1450 C.E. - 1750 C.E.

  • Period: Feb 10, 1299 to

    Ottoman Dynasty

    -The sultan was the sole and absolute regent, head of state and head of government of the empire
    -"House of Osman"
    -With the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the road was open for the Ottoman state to become an empire
  • Period: Feb 11, 1340 to

    Songhay Empire

    -was a state located in western Africa
    -was one of the largest Islamic empires in history
    -capital was the city of Gao
    -base of power was on the bend of the Niger River
    -Government: Monarchy
    -took advantage of the Mali Empire's decline and successfully asserted its independence
  • Period: Feb 8, 1394 to Feb 8, 1460

    Prince Henry the Navigator

    -In 1418, at Sagres, Portugal he started the first school for oceanic navigation
    -He sent many sailing expeditions down Africa's west coast; their purpose was to defeat the muslims, spread christianity, and establish trade routes
  • Period: Feb 10, 1450 to Feb 10, 1500

    Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade

    -Portuguese found they could make considerable amounts of gold transporting slaves
    -Muslim merchants had an insatiable appetite for slaves that were used as porters on the trans-Saharan routes and for sale in the Islamic Empire.
  • Period: Feb 11, 1451 to Feb 11, 1481

    Reign of Mehmed the Conqueror

    -hie main goal was to siege Constantinople
    -was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire twice
    -he conquered Constantinople and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire
    -Anatolian reunification, and in Europe, as far as Bosnia and Croatia
  • Period: Feb 11, 1464 to Feb 11, 1492

    Reign of Sunni Ali

    -was the first king of the Songhai Empire
    -infantry and cavalry many cities were captured and then fortified, such as Timbuktu (captured in 1468) and Djenné (captured in 1475)
    -conducted a repressive policy against the scholars of Timbuktu
  • Period: Nov 10, 1483 to Feb 18, 1564

    Martin Luther

    -was a German monk, priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the Protestant Reformation
    -his translation of the Bible into the vernacular made it more accessible, causing a tremendous impact on the church and on German culture
  • Oct 10, 1487

    Dias' Voyage into Indian Ocean

    -an expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa in the hope of finding a trade route to India
    -Dias was in charge of searching for the lands ruled by Prester John (fabled Christian priest and ruler)
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Columbus' first voyage

    -Columbus departed from Castilian Palos de la Frontera with three ships
    -he first sailed to the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa ruled by the Crown of Castile
    - indigenous people he met in their homelands were peaceful and friendly
    -visited San Salvador in the Bahamas (which he was convinced was Japan), Cuba (which he thought was China) and Hispaniola (where he found gold)
  • Jun 7, 1494

    Treaty of Tordesillas

    -signed at Tordesillas, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain along a meridian 370 leagues
    - lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Spain
    -intended to resolve the dispute that had been created following the return of Christopher Columbus and his crew
  • Period: Feb 11, 1495 to Feb 11, 1566

    Suleyman the Magnificent

    -a fierce conqueror of the Islamic religion
    -Turks led by Suleyman captured Belgrade
    -He then turned his attention toward the island of Rhodes, where lay a fortification of Christian knights
    -strengthened his military
    - his complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system
  • Period: Feb 11, 1502 to

    Safavid Dynasty

    -was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran
    -established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, turning points in Muslim history
    -ne of the Islamic "gunpowder empires"
  • Period: Jul 10, 1509 to May 27, 1564

    John Calvin

    -an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation
    -involved in the development of the system of Christian theology(Calvinism)
    -published the first edition of his Institutio Christianae Religionis or Institutes of the Christian Religion
  • Period: Apr 21, 1519 to Feb 11, 1521

    Spanish Conquest of Mexico

    -was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas
    -a coalition army of Spanish conquistadors and Tlaxcalan warriors led by Hernán Cortés and Xicotencatl the Younger captured Tenochtitlan
  • Period: Feb 10, 1526 to

    Mughal Dynasty

    -origin that ruled most of northern India from the early 16th to the mid-18th century
    -notable for its more than two centuries of effective rule over much of India, for the ability of its rulers, who through seven generations maintained a record of unusual talent, and for its administrative organization
  • Period: Sep 27, 1540 to

    Foundation of Society of Jesus

    -is a Christian male religious order of the Roman Catholic Church
    -Members: known as Jesuits and as "God's Marines"
    -Ignatius founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion
    -consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General
  • Period: Feb 10, 1545 to Feb 10, 1563

    Council of Trent

  • Period: Feb 11, 1556 to

    Reign of Akbar

    -was the third Mughal Emperor
    -1605 the Mughal empire covered most of northern and central India
    -exercised tolerance towards non-Islamic faiths by rolling back some of the strict sharia laws
    -believe that war elephants were the keys to military success
  • Period: Feb 15, 1564 to

    Galileo Galilei

    -was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution
    -telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism
    -"father of science"
    -observation and analysis of sunspots
  • Period: Feb 11, 1572 to

    Reign of Emperor Wanli

    -His era name means "Ten thousand calendars"
    -His rule of forty-eight years was the longest in the Ming dynasty and it witnessed the steady decline of the dynasty.
    -Defense against the Mongols
    -Yang Yinlong rebellion
    -became disenchanted with the moralistic attacks and counterattacks of officials, becoming thoroughly alienated from his imperial role
  • Spanish Armada

    -was the Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia
    -intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and putting an end to her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands and in privateering in the Atlantic and Pacific
  • Period: to

    Tokugawa Shogunate

    -was a feudal Japanese military government
    -heads of government were the shoguns
    -bakuhan taisei: was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    -was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe
    -no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting
    -a religious war between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire
    -one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history
  • Period: to

    John Locke

    -English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers
    -Father of Classical Liberalism
    -his contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    -was the last imperial dynasty of China, abortive restoration in 1917
    -founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in contemporary Northeastern China
    -Aisin Gioro leader, Nurhachi, who was originally a vassal of the Ming emperors, began unifying the Jurchen clans in the late sixteenth century
  • Period: to

    Peace of Westphalia

    -a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster
    -ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648)
    -The Treaty of Münster
    -The Treaty of Osnabrück
  • Period: to

    Ayuba Suleiman Diallo

    -was a famous Muslim who was a victim of the Atlantic slave trade
  • Period: to

    Seven Years War

    -was a world war
    -involved most of the great powers of the time and affected Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines
    -war ended with the peace treaties of Paris (Bourbon France and Spain, Great Britain) and of Hubertusburg (Hohenzollerns, Habsburgs, Saxon elector) in 1763
    -Great Britain expelled its French and Spanish rivals in the contested overseas territories
  • Establishment of 1st colony in Australia

    -enable the mother country to exploit the riches of those regions
    -instead od slaves convict labour was used as a cheap and economically viable alternative
  • Period: to

    Haitian Revolution

    -a slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue
    -culminated in the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Haitian republic
  • End of British Slave Trade

    -Slave Trade Act: act of Parliament made in the United Kingdom, it's title "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade"
    -act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire