Emma P British history timeline

  • Period: Apr 22, 1509 to Jan 28, 1547

    Henry VIII reign

    Henry VIII was one of the most famous and emblematic English kings mostly because he had 6 wives, he divorced two, and had two others beheaded. Under his reign the church of England separated from the Roman catholic Church , which led to major religious and political transformations.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    The Ninety-five Theses

    The Ninety-five Theses
    The doctrine of purgatory and the indulgences in the Catholics Church in the 16th century were contested issue, which were denounced by Martin Luther a German monk, professor of theology, to do so he wrote the ninety five theses in 1517 and nailed it on the door of the university of Wittenberg
  • 1526

    Publication of Tyndale Bible

    Publication of Tyndale Bible
    In 1526 William Tyndale translated the new testament into English, the Tyndale Bible was created, after its publication William Tyndale was persecuted.
  • Nov 3, 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    The 1534 act of supremacy made the king Henry VIII “supreme head of the church of England”.
    This date marked the schism between England and the Roman Catholic Church. It diminished the authority and powers of the pope and the clergy and transferred it to the king.
  • Period: 1536 to 1537

    Pilgrimage of grace

    The pilgrimage of grace is rebellions in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, held by the common people, the gentry and clergy, catholics who had economic grievances and demanded the restoration of the pope and of Mary Tudor to the royal succession. They were the greatest rebellions ever faced by a Tudor monarch, they lasted 6 months between 1536 and 1537, and were brutally repressed.
  • Period: 1547 to 1553

    Edward VI the young king reign

    Edward the VI was known as the young king, he was only 9 when is father died, and had a short reign.
    During which he passed a series of measures that pushed England towards protestantism.
  • Jan 15, 1549

    The Book of Common Prayer

    The Book of Common Prayer
    The publication of the Book of Common Prayer in 1549 is a result of the revisions of the mass-book, it marked an important stage in the reform of the Church of England.
  • Period: 1553 to 1558

    Mary I reign and the Catholic restoration

    Mary the I became the first Queen regnant of England at 37 years old she was the daughter of Henry the VIII and Catherine of Aragon, during her short reign she restored Catholicism in 18 months and repealed the Protestant legislation, she was not a liked queen and her popularity declined rapidly until her death in 1558.
  • Period: 1555 to 1558

    Bloody Mary

    Bloody Mary can be defined as a period of Mary I reign between 1555 and 1558 were protestantism was confined to secretly as heretics were burned, under her reign over 200 protestant went to the stake and burnt alive
    Protestants were forced to leave the country and fled to the Continent: the “Marian exiles”.
  • Period: Nov 17, 1558 to

    Elizabeth the I reign

    Elizabeth the I had a long reign associated with the idea of a golden age for the country. She stayed in power for 45 years and had to appease religious tensions after 25 years of religious change, while also prove her legitimacy as Queen. She never got married, stabilised the church of England thanks to the religious settlement by giving it principles that still exist today, She expanded England’s influence in Europe and in the world and reinforced England’s independence.
  • Period: 1559 to 1563

    The Elizabethan religious settlement

    The Elizabethan religious settlement is a middle way a “via media” between Protestantism and Catholicism. Elizabeth the I wanted to return to Protestantism, but she knew that a settlement was necessary for the sake of national unity, to maintain an alliance with Catholic Spain against France and not to alienate her subjects.
  • Feb 1, 1559

    Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy
    The 1559 Act of Supremacy is a new legislation about the church organisation which abolished the authority of the pope and restored the authority of the Queen over the Church. She became the “supreme governor of the Church of England.
  • Mar 1, 1559

    Act of Uniformity

    Act of Uniformity
    The Act of Uniformity touches the religious belief, after 1559 every parish had to use the book of common Prayer, and people who did not attend an Anglican service were fined.
  • Period: 1563 to 1571

    The 39 articles of faith

    The 39 articles of faith, still in use today stated the doctrine or religious belief of the Church.
    There is 3 important changes a new ecclesiology, a new doctrine of Salvation and a new definition of the sacraments and of the mass.
  • 1569

    The Northern Rebellion

    The Northern Rebellion
    The Northern Rebellion took place in 1569, 6000 insurgents rise up against religious reforms, it was an attempt to replace the Queen Elizabeth by Mary, Queen of Scots, but the revolt led by the Earls of Westmorland and Northumberland was crushed.
  • 1570

    Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth the I

    Pope Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth the I
    The pope’s hostility to the Elizabethan religious settlement was growing he instructed English Catholics not to attend Anglican church services
    In 1570 Pope Pius V issued the papal bull where he called Elizabeth the I “the so-called queen” and “a heretic favouring heretics”, and more importantly excommunicated Elizabeth almost giving Catholics licence to kill her, which wouldn’t be seen as a crime by Rome.
  • 1571

    The 1571 Treason Act

    The 1571 Treason Act
    The excommunication of Elizabeth the I, by the Pope Pius V led to the 1571 Treasons act, which made it a treason for anyone to say that Elisabeth was not true queen of England and Wales.
  • 1581

    The 1581 Act

    The 1581 Act
    The 1581 Act provided for the death penalty for any person converting or already converted to Catholicism

    It led to the death of 163 people during the 26 years of repression, it was forbidden to attend or celebrate Catholic mass, Anglican services were compulsory or a fine of £20 per month was imposed.
  • The Babington plot

    The Babington plot
    At least 8 known plots against Elizabeth the 1 were organised by Catholics, the most known is the Babington plot of 1586: young Catholics had sworn to kill Elizabeth and put Mary Stuart on the throne with her complicity, which lead to her execution in 1587, but the plot was discovered by Francis Walsingham when he managed to decipher a coded letter between Mary Stuart and this group.
  • The execution of Mary Queen of Scots

    The execution of Mary Queen of Scots
    Mary Queen of Scots, represented a threat to Elizabeth the I: she was her legitimate heir, a catholic close to France and Spain and represented a hope to a return to Catholicism, she was imprisoned for 19 years because many plots were about replacing Elizabeth the I with her until her execution in 1587 for treason in Fotheringham castle wearing a bright red dress, the color of Catholic martyrs.
  • The Defeat of the Spanish Armada

    The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
    In 1588 the king of Spain: Philip II the catholic attempted to invade England, because Elizabeth the I supported the cause of Protestantism and so the Dutch revolt against Spain. England was victorious, it had a material and human advantage: under Elizabeth a modern fleet of 88 ships was constructed, they invented a new strategy line battle and use incendiary ships.
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    James I reign

    Strong believer in the divine rights of
    kings. James I reign resulted in huge tension with the parliament and also finance and religion issues.
  • The Gunpowder plot

    The Gunpowder plot
    A small group of Catholics plot to blow up
    Parliament and kill James I with 36 barrels of gunpowder.
  • establishment of Jamestown in Virginia

    establishment of Jamestown in Virginia
    Named after James I, Jamestown is the first English colonies formed in North America and also the first permanent settlement.
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    The Thirty Years’ War

    To help her daughter the wife of the elector Palatine James I asked parliament to provide money to get involved in the war. He died at the beginning of the conflict and his son Charles I led the war.
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    Charles I reign

    The reign of Charles I was characterised by tensions with Parliament over financial and political issues, culminating in the English Civil War in 1642. Charles I was the victim of the first regicide in England in 1649.
  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    The Petition of Right was a political document issued in 1628 during the reign of Charles I in England. This petition aimed to put an end to abuses of power, and forced the king to admit the illegality of extra-
    parliamentary taxation, billeting, martial law, imprisonment without trial
  • Three Resolutions

    Three Resolutions
    is an open act of defiance against the King by members of Parliament, this text declared that anyone trying to establish a religion other than Protestantism or advising the King to collect customs duties.
    king to collect customs duties without the consent of Parliament was an enemy of the Realm
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    The Personal Rule

    Or as historians call it “The Eleven Years Tyranny”, is the period where Charles I ruled without calling a parliament
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    The Scottish crisis

    The Scottish crisis that led to the Bishops' Wars was provoked by King Charles I's attempt in 1637 to align the Church of Scotland with the Church of England, i.e. Calvinism and Anglicanism, which gave rise to enormous public discontent.
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    The Grand Remonstrance
    This text was presented to the English Parliament in 1641, during the reign of Charles I. Drafted by MPs opposed to the King's policies, it summarised the King's misdeeds, including the right of the House of Commons to choose the King's ministers, the right of Parliament to control any army sent to Ireland and the right to reform the Church.
    Its adoption exacerbated tensions between Parliament and the King, leading to the English Civil War in 1642.
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    The Irish Rebellion

    The Irish Rebellion is an armed revolt that took place in october 1641 Irish Catholic rebels rose up against Protestant settlers which lead to the Massacre of 3 000/4 000 protestants
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    England civil war

    The English Civil War pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the Parliamentary forces, who were divided over political, religious and economic issues. The Cavaliers supported the King, while the Parliamentarians, or roundheads, sought to limit his power. The war resulted in the capture and execution of Charles I in 1649, giving way to the republican period led by Oliver Cromwell until the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.
  • Charles Ideclared war on Parliament

    Charles Ideclared war on Parliament
    Charles I believed that 5 members of parliament were plotting against the Queen. He wanted to impeach them, but Parliament refused. The King then sent troops into the House of Commons and tried to arrest the 5 members of the parliament.
    The Parliament then presented the 19 Propositions to the King, in response On 22 August 1642, Charles formally declared war on Parliament. He left London for York fearing for his life.
  • England is declared a Commonwealth

    England is declared a Commonwealth
    The proclamation of England as a Commonwealth took place in 1649 after the execution of Charles I. Led by Oliver Cromwell, the Commonwealth was established as a republic, abolishing the monarchy. This period was marked by political, social and religious reforms, and was followed by the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.
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    The Interregnum

    refers to the period between 2 reigns, between 2 kings
    It was a time of many experiments with republican forms of government.
  • King Charles I execution

    King Charles I execution
    Charles I was executed on 30 January 1649 following his trial by the English Parliament where he was accused of treason and tyranny. His beheading was the first regicide in English history.
  • end of the Commonwealth and start of the Protectorate

    end of the Commonwealth and start of the Protectorate
    The Commonwealth of England came to an end in 1660 with the Restoration of the Monarchy. Richard Cromwell was unable to maintain political stability. As a result, Parliament invited Charles II, son of the executed Charles I, to return from exile, re-establishing the monarchy.
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    The Cromwellian Protectorate

    The Protectorate was a military dictatorship led by Oliver between 1653 and 1658, with Cromwell assuming the title of Lord Protector, exercising quasi-monarchical power. However, this period was marked by political tensions and criticism, and on Cromwell's death, the monarchy was restored.
  • The Restoration

    The Restoration
    The Restoration, which took place in 1660, marked the return of the monarchy to England after the period of the Commonwealth. Charles II, the executed son of Charles I, was invited by Parliament to return from exile to become King. This put an end to the Commonwealth and restored political stability after nearly 7 governments in 1 year and consequent anarchy in England.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    The Glorious Revolution happened in 1688 with the overthrow of the Catholic King James II. Parliament invited William and James II's daughter Mary to rule jointly, establishing constitutional principles and reinforcing parliamentary supremacy.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights
    It was put in place after the Glorious Revolution to Fix limitations on the sovereign's powers. The Declaration affirms the rights of Parliament, and basic civil rights It helped consolidate the parliamentary system and lay the foundations for individual rights in British government. and inspired Model for the US Bill of rights.
  • The Act of Settlement

    The Act of Settlement
    This act established the rules of succession to the British throne. It excluded Catholics from the succession and favoured Protestants.
  • Act of Union between England and Scotland

    Act of Union between England and Scotland
    The Act of Union between England and Scotland, passed in 1707, united the two kingdoms to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. This meant a common Parliament and equality of laws and civil rights. Scotland kept its Presbyterian church and own laws.
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    American War of Independence

    The American War of Independence was a conflict between the Thirteen American Colonies and Great Britain. The colonists were seeking independence, the result for Britain was the loss of all its American colonies.
  • Acts of Union 1800

    Acts of Union 1800
    The Act of Union of 1801 united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It created a single parliament for both entities and established a political union between them.