Louis xiv

Absolutism in Europe

  • May 21, 1527

    The reign of Phillip II

    The reign of Phillip II
    Phillip II reigned from May 21, 1527 until September 13, 1598. He inherited Spain, spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies. He was shy, hard working, and worked alone. In 1580, he inherited Portugal, which had strongholds in Africa, India, and the East Indies. By 1600 the New World supplied Phillips empire with lots of gold and silver. During his reign he defended catholicism against protestants and muslims. In 1588 he launched the spanish armada, but the massive fleet failed.
  • Dec 3, 1533

    Reign of Ivan the Terrible

    Reign of Ivan the Terrible
    Inherited the throne at 3 years old. Was a decent king until death of his wife, Anastasia Romanov, after which he killed his eldest son and imposed harsh laws and taxes on Russians, causing them to dislike him strongly. He died on March 28, 1584.
  • Aug 23, 1572

    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    Started in Paris, and sparked a 6-week nationwide mass slaughter of Hueguenots. Occurred when many nobles were present in Paris for the wedding of Henry of Navarre and Queen Catherine's daughter.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    Establishes religious tolerance in France and allows Hueguenots to establish houses of worship.
  • Reign of James I of England

    Reign of James I of England
    Inherits throne after death of Queen Elizabeth I. Struggled with Parliament over money and Puritanism.
  • Reign of Louis XIII

    Louis inherits throne after death of his father and establishes himself as a weak king.
  • Thirty Years War

    Thirty Years War
    Conflict over religion,territory and power amongst European ruling families causes war which lasts from 1618 to 1648. During first 12 years, Hapsburgs were victorious. Cardinal Richilieu and his son dominated following years of the war, which ended with Peace of Westphalia.
  • Cardinal Richelieu appointed.

    Cardinal Richelieu appointed.
    Richeleiu is appointed by Louis XIII and takes two steps to increase power of Bourbon Monarchy:
    1. Moves against Hueguenot because he believed it to create conspiracies against Catholic King
    2. Weakens power of noble families by ordering them to take down castles.
  • Reign of Charles I

    Reign of Charles I
    Son of James I. Was in constant need of money due to war with Spain & France, which Parliament refused and angered Charles.
    Agreed to creation of Petition of Rights:
    -He would not imprison subjects without due cause
    -Would not levy taxes without parliamrnt consent
    -Would not house soldiers in private homes
    He died on January 30, 1649.
    -Would not impose martial law in peacetime
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    Lasted 1642-1649. Between supporters and opponents of King Charles I. Charles' supporters were called Royalists and Parliament supporters were Puritans.
  • Reign of Louis XIV

    Louis XIV was the strongest king France has ever had and stated "I Am the State", further proving his power.
  • Signing of the Peace of Westphalia

    -Weakend Hapsburg state of Spain and Germany
    -Strengthened France by awarding it German territory
    -Made German princes independent of the Holy Roman Emperor
    -Ended religious wars in Europe
    -Introduced a new method of peace negoation where participants come together to peacefully discuss solution (which is used to this day).
    -Ended 30 Years War
  • Reign of Oliver Cromwell

    Reign of Oliver Cromwell
    Was a general in civil war before becoming leader of England and abolishing monarchy. He held Charles I prisoner after English Civil War and tried him for treason. Reigned as a military dictator until his death 1658. His accomplishments include reforming society, promoting religious tolerance, helping to draft the first European constitution and seizing Ireland.
  • Louis XIV assumes full control of France

    -Built Versailles at value of 2.5 Billion dollars (2003 value)
    -Invades Spanish Netherlands and gained 12 towns (1667)
    -Invades Dutch Netherlands (1672)
    -Causes other European countries to form alliance due to fear of being conquered
  • Palace at Versailless started / ended

    Palace at Versailless started / ended
    Stretched for about 500 yards, making it resemble a small city. Rich decoration and furnishing showed off Sun King's wealth. Was center of opera and ballet, making it more popular amongst French. Has 5,000 acres of gardens and 1,400 fountains. Excelled France's debt due to its 2.3 Billion dollar value (in 2003 U.S. dollars)
  • Reign of Peter the Great

    Reign of Peter the Great
    Contacts with Western Europe in order to learn from greater civilizations which led to Westernization of Russia. He introduced potatoes, which became a Russian diet staple, started Russia's first newspaper, raised the status of women, ordered nobles to wear Western fashions and advanced education by opening schools.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    Lasted from 1688-1689. King James II was overthrown due to him being a catholic, causing him to flee to France. Mary and WIlliam of Orange took over the English throne.
  • English Bill of Rights.

    English Bill of Rights.
    After Glorious Revolution, England becomes constitutional monarchy causing Parliament to draft Bill of Rights which states what a ruler cannot do:
    -No suspending of Parliament's laws
    -No levying of taxes without specific grant from Parliament
    -No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament
    -No penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances
  • War of Spanish Succession

    War of Spanish Succession
    -Starts after Charles II death
    -Spanish throne was promised to Philip of Anjou, Louis XIV's grandson
    -Countries felt threatened by increase in Bourbon dynasty's power
    -England, Austria, Dutch Republic, Portugal and other European nations joined together to prevent union of France and Spain
    -Ended in 1714 with Treaty of Utrecht
  • Reign of Frederick the Great

    Reign of Frederick the Great
    Frederick was son of king Frederick William, who worried his son was not manly enough to be king. Frederick proves father wrong and fights in War of Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War, bringing Prussia to victory both times.
  • Reign of Maria Theresa

    Reign of Maria Theresa
    Maria takes power in 1740 after her father's death. Was involved in war due to Austria's succession with Prussia. Lost Silesua in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. Maria allied herself with France and fought in the Seven Year's War against Britain and Prussia.
  • Reign of Henry of Navarre

    Reign of Henry of Navarre
    Descended from King Louis IX and inherited throne in 1589 and became the first king of the Bourbon Dynasty. Catholics opposed Henry because he was Protestant, causing him to convert to Catholicism. In 1598, Henry declares religious tolerance for Hueguenots and establishes Edict of Nantes. Henry strengthened French monarchy. He was stabbed to death in 1610.
  • Restoration of English Crown

    Restoration of English Crown
    After Oliver Cromwell abolishes the monarchy, Parliament votes Charles II to become king. During his reign, Parliament passes guarantee of freedom called Habeas Corpus which guarantees a criminal suspect a right to trial.