• Period: Oct 28, 1216 to Nov 16, 1272

    King Henry III

    Henry III, was only nine when he became king. By 1227, when he assumed power from his regent, order had been restored, based on his acceptance of Magna Carta. He ruled over England.
  • Period: 1479 to 1504

    King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella

    Ferdinand II was the king of Aragon and king of Castile from 1479, joint sovereign with Queen Isabella I. As Spanish ruler of southern Italy. He was also known as Ferdinand III of Naples and Ferdinand II of Sicily, he also united the Spanish kingdoms into the nation of Spain.
  • Period: Jan 16, 1547 to

    Ivan the Terrible

    Ivan the Terrible was the first tsar of all Russia. During his reign he acquired vast amounts of land through ruthless means, creating a centrally controlled government.
  • Period: 1556 to

    Philip II

    Philip II was King of Spain from 1556, King of Portugal from 1580, and King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until his death in 1598. He was also jure uxoris King of England and Ireland from his marriage to Queen Mary I in 1554 until her death in 1558.
  • Period: 1558 to

    Elizabeth I

    Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Sometimes referred to as the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth was the last of the five monarchs of the House of Tudor.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years' War was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, lasting from 1618 to 1648.
  • Period: to

    English Civil war

    The English Civil Wars comprised three wars, which were fought between Charles I and Parliament between 1642 and 1651. The wars were part of a wider conflict involving Wales, Scotland and Ireland, known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The human cost of the wars was devastating.
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    Peter the Great

    Peter the Great was a monarch of Russia who modernised it and made it a European power.
  • Period: to

    The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution, is the term used for the deposition of James II and VII in November 1688 and his replacement by his daughter Mary II and her husband William III of Orange, stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.
  • Period: to

    War of Spanish Sucession

    The War of the Spanish Succession was a major European conflict that arose in 1701 after the death of the last Spanish Habsburg king, Charles II.
  • Period: to

    Louis XVI

    Louis XVI was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months just before he was executed by guillotine.
  • Period: to

    Seven Years war

    The Seven Years War was a global conflict which ran from 1756 until 1763 and pitted a coalition of Great Britain and its allies against a coalition of France and its allies. The war escalated from a regional conflict between Great Britain and France in North America, known today as the French and Indian War.
  • Period: to

    Louis XIV

    Ruled over France
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

    Declaration of the Rights of Man
    The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, passed by France's National Constituent Assembly in August 1789, is a fundamental document of the French Revolution that granted civil rights to some commoners, although it excluded a significant segment of the French population.
  • May 5, 1789 meeting with the Estates-General

    May 5, 1789 meeting with the Estates-General
    This assembly was composed of three estates – the clergy, nobility and commoners – who had the power to decide on the levying of new taxes and to undertake reforms in the country. The opening of the Estates General, on 5 May 1789 in Versailles, also marked the start of the French Revolution.
  • Tennis Court Oath

    Tennis Court Oath
    On 20 June 1789, the members of the French Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath in the tennis court which had been built in 1686 for the use of the Versailles palace.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The Storming of the Bastille happened in Paris, France, on 14 July 1789, when revolutionary insurgents stormed and seized control of the medieval armoury, fortress, and political prison known as the Bastille. At the time, the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    The Women's March on Versailles was a riot that took place during this first stage of the French Revolution. It was spontaneously organized by women in the marketplaces of Paris, on the morning of October 5, 1789. They complained over the high price and scant availability of bread, marching from Paris to Versailles.
  • Execution of King Louis XVI

    Execution of King Louis XVI
    Ultimately unwilling to cede his royal power to the Revolutionary government, Louis XVI was found guilty of treason and condemned to death. He was guillotined on January 21, 1793.
  • Period: to

    Reign of Terror

    The Reign of Terror, also called the Terror, was a period of state-sanctioned violence and mass executions during the French Revolution. Between Sept. 5, 1793, and July 27, 1794, France's revolutionary government ordered the arrest and execution of thousands of people.
  • Maximillian Robespierre's execution

    Maximillian Robespierre's execution
    Robespierre and a number of his followers were arrested at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris. The next day Robespierre and 21 of his followers were taken to the Place de la Révolution, where they were executed by guillotine before a cheering crowd.
  • Napoleon Crowns himself emperor

    Napoleon Crowns himself emperor
    On the 2nd of December 1804 Napoleon crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I at Notre Dame de Paris. According to legend, during the coronation he snatched the crown from the hands of Pope Pius VII and crowned himself, thus displaying his rejection of the authority of the Pontiff.
  • Period: to

    Peninsular War

    Between 1808 and 1814, the British Army fought a war in the Iberian Peninsula against the invading forces of Napoleon's France. Aided by their Spanish and Portuguese allies, the British held off superior French numbers before winning a series of victories and driving them out.
  • Period: to

    French Invasion of Russia

    Napoleon and his troops invade Russia. The campaign failed, however, because Napoleon and his men ran out of food, and could not survive the harsh weather conditions.
  • Period: to

    French Invasion of Russia

    On June 24, 1812, the Grande Armée, led by French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, crossed the Neman River, invading Russia from present-day Poland. The result was a disaster for the French. The Russian army refused to engage with Napoleon's Grande Armée of more than 500,000 European troops.
  • Napoleon is exiled to Elba

    Napoleon is exiled to Elba
  • Napoleon dies

    Napoleon dies
  • Period: to

    Nicholas II (Romanov)

    Nicholas II, known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Congress Poland and Grand Duke of Finland, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917.