by Parliament gave it considerable influence. Most of the rights protected by the Bill were included in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982.
  • POSITIVE | The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (the "Bi and Bi Commission")

    In 1963, PM Lester Pearson appointed the Bi and Bi Commission to investigate solutions. The Commission's report called for Canada to become bilingual, with English and French as its two official languages.
  • POSITIVE | Canada's New Flag

    POSITIVE | Canada's New Flag
    With many opinions back and forth, after hundreds of suggestions from across Canada, the red-and-white maple leaf design was chosen. On February 15, 1965, Canada's new flag was raised on Parliament Hill for the first time.
  • POSITIVE | Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)

    POSITIVE | Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)
    The CRTC was created in order to regulate the amount of foreign material being broadcasted and enforced rules requiring a minimum amount of Canadian content.
  • POSITIVE | The Bill C-150

    Also known as the Omnibus Bill, it made major changes in social legislation. These include recognizing the right of women to have access to contraception; recognizing the right to abortion; and legalizing homosexuality between consenting adults.
  • POSITIVE | The Official Languages Act

    When Pierre Trudeau Succeeded Pearson in 1968, his government passed the Official Languages Act making Canada officially bilingual.
  • NEGATIVE | The October Crisis

    NEGATIVE | The October Crisis
    The October Crisis (French: La crise d'Octobre) was a crisis that involved the kidnapping and murder of Pierre Laporte, a provincial cabinet minister, and the kidnapping and subsequent release of James Cross, a British diplomat, by members of the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ).
  • POSITIVE | The Bill-C84

    Bill C-84 passed in the House of Commons by a narrow margin (131-124), ending the death penalty. Although Bill C-84 did not have widespread public support, Trudeau and his Cabinet were determined that Canada should join other progressive nations and abolish capital punishment.
  • POSITIVE | The Constitution Act

    POSITIVE | The Constitution Act
    PM Pierre Trudeau and Queen Elizabeth II signed the new Act into law. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms forms the first thirty-five sections (counting Section 16.1 and not counting Section 35) of the Constitution Act. This was the last step towards making Canada a completely independent nation.
  • POSITIVE | Multiculturalism Act

    The multiculturalism policy allows citizens to practice their religions and keep their identities without the fear of persecution. As a result, the policy believes that without this fear, Canadians would be more willing to accept different cultures. The policy, therefore, emphasizes a mutual respect between ethnicities and also acceptance of one’s personal beliefs.
  • POSITIVE | Asian-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC)

    POSITIVE | Asian-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC)
    When Chretien came to power, one of his priorities was to expand Canada's trading opportunities so he joined APEC to promote freer trade and growth with the Pacific Rim countries as well as signing free trade agreements with Chile and Israel.