British History

  • Period: 1509 to 1547

    Reign of Henri VIII

    He became a king at the age of 17 and is the son of the 1st Tudor King : Henri VII
  • Oct 31, 1517

    95 Theses

    95 Theses
    The idea is that God's grace (forgiveness), and therefore access to Paradise, is made possible only by faith and not by indulgences.
  • 1526

    The Tyndale Bible

    The Tyndale Bible
    Written by William Tyndale, the Tyndale Bible is the first English translation of the New Testament.
  • 1533

    Act of Restraint of Appeals

    It gave the King the legal power to annul marriages
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    This text founded the Anglican Church and made King Henry VIII the sole and supreme head of the Church.
  • Period: 1536 to 1537

    Pilgrimage of Grace

    The Pilgrimage of Grace was a major rebellion, a response against the English Reformation and dissolution of the monasteries but there were also economic and political causes.
  • Period: 1545 to 1563

    Council of Trent

    The Council of Trent was a conference held by Catholic clergy to reform abuses and errors in the Church and affirm traditional Church teachings and authority.
  • Period: 1547 to 1553

    Reign of Edward VI

    Son of Henri VIII and Jane Seymour, he unfortunately died at 15 from tuberculosis.
  • Jan 15, 1549

    The Book of the Common Prayer

    The Book of the Common Prayer
    It is the fundamental book describing all the prayers, formulas and worship practices of the churches of the Anglican Communion.
  • 1553

    The Poor Laws

    The Poor Laws
    This established the idea that central and local governments had a responsibility for helping the poor.

    They were passed in 1533, 1597 and 1601.
  • Period: 1553 to 1558

    Reign of Mary I

    Also known as "Bloody Mary", she restored Catholicism in 18 months and repealed the Protestant legislation of
    her father and half-brother.
  • Period: 1555 to 1558

    Bloody Mary

    It was a period under Mary's reign, where protestants were persecuted, over 200 of them went to stake.
  • Period: 1558 to

    Reign of Elizabeth I

    Known as the "Virgin Queen", she was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She had secured the position of
    England in the world and imposed Protestantism.
  • 1559

    Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    In order to regulate the form of worship in the Church of England and also, every people had to use the book of the Common Prayer.
  • 1559

    Act of Supremacy

    Under Elizabeth's reign, she made another organisation of the Church :
    - abolished the authority of the Pope
    - restored the authority of the Queen over the Church
    - She became “Supreme Governor of the Church of England”
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    The 39 articles of faith

    It is a doctrine with 3 important changes :
    - a new ecclesiology (conception of the Church)
    - a new doctrine of Salvation (doctrine du salut)
    - a new definition of sacraments and of the mass
  • 1569

    The Northern Rebellion

    The Northern Rebellion
    It was an attempt led by the Earls of Westmorland and Northumberland in order to replace Queen Elizabeth by Mary, Queen of Scots.
  • 1571

    The Treason Act

    The Treason Act
    This text was written in response to the Papal Bull of Pope Pius V.
    Any person that said that Elizabeth I was not the legitimate true queen of England and Wales was considered as a "treason".
  • Feb 25, 1571

    Papal Bull " Regnan in Excelsis "

    Papal Bull " Regnan in Excelsis "
    Written by the Pope Pius V, this text was written to officially excommuniate the Queen Elizabeth I
  • 1581

    The 1581 Act

    The 1581 Act
    It was an act to retain the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects in
    their due Obedience. It provided for the death penalty for any person converting, or already converted to Catholicism. It was now forbidden to participate or celebrate the
    Catholic Mass and Anglican services were compulsory: £20 per month fine.
  • The Babington Plot

    The Babington Plot
    Young Catholics had sworn to kill Elizabeth and put Mary Stuart on the throne but their strategies were discovered by Francis Walsingham, when he managed to decipher a coded letter between Marie Stuart and this group.
  • Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

    Execution of Mary Queen of Scots
    She was executed in Fotheringham Castle, wearing a bright red dress, the colour of Catholic martyrs.
  • Speech to the troops at Tilbury

    Speech to the troops at Tilbury
    The queen made this speech in Tilbury, Essex, in order to rally
    the troops who were preparing to repel the invasion of the
    Spanish Armada
  • The Defeat of the Spanish Armada

    The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
    The Invincible Armada, the fleet chartered by Philip II of Spain to conquer the England of Elizabeth I, suffered a crushing defeat.
  • East India Company

    East India Company
    It was a society that allowed England to control the trade of luxury goods like spices, cotton, silk and tea, from India to China.
  • Period: to

    Reign of King James I of England

  • The Gunpowder Plot

    The Gunpowder Plot
    It was a conspiracy devised by a small group of Catholics to blow up the Parliament and kill James I.
  • Establishment of Jamestown in Virginia

    Establishment of Jamestown in Virginia
    One of the first English colony in North America
  • Period: to

    The Starving Time

    It was a period of starvation, caused by an insufficient growing of crops, shortage of drinkable water, conflicts with the Native Powhatan tribe.
  • Great Contract

    Great Contract
    It was a financial reform where the King would receive a fixed sum in order to get rid of his debt.
  • King James' Bible

    King James' Bible
    New English translation of the Bible
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    The Thirty Years' War, a series of wars fought by European nations for various reasons, ignited in 1618 over an attempt by the king of Bohemia (the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II) to impose Catholicism throughout his domains.
  • Period: to

    Reign of King Charles I

  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    The Members of Parliament requested the King to recognize the illegality of extra parliamentary taxation, billeting, martial law, imprisonment without trial. They wanted to get Charles to recognise that there were limits to his powers.
  • The Three Resolutions

    The Three Resolutions
    The MP's declared whoever tried to bring in « Popery of Arminianism » or to alter the protestant forms of the Church of England was an enemy of the Kingdom.
    As well as anyone advising the King to collect custom duties without Parliament’s consent.
  • Period: to

    Personal Rule

    After the Three Resolutions, the King Charles had declared there would be no more parliaments, and that for eleven years.
  • The case of Burton, Prynne and Bastwick

    The case of Burton, Prynne and Bastwick
    These 3 men were put in pillory and their eyes were cutted off because they had written pamphlets against the Arminian arcbishop Laud.
  • New Prayer Book

    New Prayer Book
    Known as Laud’s Liturgy, it was published in Edinburgh in 1637. The king ordered it used in all Scottish churches. 
  • Period: to

    The Scottish crisis

    During the 1630s, Charles tried to harmonise the administration of the churches of England and Scotland by forcing through Archbishop Laud's episcopalian reforms without consulting either the clergy or the Scottish parliament.
  • The Scottish National Covenant

    The Scottish National Covenant
    It rejected the attempt by King Charles I and William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, to force the Scottish church to conform to English liturgical practice and church governance.
  • Treaty of Ripon

    Treaty of Ripon
    It is the peace Treaty that ended the Bishop's War between Charles I of England and the Scots.
  • Period: to

    The Short Parliament

    It was called by King Charles I in order to ask for money concerning the Bishops' War. It was dissolved 3 weeks later.
  • Period: to

    The Long Parliament

    This new Parliament was called after the Treaty of Ripon.
  • The Militia Act

    The Militia Act
    The army should be placed under the control of a general appointed by Parliament.
  • Grand Remonstrance

    Grand Remonstrance
    A document that lists all of Charles I wrong doing :
    - the right of the House of commons to choose the King's minister
    - the right of Parliament to control any army sent to Ireland
    - the right for Parliament to reform the Church
  • The Irish Rebellion

    The Irish Rebellion
    It was an armed conflitc, opposing Irish Catholics to Protestant settlers after the plantation policy of King James I of England, in order to take Catholics lands.
    It ended with 3000 to 4000 protestants massacred.
  • War against Parliament

    King Charles I declared war against the Parliament after they wanted him to be a constitutional monarch.
  • Period: to

    The First Civil War

    War against the Royalists and Parliamentarians that would cost the live of 190 000 Englishmen.
  • The New Model Army

    The New Model Army
    created by the Parliamentarians, it was a new kind of army.
  • Battle of Naseby

    Battle of Naseby
    The battle of Naseby is considered one of the most important battles in the English Civil War.Parliamentarian New Model Army took on the Royalist army of King Charles I.
  • Agreement of the People

    Agreement of the People
    This document was made by the Army. They proposed among other things freedom of worship, equality for all men under the law
  • Pride's purge

    Pride's purge
    Colonel Pride entered the House of Commons to arrest 45 conservative leader MPs. They wanted the King to be tried.
  • Period: to

    The Second Civil War

    The King Charles I allies himself with Scotland which surprised the Parliament, and led to a 2nd Civil War.
    The Royalists were defeated by Cromwell.
  • England as a Commonwealth

    England as a Commonwealth
    Monarchy and House of Lords were abolished, now England is considered as a Commonwealth.
  • Period: to

    The Commonwealth

    England was governed without a King.
  • Period: to

    The Interregnum

    It was between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of his son Charles II in 1660.
    It was a period of experiments.
  • Execution of King Charles I

    Execution of King Charles I
    Charles was convicted of treason and executed on 30 January 1649 outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall.
  • Blasphemy Act

    Blasphemy Act
    The Quaker James Nayle imitated the Christ's entry to Jerusalem and was harshly punished.
  • Defeat of the Scottish Army leading by Charles II

    Defeat of the Scottish Army leading by Charles II
    Charles II, son of Charles I wanted to invade England, but he was defeated by Cromwell and then escaped.
  • The Instrument of Government

    The Instrument of Government
    England's first and only written Constitution.
  • The dissolution of the Rump Parliament

    The dissolution of the Rump Parliament
    The Rump Parliament is what remains of the British Long Parliament after the Pride purge of December 6, 1648.
    It had been dissolved by Cromwell and then replaced by the "Barebones Parliament" (dissolved as well)
  • Period: to

    The Cromwellian Protectorate

    It was a military dictatorship led by Cromwell. He appointed himself as the "Lord Protector"
  • Declaration of Breda

    Declaration of Breda
    Issued by Charles II, it promised :
    - a general amnesty (pardon)
    - to continue religious toleration
    - share power with Parliament Only in return for the restoration of monarchy.
  • Period: to

    Early Restoration

    Restauration of the King.
  • Period: to

    Clarendon Code

    The Clarendon Code was a series of four legal statutes passed between 1661-1665 which effectively re-established the supremacy of the Anglican Church after the interlude of Cromwell's Commonwealth
  • The Popish Plot

    The Popish Plot
    Rumour of plot organised by the French to murder Charles II and replace him by his Catholic brother James II
  • Period: to

    The Exclusion Crisis

    Parliament attempted to debar James II from the succession to the English throne.
  • Period: to

    Glorious Revolution

    It was a peaceful revolution (1688-1689) that overthrew King James II and brought about the accession of his daughter, Mary II and her husband, William of Orange
  • Toleration Act

    Toleration Act
    Established religious pluralism, and freedom of worship for all Protestants.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    Lists King James' misdeeds and fixed limitations :
    - Parliament had to consent to new laws
    - Parliament gained control over finances and over the army
  • Act of Settlement

    Act of Settlement
    The main aim of this legislation was to ensure a Protestant succession to the English throne.
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    Creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain : England and Scotland