AP World History 1450 C.E. - 1750 C.E.

  • Period: Mar 28, 1299 to

    Ottoman Dynasty

    The Ottoman Dynasty was an Islamic gunpowder dynasty. They conquered Byzantium and controlled the Bosporous and Mediterannean trade. They were powerful but did not make their own weapons, which set them up for eventual decline. They also did not let their Princes go into the real world, they instead stayed in the palace spending. Harem politics also helped the decline.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1394 to Mar 28, 1460

    Prince Henry the Navigator

    Prince Henry of Portugal was responsible for beginning the trend of European exploration and participation in global trade. He conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta in 1415 and then sponsored a great deal of explorations down the Coast of Africa. Portugal would later be a leader in colonization and foreign trade. They would also conquer the Swahili states. Dias and da Gama would sail for Portugal.
  • Feb 2, 1441

    Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade

    In 1441 Antão Gonçalves and Nuno Tristão took twelve Africans from Cabo Bronco and brought them to Portugal. In 1502 the first African slaves are taken to the New World. The first sugar cane was grown in the new world in 1505, which led to a rapid increase in slave importations. Portugal was one of the most active slave traders, mostly to their sugar plantations in Brazil. Significant because this disrupted demographics, ethics, and world relations.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1444 to Mar 28, 1481

    Reign Of Mehmed the Conquerer

    Mehmed the Conquerer was a great warrior and took a great deal of land for the Ottoman Turks. He raided Constantinople and integrated Byzantium into the Ottoman state. He spent almost all of his life conquering land. He built a university and some mosques. He was reasonably tolerant except for the use of janissaries. He lay the foundation for the Ottoman state.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1464 to Mar 28, 1492

    Reign of Sunni Ali

    Sunni Ali was a ruler of the Songhai Dynasty. He used cavalry to conquer a great many cities, including Djenne and Timbuktu. He used a navy to patrol the Niger river, and made sure that the Gold trade continued. He repressed scholars and the tuareg people. He used Islam to gain alliances with traders.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1464 to

    Songhay Empire

    The Songhai empire was a trading empire in west Africa. They dealt in gold trade and traded gold and slaves for finished goods. They had a navy and advanced administration. They used trans saharan trade with Muslims and ruled from Gao. Much of their land was raided from Mali. They were conquered by Moroccans with guns which their empire was not prepared to challenge.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1483 to Mar 28, 1546

    Martin Luther

    Martin Luther was the champion of the Protestant reformation. A monk, he published his 95 theses in Wittenberg to reveal the injustices of the Church. He was not intending to be a rebel, but the Catholic Church was offended which caused the creation of Lutheranism. He was uptset with indulgences, corruption, and with divergence from the bible. He was aided by the Printing press and his local in the HRE.
  • Period: Feb 2, 1486 to Feb 2, 1488

    DIas' Voyage into the Indian Ocean

    Bartolomeau Dias ventured out in search of India in 1486. He left Lisbon, Portugal, and was the first to round the Cape of Good Hope, but turned around because his crew got fed up with the trip. Later, Vasco de Gama improved upon Dias' achievement by going all the way to Calicut. He had little to trade, but it shows Europe's intro into world sea trade.
  • Period: Feb 6, 1492 to Mar 4, 1493

    Columbus' First Voyage

    While looking for a quicker route to the spice Islands, Columbus happened upon the New World, which would change the world power structure and bring other people in contact with each other. This linked the two worlds, brought new foods, disease, and led to the rise of Europe with its new resources.
  • Mar 28, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    The Treaty of Tordesillas split up the new world between Spain and Portugal. Portugal received Brazil and Spain got Mexico. The line was at 47 degrees 37 minutes. This was important because it decided who would have certain parts of land, which decided the fortunes and resources that those nations would receive. It also shows the European view that they could simply divide the land without consulting anyone.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1501 to

    Safavid Dynasty

    The Safavids were a gunpowder dynasty, who supported Shia Islam. They believed that their rulers were descendents of the twelve infallable imams. The Safavids were constantly fighting with the Ottomans, and the Safavids were the weaker of the two. They used Persian ruling techniques and were somewhat prosperous. They were not radically successful because their spot on the trade routes became obselete due to sea trade.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1509 to Mar 28, 1564

    John Calvin

    John Calvin was a prostestant radical and the founder of Calvinism religion. Calvinism was very strict in response to Catholic decadence. Calvinism did not allow cards, entertainment, or dancing. It encouraged hard work, or protestant work ethic. There were fewer sacraments and ones fate was predestined.
  • Mar 28, 1519

    Spanish Conquest of Mexico

    The Spanish, led by Hernan Cortes, were able to conquest the entire Aztec empire with fewer than five hundred men. They were aided by enemies of the Aztecs and by the disease that killed a plurality of natives. They also had cavalry and guns. They took the empire, killed Moctezuma II, and set up New Spain. Important because this set the stage for colonization and exploitation of the Americas.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1520 to Mar 28, 1566

    Reign Of Suleiman

    Suleiman the Magnificent presided over the golden age of the Ottoman empire. A goldsmith and poet, he spoke five languages. He gave the Ottomans a law code, reformed taxes and education, and was a patron of the arts. He also got new land for their empire and was reasonably tolerant.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1526 to

    Mughal Dynasty

    The Mughals were an Islamic dynasty that united most of India and lasted for hundreds of years. They were Islamic, but very tolerant of other religions, for instance the Hundus that made up much of their land. The Mughals were a very prosperous state that relied heavily on trade. They funded large public works like the Taj Mahal. A gunpowder dynasty, they eventaully were consumed in religious tension and spent too much.
  • Mar 28, 1540

    Foundation of the Society of Jesus

    The Society of Jesus was founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola. This order of Christians is dedicated to spreading education, social justice, and charity work. They were important to the counter reformation because they were a genuine order of very devout Christians which caused goodwill about the faith especially becuase many were criticizing Catholocism at the time.
  • Period: Feb 2, 1545 to Feb 2, 1563

    Council of Trent

    The council, which met 25 times, was important to the counter reformation. A bunch of high officials used St. Tomas Aquinas as a guide, and clarified the church position on original sin, salvation, and the education of priests. It was a move to clean up Church abuses.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1556 to

    Reign of Akbar

    Akbar was the revered ruler of the Mughal dynasty. He set up an administrative structure and used the military to conquer more of India for the Mughals. He was famed for his policy of tolerance towards minorities and other religions and pushed his divine faith blend of other religions.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1564 to

    Galileo Galilei

    Galileo is a scientific legend. He busted the myth of the Ptolmaic universe by proving that the Universe was larger than people thought, by showing that planets in the sky were not perfectly smooth, and by showing that the speed of a falling object depends on the distance it has fallen (ignoring air resistance). He invented the telescope. He is important because he challenged religious ideas with science.
  • Period: Mar 28, 1572 to

    Reign of Wanli

    Wanli was a largely incompetent ruler who oversaw much of the decline of the Ming dynasty. He would not meet with officials and instead decided to spend his time spending money on luxuries in the forbidden palace. In his reign there was trouble with pirates and the great wall was expensive and ineffective. He did not sponsor voyages like Yongle but he did prevent nomadic invasions for the time being.
  • Spanish Armada

    The Spanish Armada was a very powerful navy, which showed Spain's dominance of the sea. They had a powerful colony at New Spain and were prominent in the Silver trade. They were losing power as a nation due to this trade, although they did not know it. In 1588 their Navy was defeated, which is important because it shows their fall from being a world power. They were defeated by the British, and one could say that this marks their rise, but 1763 may be a more approiate point.
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    Tokugawa Leyasu sought to provide Japan with a strong, long lasting, government. He united Japan, and put controls over the daimyo to stop them from warring and making power grabs. They borrowed some traditions from China, such as neo confucianism. They also put strict controls on foreign trade and stopped citizens from leaving to preserve their traditions. The Shogunate united Japan and prepared them for industrialism.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    The Thirty Years' War was the first total war between all of Europe. It was a dangerous and volatile conflict that killed half of all people in some nations. This was a loss of innocence for Europe and led to the peace of Westphalia which was landmark. The fight also showcased new military technology and tactics. It had political and religious elements.
  • Period: to

    John Locke

    John Locke was an enlightenment philosopher who pioneered new ideas in England. He established the natural rights of life, liberty and property. He believed that humans were a blank slate and that society determined a man's actions. He pushed for individual freedom.
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    Manchus toppled the Ming and made the Qing Dynasty. They continued the Ming system of going back to old Chinese ways after the Yuan dynasty. The Qing was conservative, foot binding was at its high and being a woman was hard. The Qing brought back Confucian civil service, and had good industry of Silks and Porcelain. American foods increased population. The Qing was hurt by exorbitant imperial spending. They revered the lower class, and were strict with trade.
  • Peace of Westphalia

    This was the peace that ended the Thirty Years' War. It was important because Europe for the first time recognized that they did not like having whole scale war. The Peace was a landmark moment in Europe because it recognized the right of each state to exist. This established the modern day Europe with multiple smaller states, and limited squabbling.
  • Period: to

    The Seven Years' War

    The Seven Years' War was a global conflict between the two world powers of Britain and France, that was waged in their colonies. The conflict was significant because it was the first global conflict. Besides the two major powers Spain, Prussia, and the Mughal empire fought. The Brits won, and this conflict marks the beginning of their time as the premier world power.
  • Period: to

    Haitian Revolution

    The establishment of Haiti was the most successful slave ervilt of all time. With help from France's enemies, the slaves on Saint-Domingue defeated the French and created their own country. This shows that the European nations were losing control of their own colonies, and that slaves were not content with their position.
  • Establishment of 1st Colony in Australia

    James Cook was the first European explorer to encounter Australia in his trip from 1768-1771. This encouraged interest in the colony and eventually the people in England became very interested. In 1788, a colony of moslty convicts was established. There was not much corporate interest in Australia because it was so barren.
  • End of British Slave Trade

    The Slave Trade Act ended the slave trade in all British colonies in 1807. Britain was ahead of the curve with this move, which did not happen in Portugal until much later. The move did not end slavery, but was a powerful move to limit the power of slavery.