INDV 103 Chapters 19 - 21

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    The Industrial Revolution

  • James Watt Invents the Steam Engine

    Allows for the production of railroads and cheaper costs of production
  • James Hargreaves Constructs Spinning Jenny

    Greatly increased the amount of cotton yarn that could be spun
  • Richard Arkwright creates the Water Frame

    Made the production of a stronger warp possible
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    Louis XVI Ruling

  • Wealth of Nations, by Adam Smith, written

    Explains how division of labor can increase per capita productivity
  • Samuel Crompton Creates the Mule

    The production of yarn produced by one wheel increased by about 300 times
  • Louis XVI Creates new system that taxes all landowners

    Nobles insisted that the king allow them to summon the Estates General
  • Edmund Cartwright Creates the Power Loom

    Created machine weaving that could keep up with the high yarn production
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    The Age of the French Revolution

    The era of the French Revolutions all the way through the Napoleonic Era
  • Estates General Meets

    Three Orders/Estates: Nobiligy, Clergy, and Third Estate (commoners).
  • King Locks Challangers out of Court

    The Third Estate moved to nearby tennis court and vowed they would not disband until country has constitution
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Often seen as the beginning of the French Revolution where the National Guard attacked the Bastille and beheaded the governor and chief magistrate
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    Nattional Assembly Takes Three Revolutionary Steps

    1) Elimination of noble and clerical privelage. (Passed in early August)
    2) Promulgation of the Declaration of the Rights of man and Citizen. Natural right to liberty, property, and equality (August 26)
    3) Complete Reorganization of Church through the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 1790)
  • Edmund Burke Writes "Reflections on the Revolution in France

    Supports Conservatism by stating that equality is a dangerous myth
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    The French Republic

  • Monarchy Formally Abolished, France is Republic

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    Reign of Terror

  • Execution of Louis XVI

  • Robespierre and Followers Executed

    Danton's execution caused a group of Jacobins to retaliate against Robespierre for being a Tyrant. His followers were arrested and beheaded as well.
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    The Directory

  • Thomas Malthus writes "An Essay on the Principle of Population"

    Argues that the growth of the population cannot be sustained for so long because the growth will eventually outpace the production of food. Was proven wrong
  • Napoleon Stages Coup

    Overthrows the Directory and became First Consul in December
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    Napoleonic Era

  • Napoleon Abdicates Throne

    Exiled to Mediterranean island of Elba
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    Ideological Conflict and National Unification

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    Ideological Encounters in Europe

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    Liberal Reform in Britain

  • Liberal Revolt of 1820 in Spain

    Liberals lost and their leaders were tortured
  • Nationalist Revolt of 1821 in Greece

    Concert of Europe helped them succeed in order to fight the Muslims.
  • Decembrist Revolt of 1825

    Decembrists lost and caused the Russian liberals to live under police repression in retaliation
  • Liberal and Nationalist Revolts

    The French Revolution: The Success of liberalism
    The Belgian Revolution: The Success of Nationalism
    The Polish Rebellion: The Failure of Nationalism (crushed by King Nicholas)
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    The Opium War

    China tried keeping illegal import of opium out but British forced trade, and took Hong Kong and several trading ports
  • Communist Manifesto written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Hegel

    Suggested that people need to overthrow the government to establish one that was fair for everyone
  • The Revolutions of 1848

    The French Revolutions of 1848: Lead to election of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte
    The Revolutions of 1848 in Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia: Came close to success but failed in the end
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    National Unification in Europe and America

  • The King of Sardinia becaume King Victor Emmanual of Italy

    Italy is fully united when Austria cedes venetia in 1866 and when french withdraw from Rome in 1870
  • The United States is Formed/Strengthened after Civil War

  • German Empire Formed