Taj mahal 5

Islamic Empires Timeline

  • Period: Jan 1, 1289 to

    The Reign of the Ottoman empire

    The term Ottoman was derived from Osman Bey, the founder of the dynasty. Osman was the chief of group of seminomadic Turks who migrated to northwestern Anatolia in the 13th century. The empire began in Anatolia and expanded through military victories and the conquering of more territory.
  • Jan 1, 1326

    Captured Bursa

    The Ottoman's first great success. They captured the Anatolian city Bursa. Bursa became the capital of the Ottoman empire.
  • Jan 1, 1352

    Ottoman's established foothold in Europe

    When the Ottoman's seized the fortress of Gallipoli while aiding a claimant to the Byzantine throne and consequently established a foothold in Europe. The city of Edirne became a second Ottoman capital and served as a base for further expansion into the Balkans.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1451 to Jan 1, 1481

    Mehmed II's Reign

    He became known as Mehmed the Conqueror and after the capture of Constantinople, the great city, he presented himself not just as a warrior-sultan but as a true emperor, ruler of "two lands" (Europe and Asia) and ruler of two seas (the Black Sea and the Mediterranean). His army never faced any serious rivals, and he laid the foundations for a tightly centralized absolute monarchy.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Capture of Constantinople

    Capture of Constantinople
    Mehmed II captured Constantinople and opened a new chapted in Ottoman expansion. Constantinople became the new Ottoman capital also known as Istanbul. Mehmed worked to make it into a commercial center.
  • Jan 1, 1501

    Ismail defeats the Aq-Qoyunlu in Persia

    Ismail defeats the Aq-Qoyunlu in Persia
    The Aq-Qoyunlu Confederation had control over Persia at this time. Turkish warriors, known as Qizilbash, who shared the land in Persia with the Aq-Qoylunlus, joined forces with Ismail and provided him with an army to gain control of Persia. In 1501 Ismail won and declared Tabriz in northwestern Persia the new Safavid capital.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to Jan 1, 1524

    Reign of Shah Ismail

    Ismail was the founder of the empire. At the age of 14 he sought revenge against his families enemies when he entered Tabriz at the head of an army and laid claim to the acient Persian title of Shah. He set the stage for the events that would occur during the Safavid reign by proclaiming Twelver Shiism as the official religion of his realm. He gained control of the Iranian Plateau.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1501 to

    Reign of Safavid Empire

    The empire was founded by Shah Ismail in who reigned from 1501 to 1524. He declared the official religion as Twelver Shiism and imposed it on all of the population. They named the empire after Safi al-Din, a leader of the Sufi order in northwestern Persia who they traced their ancestry back to. Throughout their rule they changed their religious preferences in the hope of gaining popular support before settling on a form of Shiism. Overall their culture was based on Shiism and Turkish militancy.
  • Period: Mar 31, 1512 to Mar 31, 1520

    Reign of Selim The Grim

    He continued Ottoman expansion in the early 16th century by occupying Syria and Egypt.
  • Jan 1, 1514

    Battle of Chalidran

    Battle of Chalidran
    The Ottomans were Sunni and they despised the Shiite Safavids and feared the spread of Safavid religious propoganda persuading the nomadic Turks in their area. As a result, the Ottoman attacked the Safavids and hindered the state to a great extent, and the two empires had conflicts for the next two centuries.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1520 to Jan 1, 1566

    Ottoman Imperialism under Suleyman the Magnificent

    Sulyman vigorgously promoted Ottoman expansion in southwest Asia and in Europe. Under his rule the Ottomans became a major naval power. There was a lot of successful expansion in Asia, Europe, and in islands such as Rhodes island, Malta, Yemem, and Aden.
  • Jan 1, 1521

    Suleyman captured Belgrade

    Suleyman captured Belgrade
  • Jan 1, 1524

    Ismail dies and Tahmasp takes over

    Ismail dies and Tahmasp takes over
    When Ismail passes on, his 10-year-old son takes over. His young age lead to conflict between several Qizilbash factions who were trying to gain power through attaining advisory positions in the empire. The first decade of his reign was a struggle since he needed to prevent a Qizilbash revolt while simultaneously keeping the Uzbeks from taking Khurasan and the Ottomans from taking Tabriz.
  • Jan 1, 1526

    Battle of Mohacs

    Battle of Mohacs
    Suleyman defeated and killed the king of Hungary in the Battle of Mohacs. He also consolidated Ottoman power north of Danube.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1526 to

    Mughal Empire Reigns

    Zahir al-Din Muhammad, known as Babur "the Tiger" was a Chaghatai Turk who claimed descent from Chinggis Khan and Tamerlane. He appeared in northern India, started invasions in 1523, and used the aid of gunpower weapons to gain control. In 1526 he took Delhi and the Mughal empire was established.
  • Jan 1, 1529

    Suleyman temporarily sieged Vienna

    He subjected the Hasburgs' city of Vienna to a short, but terrifying siege.
  • Jan 1, 1530

    Babur dies

    By the time of his death Babur's Mughal empire encompassed a realm that spanned from Kabul through the Punjab to the borders of Bengal, covering almost the entire subcontinent of India.
  • Jan 1, 1534

    Suleyman conquers Baghdad

    Suleyman conquers Baghdad
    Suleyman conquered Baghdad and added the Tigris and Euphrates valleys to the Ottoman territory.
  • Jan 1, 1555

    The Safavids and Ottomans sign the Treaty of Amasya

    The Safavids and Ottomans sign the Treaty of Amasya
    After the Ottomans were less successful in attacks against the Safavids, the two groups decided to sign a treaty which maintained peace for the 25 years following the agreenment.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1556 to

    Akbar Reigns

    Akbar was Babur's grandson, a great ruler, who sculpted the empire. He was the most important ruler of the empire. He created a centralized administrative structure with ministries regulating the states of the empire. His military campaigns gained them power in Gujarat and Bengal and he began to absorb the Hindu kingdom of Vigayanagar. This sparked Mughal expansion in southern India. He accepted all religious, ethnic, and social groups of India.
  • Jan 1, 1561

    Akbar takes full control of empire

    Akbar takes full control of empire
    After an arguement with Adham Khan, the Mughal army commander, Akbar thre Khan out a window then dragged him back from the palace courtyard and tossed him out again to make sure he was dead. This event symbolizes Abkar taking total control of his empire. From this point on he did not tolerate challenges to his rule.
  • Jan 1, 1576

    Ismail II gains control

    Ismail II gains control
    Ismail II was the son and successor of Shah Tahmasp. He was an unstable ruler who killed many of his family members and followers for unclear reasons. He also attempted to return the Safavid empire to Sunniism. He was murdered a year after taking power. (The picture is of the Safavid flag under his reign).
  • Period: to

    Reign of Shah Abbas the Great

    Shah Abbas fully recovered the Safavid empire after the destruction they faced after the Battle of Chaldiran. He moved the capital to Isfahan, a more central location, encouraged foreign trade, and reformed the military and administrative branches. He formed alliances with Europeans against the Ottomans and increased the use of gunpowder weapons. His military campaigns brought most of northwestern Iran, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia under Safavid rule.
  • Shah Abbas I reclaimed Baghdad

    Shah Abbas I reclaimed Baghdad
    After a century of Ottoman rule, Baghdad was under Safavid rule once again.
  • The Taj Mahal is built

    The Taj Mahal is built
    Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wive, Mumtaz Mahal, who died during child birth in 1631. It was built over a period of 18 years. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BnmrOLOQDA8&feature=fvst
  • Shah Jahan takes throne

    Shah Jahan takes throne
    Shah Jahan ordered the famous peacock throne encrusted with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and pearls. He is also the creator of the Taj Mahal.
  • Period: to

    Aurangzeb Reigns

    During his reign the Mughal empire reachest it's peak. He ran an aggressive campaign to expand the Mughal rule deep into southern India. By the early 18th century the Mughals ruled all of Inida other than a small region at the southern tip. Their were many rebellions and reilious tensions between Hindus and Muslims during his reign. He was a devout Muslim and did not follow Akbar's religious toleration. He demolished many Hindu temples and replaced them with mosques and imposed tax on Hindus.
  • British take over Mughal Empire

    British take over Mughal Empire
    After the rule of Aurangzeb, the empire faces a decline after the havoc brought on by his radical ways. The Mughal creativity and territory was no longer increasing. After Aurangzeb's rule the Mughal empire consisted of puppet governments subject to British and French control. In 1858 the British took control.