bristish civilisation

  • Period: 1509 to 1547

    Henry VIII's Reign

    Son of Henri VII, Henri VIII became king when he was only 17 years old. He's one of the most famous and emblematic kings of England.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther

    Martin Luther
    He pailed at an university his ninety-fives theses which denounced the church which abused of the people credulity by taking their money (indulgences.). For him, salvation was free.
  • 1526

    The Tyndale Bible

    The Tyndale Bible
    William Tyndale published the Tyndale Bible in England, it is the New testament in English.
  • 1529

    The Pope refused Henri VIII's divorce

    The king was married to Catherine of Aragon but after 10 years of living together, the king claimed to the Pope his benediction to divorce with his wife. For him, this marriage as an impact on his conscience because she was the ex wife of his brother, so his marriage was doomed. In spite this reasons, the Pope rejected Henry VIII proposition
  • 1533

    Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn

    Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn
    Henry VIII married the woman he loved Anne Boleyn. The same year he created an act:
    • Act in Restraint of Appeals who gave him the legal power to annul marriages
  • 1534

    Act of Supremacy

    The King was made "Supreme Head of the Church of England" and created the "schism" which is the separation of the English Church with the Roman Catholic Church.That was mostly a political move that changed everything in England. All the powers of the Pope and the Clergy were now to the King, he destroyed all monasteries of the country because for him they were "bastions of popery". In 1537, the permission was given for having an English Bible and not a Latin one.
  • Period: 1547 to 1553

    Edward VI's reign

    He's Henri VIII's son and became king of England when he was very young after the death of his father. He died at 15 years old from tuberculosis
  • 1549

    Book of Common Prayer

    As a fiercely protestant, Edward VI published the "Book of Common prayer" and eradicated roman catholic practices.
  • Period: 1549 to

    The Commonwealth

    Monarchy and House of Lords abolished, England was declared a Commonwealth, a republic.
  • Period: 1553 to 1558

    Mary I's reign

    Mary I also known as "Bloody Mary" became the Queen of England after her little brother. As a catholic she restored catholicism in only 18 months in England.
  • Period: 1554 to 1558

    The Crowellian Protectorate

    The Protectorate was a military Dictatorship Similar to a monarchy without a King. Cromwell was the Lord Protector, he had executive powers, controled the army and ruled with the help of the legislatives power
  • Period: 1555 to 1558

    Bloody Mary

    Bloody periodt where 200 protestants have went to the stake and have been forced to leave the country, we called them the "marian exiles"
  • Period: 1558 to

    Elizabeth's I reign

    Elizabeth succeded her half sister Mary I. She is known as the "Virgin Queen" for being an unmarried queen, she was an important figure in the English History. Her priority when she arrived at the throne was to pacify the tensions between Protestants and Catholic so she decided to create a middle way: The Anglican church regrouping protestant and catholic elements.
  • Period: 1567 to

    James I's reign

    He was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was proclaimed king of Scotland in 1567 and was crowned king of England in 1603 after Elizabeth's death. James I is a strong believer in the divine rights of kings
  • 1569

    Nothern Rebellion

    Nothern Rebellion
    It is a rebellion against the religious reform led by The Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland regrouping 6000 insurgents that tried to replace Elizabeth I by Mary, Queen of Scots
  • 1570

    Pope's papal bull

    Pope's papal bull
    This is a text from the Pope where he called Elizabeth "the so-queen" and excommunicated her. He almost gave to Catholics the licence to kill her. She responded in 1571 in a Treason act who made it treason for anyone saying that she wasn't the real Queen.
  • The Babington Plot

    The Babington Plot
    It was a plan made by some catholics, they wanted to kill Elizabeth I, who was Protestant, and replaced her by her cousin Mary Stuart who was Catholic
  • The execution of Mary Queen of Scots

    The execution of Mary Queen of Scots
    After being emprisonned during 19 years by her cousin Elizabeth I, Mary Stuart was executed in a red dress color of catholic martyrs after the discovery of a plot named The Babington Plot found by Francis Walshingham in 1586 who consisted to kill Elizabeth I in order to put Mary at the throne and bring back Roman Catholicism in England.
  • The Defeat of the Spanish Armada

    The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
    As a Catholic, Philip I supported plots against Elizabeth. The Queen supported The dutch revolt against Spain. The king of Spain tried to invade in England but it has been a total defeat. English sailors were more, their ships were better than spanish ones, they had a new strategy: line strategy and used Dutch strategy of incendiary ships. All of these led to England victory and showed the extraordinary qualities of the Queen which was often sidelined because of her mother and her gender.
  • The gunpowder plot

    The gunpowder plot
    When James I came to the throne, catholics were happy because as the son of Queen Mary, he'll bring back Catholicism in England. But instead he continued Elizabeth's harsh repressive laws, this led to a plot created by a group of Catholics in order to blow up the Parliament and kill James I
  • Etablishment of Jamestown in Virginia

    Etablishment of Jamestown in Virginia
    It was the first permanent settlement of England (and was named after James I)
  • Period: to

    The Starving Time

    This periodt was a periodt of starvation, only 60 of the 500 colonists survived. It was due to the insufficient growing of crops, conflicts with the Native Powhatan tribe and the lack of water. A lot of settlers turned into cannibalism to survive.
  • the 'Great Contract'

    This contract was the centrepiece of the financial reform. In this contract, the King would receive a fixed sum. The problem is that the House of Commons refused to vote in favour of this contract because they were sure that James would not need to call up parliaments anymore to get money. James decided to dimisse Parliament.
  • Period: to

    The thirty year's war

    To make peace between Protestants and Catholics, James arranged for his daughter Elizabeth Stuart to marry a Protestant prince of a part of Germany called the Palatine. The cause of this war is that the Elector Palatin was invited to take the throne of protestant Bohemia instead of The Emperor Ferdinand Habsburg. Angry, the Emperor, supported by the Catholics, sent his army. As a protestant power England intervened in the war in order to help Elizabeth and her husband.
  • Period: to

    King Charles I

    Charles I succeded James I, he believed in the divine rights of Kings, according to him, he interpreted all criticism as a challenge to his authority. Charles I was married to The french princess Henrietta Maria who was Catholic. The King favoured a minority wings of Anglicans: Arminians
  • Petition of Rights

    Petition of Rights
    MP's requested the King to recognise the illegality of extra- parliamentary taxation, billeting, martial law, imprisonment without trial . They wanted to get Charles to recognise that there were limits to his powers. Charles signed it but was furious and decided to suspend parliament seating
  • Three Resolutions

    Here are the resolutions:
    Whoever tried to bring in "Popery or Arminianism" or to alter the protestant forms of the Church of England was an enemy of the Kingdom. As well as anyone advising the King to collect custom dulties without Parliament's consent.

    After hearing these resolutions, Charles I dissolved Parliament and declared the begining of the "Personal Rule"
  • Period: to

    The Personal Rule

    Also called 'The Eleven years Tyranny', he Personal Rule lasted11 years, the king ruled without calling a parliament. Archbishops Laud (Arminian) was determined to impose uniformity in church practice: importance of sacrements, sign of the cross; bowing at the name of Jesus, changes the location of the altar in churches. A lot of Protestants saw this like a return to Catholicism
  • Period: to

    The Scottish crisis

    Since 1603 Scotland and England share the same monarch, even if the two countries were still independants kingdoms for the next 100 years. Scotland was Calvinist but in 1637 King Charles I attempted to draw the Church of Scotland into line with the Church of England (Anglican). This created a public discontent, in 1637 Scottish opposition came to the boil when Charles I tried to impose a New Prayer Book in their country. The bishop's war started, The Scots invaded England and won.
  • The Long Parliament

    The 1640 Parliament was determined to remedy 11 years of grievances and wanted to ensure regular parliaments. They passed 2 acts ensuring that: Parliament should meet at least every 3 years and the dissolution of Parliament required its consent. Parliament executed Earl Stafford, one of the King's most powerful advisers
  • Militia Act

    The army should be placed under the control of a general appointed by Parliament.
  • The Irish Rebellion

    The Irish Rebellion
    James I had implemented a platantation policy, sending English and Scottish protestant colonists to Ireland in order to take the lands of Irish Catholics. During this rebellion, Irish Catholics massacred 3000/4 000 protestants
  • The Grand Remonstrance

    An important document voted by Parliament after healed debates. It summarized all the wrongg doing of Charles I and concluded on "revolutionary" demands:
    The right of the House of Commons to choose the King's ministers.
    The right of Parliament to control any army sent to Ireland
    The right for Parliament to reform the Church The text divided Parliament into groups/ Parliamentarians who agree with this document and Royalists who wanted a negociated settlement with the King
  • Charles I marched into the House of Commons

    He marched into the House of Commons with troops and arrested 5 MP's
  • Charles declared war on Parliament

  • Period: to

    The First Civil War

    The first civial war would cost the lives of 190 000 Englishemen opposing two clans: the Royalists and the Paliamentarians .On June 1645 The Battle of Naseby was a turning point and saw the Royalist forces weaken. In May 1646 The King and the Royalists surrended, Parliament won.
  • A new Model Army

    Thinking the war was over, the House of Commons decided to disband the New Model Army but without paying the soldiers what they were due, this led to the creation of the New Model Army who wanted to seize the King
  • The King's escape and his alliance with Scotland

    The King escaped from army custody and allied himself with the Scots, he promised to introduce Presbyterianism/ Calvinism into England, in return The Scottish army would invade England and restore him on the throne
  • Pride's Purge

    Pride's Purge
    Colonel Pride entered the House of Commons, stopped the vote and arrested 45 conservative leader MP's
  • Period: to

    The second civil war

    After that they knew the King's alliance with the Scots, Parliament led to the Second Civil War. It was made of a series of revolts in the South of England, Wales and Scotland, the Royalists were easily defeated by Cromwell
  • Period: to

    The Second Civil War

    In 1647, the king escaped and asked an alliance with the scotts, he promised to bring Calvinist in England, but Scotland had to help him to be back on the throne. The war started and was located in the South of England, Wales and Scotland. It only lasted a few months (January- Autumn 1648), royalists were defeated by Cromwell. The army wanted to put him on the trial but MP's wanted to find a middle way. This led to the Pride Purge
  • Creation of the Commonwealth

    After the death of Charles I, monarchy and the House of Lord were abolished, England was declared a Commonwealth, a republic.
  • Period: to

    The interregnum

    It is a periodt between 2 reigns, 2 kings
  • King Charles I's death

    King Charles I was executed on 30 January 1649 starting the Interregnum
  • Blasphemy Act

    Blasphemy was forbidden, The Quaker James Nayler who imitated Christ’s entry into Jerusalem was harshly punished. Quakers: a protestant sect, denied that the Bible was the word of God
  • The instrument of Government

    The instrument of Government
    England's first and only written constitution
  • Dissolution of the Ramp

    Dissolution of the Ramp
    Cromwell dissolved the Rump and ordered the MPs to leave
  • Period: to

    The Crowellian Protectorate

    Military dictatorship led by Cromwell
  • Cromwell's death

    When he died, his son Richard became Lord Protector but resigned after 6 months, this led to a period of Anarchy
  • Charles II and the declaration of Breda

    Charles II and the declaration of Breda
    In this declaration Charles II declared a general amnesty, he promised to continue religious toleration and to share power with Parliament, in return, Parliament should accept the restoration of monarchy
  • Period: to

    The Early Restoration

    When he became king, Charles II brought back monarchy in the country. He wanted to revenge his father's death so he decided to execute the first 100 hundred people who signed to the petition for his father's execution. Then he took Cromwell's body from his tomb and dismembered this one, putting his head on a spike in Westminster for 25 years
  • outbreak of plague

    outbreak of plague
    This was a massive disease that contaminate a lot of people, killing 7000 persons a week. It came from fleas that were in rats ('hair).
  • Great Fire of London

    Great Fire of London
    A massive fire in London that destroyed a big part of the city but eradicated the Plague
  • The Popish Plot

    Catholics tried to kill Charles II in order to replace him by his Catholic brother James II
  • Period: to

    The Exclusions crisis

    Parliament attempted to debar James II from the succession to the English throne, they tried to modify the rules of succession. When Charles II knew that he dissolved the Parliament. In 1685 Charles II died and was succeded by his brother James II.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    When James II sat on the throne, people were scared that he'll bring Catholicism absolutism in England. The same year James' second wife gave birth to a son: a catholic heir. In order to avoid religious conversion Parliament invited William of Orange, who was protestant to invade England, he landed with an army of 15 000 men and met no resistance. James II fled to France and William became King William III
  • Period: to

    William III's reign

    William III succeeded James II after his victory (Glorious Revolution)
  • Toleration Act

    This act etablished religious pluralism and freedom of worship for all Protestants.
  • The Bill of Rights

    The Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights is a key political text who lists King James' misdeeds, fixed limitations on the sovereign's powers, but also set out the rights of Parliament and basic civil rights
  • The Act of Settlement

    This act is a key role in the formation of the Kingdom of Great Britain, it settled the order of succesion and ensured a Protestant succession, ignoring dozens of Catholic heirs. The successor to the throne will be Hanoverian descendants of James I
  • Act of Union between England and Scotland

    Act of Union between England and Scotland
    Creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales
  • Period: to

    War of the Spanish Succession

    Britain gained Acadia over the French
  • Period: to

    George I's reign

  • The 1715 Jacobite Rising

    The 1715 Jacobite Rising
    The Jacobites were loyal to the Stuarts and supporters of James II and his descendants, they were against William of Orange. The 1715 Jacobite Rising was led by the 'Old Pretender' James Francis Edward Stuart
  • Period: to

    George II's reign

  • The Second Jacobite Rising

    The 1745 Jacobite Rising was led by the 'Young Pretender' Bonnie Prince Charlie, the grandson of James II
  • The Jacobites' defeat

    The Jacobites' defeat
    In 1746, the Jacobites were defeat by british forces in Culloden.
  • Period: to

    Seven Years' War

    Britain gained Florida over the Spanish and (most of) Canada over the French
  • Period: to

    George III's reign

  • Period: to

    American War of Independance

    During this war, the english nation lost a huge part of its empire, this marked the end of what is now called the 'First British Empire."
  • Declaration of Independance

    Grievances against George III
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    Britain formally recognized the independance of The United States
  • Period: to

    French Revolutionary Wars

    Britain at war with France: combatting revolutionary ideology + maritime, colonial and economic motives
  • Period: to

    Police repression of radicalism in Britain

    British radicals campaigned for a more democratic system so the police decided to repress radicalism in the country
  • Irish Rebellion

    Irish Rebellion
    Irland did an uprising against British rule in Ireland because they were influenced by the ideas of the American and French revolutions.This Rebellion was led by presbyterian radicals and catholics. Sadly, rebels lost this rebellion
  • Act of Union

    Act of Union
    An act is created in order to unite the kingdom of Great Britain and Irland forming The United Kingdom. This merged the Parliament of Ireland into the Parliament of The UK
  • Period: to

    Napoleonic Wars

    Napoleon was a french emperor who fought a lot during his life, his last battle was 'the Battle of Waterloo' in 1815 where he was defeat by Wellington's Army, this signed the end of the napoleonic wars
  • Period: to

    George IV's reign

  • Reform Act

    It gave the right to vote to 5% of the population in Britain